Articles | Volume 20, issue 4
26 Feb 2020
Technical note | 26 Feb 2020
Technical note: Deep learning for creating surrogate models of precipitation in Earth system models
Theodore Weber et al.
No articles found.
Mari R. Tye, Katherine Dagon, Maria J. Molina, Jadwiga H. Richter, Daniele Visioni, Ben Kravitz, and Simone Tilmes
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1233–1257,Short summary
We examined the potential effect of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) on extreme temperature and precipitation. SAI may cause daytime temperatures to cool but nighttime to warm. Daytime cooling may occur in all seasons across the globe, with the largest decreases in summer. In contrast, nighttime warming may be greatest at high latitudes in winter. SAI may reduce the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall. The combined changes may exacerbate drying over parts of the global south.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Daniele Visioni, Ben Kravitz, Andy Jones, James M. Haywood, Jadwiga Richter, Douglas G. MacMartin, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The paper constitutes part 2 of a study performing a first systematic inter-model comparison of the atmospheric responses to stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections (SAI) at various latitudes as simulated by three state-of-the-art Earth System Models. We identify similarities and differences in the model responses as well as demonstrate the role of biases in the climatological circulation and aspects of the model microphysics and chemistry in driving the inter-model differences.
Daniele Visioni, Ewa M. Bednarz, Walker R. Lee, Ben Kravitz, Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, and Douglas G. MacMartin
The paper constitutes part 1 of a study performing a first systematic inter-model comparison of the atmospheric responses to stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections (SAI) at various latitudes as simulated by three state-of-the-art Earth System Models. We identify similarities and differences in the modelled aerosol burden and investigate the differences in the aerosol approaches between the models, and ultimately show the differences produced in surface climate, temperature and precipitation.
Ilaria Quaglia, Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5757–5773,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is a gas that mixes very well in the atmosphere and can reach the stratosphere, where it reacts with sunlight and produces aerosol. Here we propose that, by increasing surface fluxes by an order of magnitude, the number of stratospheric aerosols produced may be enough to partially offset the warming produced by greenhouse gases. We explore what effect this would have on the atmospheric composition.
Huiying Ren, Erol Cromwell, Ben Kravitz, and Xingyuan Chen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1727–1743,Short summary
We used a deep learning method called long short-term memory (LSTM) to fill gaps in data collected by hydrologic monitoring networks. LSTM accounted for correlations in space and time and nonlinear trends in data. Compared to a traditional regression-based time-series method, LSTM performed comparably when filling gaps in data with smooth patterns, while it better captured highly dynamic patterns in data. Capturing such dynamics is critical for understanding dynamic complex system behaviors.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Adam A. Scaife, Olivier Boucher, Matthew Henry, Ben Kravitz, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, Simone Tilmes, and Daniele Visioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2999–3016,Short summary
Simulations by six Earth-system models of geoengineering by introducing sulfuric acid aerosols into the tropical stratosphere are compared. A robust impact on the northern wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation is found, exacerbating precipitation reduction over parts of southern Europe. In contrast, the models show no consistency with regard to impacts on the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, although results do indicate a risk that the oscillation could become locked into a permanent westerly phase.
Daniele Visioni, Simone Tilmes, Charles Bardeen, Michael Mills, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, and Jadwiga H. Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1739–1756,Short summary
Aerosols are simulated in a simplified way in climate models: in the model analyzed here, they are represented in every grid as described by three simple logarithmic distributions, mixing all different species together. The size can evolve when new particles are formed, particles merge together to create a larger one or particles are deposited to the surface. This approximation normally works fairly well. Here we show however that when large amounts of sulfate are simulated, there are problems.
Yan Zhang, Douglas G. MacMartin, Daniele Visioni, and Ben Kravitz
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 201–217,Short summary
Adding SO2 to the stratosphere could temporarily cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. However, adding SO2 at different latitude(s) and season(s) leads to significant differences in regional surface climate. This study shows that, to cool the planet by 1–1.5 °C, there are likely six to eight choices of injection latitude(s) and season(s) that lead to meaningfully different distributions of climate impacts.
Dawn L. Woodard, Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Ben Kravitz, Corinne Hartin, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4751–4767,Short summary
We have added a representation of the permafrost carbon feedback to the simple, open-source global carbon–climate model Hector and calibrated the results to be consistent with historical data and Earth system model projections. Our results closely match previous work, estimating around 0.2 °C of warming from permafrost this century. This capability will be useful to explore uncertainties in this feedback and for coupling with integrated assessment models for policy and economic analysis.
Daniele Visioni, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, Olivier Boucher, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Michou Martine, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10039–10063,Short summary
A new set of simulations is used to investigate commonalities, differences and sources of uncertainty when simulating the injection of SO2 in the stratosphere in order to mitigate the effects of climate change (solar geoengineering). The models differ in how they simulate the aerosols and how they spread around the stratosphere, resulting in differences in projected regional impacts. Overall, however, the models agree that aerosols have the potential to mitigate the warming produced by GHGs.
Nikolas O. Aksamit, Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, and George Haller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8845–8861,Short summary
There exist robust and influential material features evolving within turbulent fluids that behave as the skeleton for fluid transport pathways. Recent developments in applied mathematics have made the identification of these time-varying structures more rigorous and insightful than ever. Using short-range wind forecasts, we detail how and why these material features can be exploited in an effort to optimize the spread of aerosols in the stratosphere for climate geoengineering.
Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Daniele Visioni, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Alan Robock, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4231–4247,Short summary
This study investigates multi-model response to idealized geoengineering (high CO2 with solar reduction) across two different generations of climate models. We find that, with the exception of a few cases, the results are unchanged between the different generations. This gives us confidence that broad conclusions about the response to idealized geoengineering are robust.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Anthony C. Jones, Simone Tilmes, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1287–1304,Short summary
Two different methods of simulating a geoengineering scenario are compared using data from two different Earth system models. One method is very idealised while the other includes details of a plausible mechanism. The results from both models agree that the idealised approach does not capture an impact found when detailed modelling is included, namely that geoengineering induces a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation which leads to warmer, wetter winters in northern Europe.
Walker Lee, Douglas MacMartin, Daniele Visioni, and Ben Kravitz
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1051–1072,Short summary
The injection of aerosols into the stratosphere to reflect sunlight could reduce global warming, but this type of
geoengineeringwould also impact other variables like precipitation and sea ice. In this study, we model various climate impacts of geoengineering on a 3-D graph to show how trying to meet one climate goal will affect other variables. We also present two computer simulations which validate our model and show that geoengineering could regulate precipitation as well as temperature.
Bethany Sutherland, Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, and Hailong Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Through a cascade of physical mechanisms, a change in one location can trigger a response in a different location. These responses and the mechanisms that cause them are difficult to detect. Here we propose a method, using global climate models, to detect possible relationships between changes in one region and responses throughout the globe caused by that change. A change in the Pacific ocean is used as a test case to determine the effectiveness of the method.
Simone Tilmes, Douglas G. MacMartin, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Leo van Kampenhout, Laura Muntjewerf, Lili Xia, Cheryl S. Harrison, Kristen M. Krumhardt, Michael J. Mills, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 579–601,Short summary
This paper introduces new geoengineering model experiments as part of a larger model intercomparison effort, using reflective particles to block some of the incoming solar radiation to reach surface temperature targets. Outcomes of these applications are contrasted based on a high greenhouse gas emission pathway and a pathway with strong mitigation and negative emissions after 2040. We compare quantities that matter for societal and ecosystem impacts between the different scenarios.
Robert Link, Abigail Snyder, Cary Lynch, Corinne Hartin, Ben Kravitz, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1477–1489,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) produce the highest-quality future climate data available, but they are costly to run, so only a few runs from each model are publicly available. What is needed are emulators that tell us what would have happened, if we had been able to perform as many ESM runs as we might have liked. Much of the existing work on emulators has focused on deterministic projections of average values. Here we present a way to imbue emulators with the variability seen in ESM runs.
Katherine Calvin, Pralit Patel, Leon Clarke, Ghassem Asrar, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Ryna Yiyun Cui, Alan Di Vittorio, Kalyn Dorheim, Jae Edmonds, Corinne Hartin, Mohamad Hejazi, Russell Horowitz, Gokul Iyer, Page Kyle, Sonny Kim, Robert Link, Haewon McJeon, Steven J. Smith, Abigail Snyder, Stephanie Waldhoff, and Marshall Wise
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 677–698,Short summary
This paper describes GCAM v5.1, an open source model that represents the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems. GCAM examines the future evolution of these systems through the end of the 21st century. It can be used to examine, for example, how changes in population, income, or technology cost might alter crop production, energy demand, or water withdrawals, or how changes in one region’s demand for energy affect energy, water, and land in other regions.
Christopher G. Fletcher, Ben Kravitz, and Bakr Badawy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17529–17543,Short summary
The most important number for future climate projections is Earth's climate sensitivity (CS), or how much warming will result from increased carbon dioxide. We cannot know the true CS, and estimates of CS from climate models have a wide range. This study identifies the major factors that control this range, and we show that the choice of methods used in creating a climate model are three times more important than fine-tuning the details of the model after it is created.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Duoying Ji, Songsong Fang, Charles L. Curry, Hiroki Kashimura, Shingo Watanabe, Jason N. S. Cole, Andrew Lenton, Helene Muri, Ben Kravitz, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10133–10156,Short summary
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol injection geoengineering schemes. Both types of geoengineering lead to lower minimum temperatures at higher latitudes and greater cooling of minimum temperatures and maximum temperatures over land compared with oceans. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical extreme precipitation, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.
David P. Keller, Andrew Lenton, Vivian Scott, Naomi E. Vaughan, Nico Bauer, Duoying Ji, Chris D. Jones, Ben Kravitz, Helene Muri, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1133–1160,Short summary
There is little consensus on the impacts and efficacy of proposed carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods as a potential means of mitigating climate change. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDR-MIP) has been initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDR-MIP experiments.
Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Lars Ahlm, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Jim Haywood, Ben Kravitz, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven J. Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 621–634,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) has been proposed to help limit global warming. We present here the first multi-model assessment of idealized MCB simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. While all models predict a global cooling as intended, there is considerable spread between the models both in terms of radiative forcing and the climate response, largely linked to the substantial differences in the models' representation of clouds.
Abigail C. Snyder, Robert P. Link, and Katherine V. Calvin
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4307–4319,Short summary
Experiments conducting a model forecast for a period in which observational data are available are rarely undertaken in the integrated assessment model (IAM) community. When undertaken, results are often evaluated using global aggregates that mask deficiencies. Comparing land allocation simulations in GCAM with FAO observational data from 1990 to 2010, we find quantitative evidence that global aggregates alone are not sufficient for evaluating IAMs with global supply constraints similar to GCAM.
Lars Ahlm, Andy Jones, Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Ben Kravitz, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13071–13087,Short summary
We present results from coordinated simulations with three Earth system models focusing on the response of Earth’s radiation balance to the injection of sea salt particles. We find that in most regions the effective radiative forcing by the injected particles is equally large in cloudy and clear-sky conditions, suggesting a more important role of the aerosol direct effect in sea spray climate engineering than previously thought.
Cary Lynch, Corinne Hartin, Ben Bond-Lamberty, and Ben Kravitz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 281–292,Short summary
Pattern scaling climate model output is a computationally efficient way to produce a large amount of data for purposes of uncertainty quantification. Using a multi-model ensemble we explore pattern scaling methodologies across two future forcing scenarios. We find that the simple least squares approach to pattern scaling produces a close approximation of actual model output, and we use this as a justification for the creation of an open-access pattern library at multiple time increments.
Ben Kravitz, Cary Lynch, Corinne Hartin, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1889–1902,Short summary
Pattern scaling is a way of approximating regional changes without needing to run a full, complex global climate model. We compare two methods of pattern scaling for precipitation and evaluate which methods is
betterin particular circumstances. We also decompose precipitation into a CO2 portion and a non-CO2 portion. The methodologies discussed in this paper can help provide precipitation fields for other models for a wide variety of scenarios of future climate change.
Hiroki Kashimura, Manabu Abe, Shingo Watanabe, Takashi Sekiya, Duoying Ji, John C. Moore, Jason N. S. Cole, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3339–3356,Short summary
This study analyses shortwave radiation (SW) in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. G4 involves stratospheric injection of 5 Tg yr−1 of SO2 against the RCP4.5 scenario. The global mean forcing of the sulphate geoengineering has an inter-model variablity of −3.6 to −1.6 W m−2, implying a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols. Changes in water vapour and cloud amounts due to the SO2 injection weaken the forcing at the surface by around 50 %.
Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Philip J. Rasch, and Hailong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2525–2541,Short summary
We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input–output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state.
Corey J. Gabriel, Alan Robock, Lili Xia, Brian Zambri, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 595–613,Short summary
The National Center for Atmospheric Research CESM-CAM4-CHEM global climate model was modified to simulate a scheme in which the albedo of the ocean surface is raised over the subtropical ocean gyres in the Southern Hemisphere. Global mean surface temperature in G4Foam is 0.6K lower than RCP6.0, with statistically significant cooling relative to RCP6.0 south of 30° N and an increase in rainfall over land, most pronouncedly during the JJA season, relative to both G4SSA and RCP6.0.
Douglas G. MacMartin and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15789–15799,Short summary
Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a possible additional approach for managing risks of climate change, by reflecting some sunlight back to space. To project climate effects resulting from future choices regarding both greenhouse gas emissions and solar geoengineering, it is useful to have a computationally efficient "emulator" that approximates the behavior of more complex climate models. We present such an emulator here, and validate the underlying assumption of linearity.
Yannick Le Page, Tris O. West, Robert Link, and Pralit Patel
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3055–3069,Short summary
A computer program was developed to transform maps of regional land use (e.g., crops) and land cover (e.g., forests) areas into gridded maps actually representing their spatial distribution within each region. This is important for studies of future environmental change: economic models project agricultural activities at the regional scale, but Earth system models need gridded information to project the impact of such activities on climate, biodiversity, water availability, and other aspects.
Cary Lynch, Corinne Hartin, Ben Bond-Lamberty, and Ben Kravitz
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Pattern scaling is used to explore uncertainty in future forcing scenarios and assess local climate sensitivity to global temperature change. This paper examines the two dominant pattern scaling methods using a multi-model ensemble with two future socio-economic storylines. We find that high latitudes show the strongest sensitivity to global temperature change and that the simple least squared regression approach to generation of patterns is a better fit to projected global temperature.
Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Hailong Wang, and Philip J. Rasch
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 469–497,Short summary
Most simulations of solar geoengineering prescribe a particular strategy and evaluate its modeled effects. Here we first choose example climate objectives and then design a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. We show that certain objectives can be met simultaneously even in the presence of uncertainty, and the strategy for meeting those objectives can be ported to other models. This is part of a broader illustration of how uncertainties in solar geoengineering can be managed.
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
C. A. Hartin, P. Patel, A. Schwarber, R. P. Link, and B. P. Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 939–955,Short summary
Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. Hector v1.0 is an open-source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. Hector simulates all four representative concentration pathways with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations and other models.
S. Tilmes, M. J. Mills, U. Niemeier, H. Schmidt, A. Robock, B. Kravitz, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Pitari, and J. M. English
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 43–49,Short summary
A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment “G4 specified stratospheric aerosols” (G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Quantifying vertical wind shear effects in shallow cumulus clouds over AmazoniaCirrus cloud thinning using a more physically based ice microphysics scheme in the ECHAM-HAM general circulation modelImpacts of combined microphysical and land-surface uncertainties on convective clouds and precipitation in different weather regimesWeakening of tropical sea breeze convective systems through interactions of aerosol, radiation, and soil moistureSensitivity analysis of an aerosol-aware microphysics scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) during case studies of fog in NamibiaDo Arctic mixed-phase clouds sometimes dissipate due to insufficient aerosol? Evidence from comparisons between observations and idealized simulationsContrail formation within cirrus: ICON-LEM simulations of the impact of cirrus cloud properties on contrail formationImpact of Holuhraun volcano aerosols on clouds in cloud-system-resolving simulationsWarm and moist air intrusions into the winter Arctic: a Lagrangian view on the near-surface energy budgetsConvective updrafts near sea-breeze frontsEvaluation of modelled summertime convective storms using polarimetric radar observationsCloud adjustments from large-scale smoke-circulation interactions strongly modulate the southeast Atlantic stratocumulus-to-cumulus transitionEvaluating seasonal and regional distribution of snowfall in regional climate model simulations in the ArcticModeling impacts of ice-nucleating particles from marine aerosols on mixed-phase orographic clouds during 2015 ACAPEX field campaignThe impacts of secondary ice production on microphysics and dynamics in tropical convectionInfluences of an entrainment–mixing parameterization on numerical simulations of cumulus and stratocumulus cloudsAerosol-stratocumulus interactions: Towards a better process understanding using closures between observations and large eddy simulationsInvestigation of ice cloud modeling capabilities for the irregularly shaped Voronoi ice scattering models in climate simulationsAssessing the potential for simplification in global climate model cloud microphysicsTechnical note: Parameterising cloud base updraft velocity of marine stratocumuliRadiative and microphysical responses of clouds to an anomalous increase in fire particles over the Maritime Continent in 2015Intricate relations among particle collision, relative motion and clustering in turbulent clouds: computational observation and theoryThe effect of marine ice-nucleating particles on mixed-phase cloudsA strong statistical link between aerosol indirect effects and the self-similarity of rainfall distributionsQuantifying albedo susceptibility biases in shallow cloudsPrimary and secondary ice production: interactions and their relative importanceMicrophysical processes producing high ice water contents (HIWCs) in tropical convective clouds during the HAIC-HIWC field campaign: dominant role of secondary ice productionImportance of aerosols and shape of the cloud droplet size distribution for convective clouds and precipitationSecondary ice production processes in wintertime alpine mixed-phase cloudsMulti-thermals and high concentrations of secondary ice: a modelling study of convective clouds during the Ice in Clouds Experiment – Dust (ICE-D) campaignSubgrid-scale horizontal and vertical variation of cloud water in stratocumulus clouds: a case study based on LES and comparisons with in situ observationsA vertical transport window of water vapor in the troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau with implications for global climate changeEvaluation of tropical water vapour from CMIP6 GCMs using the ESA CCI "Water Vapour" climate data recordsBox model trajectory studies of contrail formation using a particle-based cloud microphysics schemeUpdraft dynamics and microphysics: on the added value of the cumulus thermal reference frame in simulations of aerosol–deep convection interactionsThe influence of multiple groups of biological ice nucleating particles on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds observed during MC3EDemistify: a large-eddy simulation (LES) and single-column model (SCM) intercomparison of radiation fogCase study of a moisture intrusion over the Arctic with the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) model: resolution dependence of its representationNew investigations on homogeneous ice nucleation: the effects of water activity and water saturation formulationsCloud droplet formation at the base of tropical convective clouds: closure between modeling and measurement results of ACRIDICON–CHUVAImpacts of long-range-transported mineral dust on summertime convective cloud and precipitation: a case study over the Taiwan regionModel emulation to understand the joint effects of ice-nucleating particles and secondary ice production on deep convective anvil cirrusImproving the representation of aggregation in a two-moment microphysical scheme with statistics of multi-frequency Doppler radar observationsOverview towards improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to heavy precipitation in the western Mediterranean: lessons learned from HyMeXMidlatitude mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds and their interactions with aerosols: how ice processes affect microphysical, dynamic, and thermodynamic development in those clouds and interactions?Tracking the influence of cloud condensation nuclei on summer diurnal precipitating systems over complex topography in TaiwanRevisiting adiabatic fraction estimations in cumulus clouds: high-resolution simulations with a passive tracerImpact of hygroscopic seeding on the initiation of precipitation formation: results of a hybrid bin microphysics parcel modelAerosol–cloud interactions: the representation of heterogeneous ice activation in cloud modelsSensitivity of precipitation formation to secondary ice production in winter orographic mixed-phase clouds
Micael Amore Cecchini, Marco de Bruine, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11867–11888,Short summary
Shallow clouds (vertical extent up to 3 km height) are ubiquitous throughout the Amazon and are responsible for redistributing the solar heat and moisture vertically and horizontally. They are a key component of the water cycle because they can grow past the shallow phase to contribute significantly to the precipitation formation. However, they need favourable environmental conditions to grow. In this study, we analyse how changing wind patterns affect the development of such shallow clouds.
Colin Tully, David Neubauer, Nadja Omanovic, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11455–11484,Short summary
The proposed geoengineering method, cirrus cloud thinning, was evaluated using a more physically based microphysics scheme coupled to a more realistic approach for calculating ice cloud fractions in the ECHAM-HAM GCM. Sensitivity tests reveal that using the new ice cloud fraction approach and increasing the critical ice saturation ratio for ice nucleation on seeding particles reduces warming from overseeding. However, this geoengineering method is unlikely to be feasible on a global scale.
Christian Barthlott, Amirmahdi Zarboo, Takumi Matsunobu, and Christian Keil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10841–10860,Short summary
The relevance of microphysical and land-surface uncertainties for convective-scale predictability is evaluated with a combined-perturbation strategy in realistic convection-resolving simulations. We find a large ensemble spread which demonstrates that the uncertainties investigated here and, in particular, their collective effect are highly relevant for quantitative precipitation forecasting of summertime convection in central Europe.
J. Minnie Park and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10527–10549,Short summary
This study explores how increased aerosol particles impact tropical sea breeze cloud systems under different environments and how a range of environments modulate these cloud responses. Overall, sea breeze flows and clouds that develop therein become weaker due to interactions between aerosols, sunlight, and land surface. In addition, surface rainfall also decreases with more aerosol particles. Weakening of cloud and rain with more aerosols is found irrespective of 130 different environments.
Michael John Weston, Stuart John Piketh, Frédéric Burnet, Stephen Broccardo, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10221–10245,Short summary
An aerosol-aware microphysics scheme is evaluated for fog cases in Namibia. AEROCLO-sA campaign observations are used to access and parameterise the model. The model cloud condensation nuclei activation is lower than the observations. The scheme is designed for clouds with updrafts, while fog typically forms in stable conditions. A pseudo updraft speed assigned to the lowest model levels helps achieve more realistic cloud droplet number concentration and size distribution in the model.
Lucas J. Sterzinger, Joseph Sedlar, Heather Guy, Ryan R. Neely III, and Adele L. Igel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8973–8988,Short summary
Aerosol particles are required for cloud droplets to form, and the Arctic atmosphere often has much fewer aerosols than at lower latitudes. In this study, we investigate whether aerosol concentrations can drop so low as to no longer support a cloud. We use observations to initialize idealized model simulations to investigate a worst-case scenario where all aerosol is removed from the environment instantaneously. We find that this mechanism is possible in two cases and is unlikely in the third.
Pooja Verma and Ulrike Burkhardt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8819–8842,Short summary
This paper investigates contrail ice formation within cirrus and the impact of natural cirrus on the contrail ice formation in the high-resolution ICON-LEM simulations over Germany. Contrail formation often leads to increases in cirrus ice crystal number concentration by a few orders of magnitude. Contrail formation is affected by pre-existing cirrus, leading to changes in contrail formation conditions and ice nucleation rates that can be significant in optically thick cirrus.
Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Jan Kretzschmar, Karoline Block, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8457–8472,Short summary
The impact of aerosols emitted by the Holuhraun volcanic eruption on liquid clouds was assessed from a pair of cloud-system-resolving simulations along with satellite retrievals. Inside and outside the plume were compared in terms of their statistical distributions. Analyses indicated enhancement for cloud droplet number concentration inside the volcano plume in model simulations and satellite retrievals, while there was on average a small effect on both liquid water path and cloud fraction.
Cheng You, Michael Tjernström, and Abhay Devasthale
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8037–8057,Short summary
In winter when solar radiation is absent in the Arctic, the poleward transport of heat and moisture into the high Arctic becomes the main contribution of Arctic warming. Over completely frozen ocean sectors, total surface energy budget is dominated by net long-wave heat, while over the Barents Sea, with an open ocean to the south, total net surface energy budget is dominated by the surface turbulent heat.
Shizuo Fu, Richard Rotunno, and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7727–7738,Short summary
The convective updrafts near the sea-breeze fronts (SBFs) play important roles in initiating deep convection, but their characteristics are not well understood. By performing large-eddy simulations, we explain why the updrafts near the SBF are larger than but have similar strength to the updrafts ahead of the SBF. The results should also apply to other boundary-layer convergence zones similar to the SBF.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Silke Trömel, Raquel Evaristo, and Clemens Simmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7593–7618,Short summary
The study makes use of ensemble numerical simulations with forward operator to evaluate the simulated cloud and precipitation processes with radar observations. While comparing model data with radar has its own challenges due to errors in the forward operator and processed radar measurements, the model was generally found to underestimate the high reflectivity, width/magnitude (value) of ZDR columns and high precipitation.
Michael S. Diamond, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Andrew S. Ackerman, Sarah J. Doherty, Ann M. Fridlind, Hamish Gordon, Calvin Howes, Jan Kazil, Takanobu Yamaguchi, Jianhao Zhang, Graham Feingold, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Smoke from southern Africa blankets the southeast Atlantic Ocean from June-October, overlying a major low-altitude cloud deck. The smoke affects Earth's radiation budget by absorbing and reflecting sunlight and changing cloud properties. We investigate smoke effects on the transition between overcast and scattered clouds in regional climate and large eddy simulation models and compare our results with observations from three recent international field campaigns.
Annakaisa von Lerber, Mario Mech, Annette Rinke, Damao Zhang, Melanie Lauer, Ana Radovan, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7287–7317,Short summary
Snowfall is an important climate indicator. However, microphysical snowfall processes are challenging for atmospheric models. In this study, the performance of a regional climate model is evaluated in modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of Arctic snowfall when compared to CloudSat satellite observations. Excellent agreement in averaged annual snowfall rates is found, and the shown methodology offers a promising diagnostic tool to investigate the shown differences further.
Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Pengfei Li, Lai-yung Ruby Leung, Paul J. DeMott, Lexie Goldberger, Jennifer Comstock, Ying Liu, Jong-Hoon Jeong, and Jason Tomlinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6749–6771,Short summary
How sea spray aerosols may affect cloud and precipitation over the region by acting as ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is unknown. We explored the effects of INPs from marine aerosols on orographic cloud and precipitation for an atmospheric river event observed during the 2015 ACAPEX field campaign. The marine INPs enhance the formation of ice and snow, leading to less shallow warm clouds but more mixed-phase and deep clouds. This work suggests models need to consider the impacts of marine INPs.
Zhipeng Qu, Alexei Korolev, Jason A. Milbrandt, Ivan Heckman, Yongjie Huang, Greg M. McFarquhar, Hugh Morrison, Mengistu Wolde, and Cuong Nguyen
Secondary ice production (SIP) is an important physical phenomenon that results in an increase of cloud ice particle concentration and can have a significant impact on the evolution of clouds. In this study, idealized simulations of a tropical convective was conducted. Agreement between the simulations and observations highlights the impacts of SIP on the maintenance of tropical convection in nature and the importance of including the modeling of SIP in numerical weather prediction models.
Xiaoqi Xu, Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Shi Luo, Xin Zhou, Satoshi Endo, Lei Zhu, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5459–5475,Short summary
A new entrainment–mixing parameterization which can be directly implemented in microphysics schemes without requiring the relative humidity of the entrained air is proposed based on the explicit mixing parcel model. The parameterization is implemented in the two-moment microphysics scheme and exhibits different effects on different types of clouds and even on different stages of stratocumulus clouds, which are affected by turbulent dissipation rate and aerosol concentration.
Silvia Margarita Calderón, Juha Tonttila, Angela Buchholz, Jorma Joutsensaari, Mika Komppula, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Dmitri Moisseev, Iida Pullinen, Petri Tiitta, Jian Xu, Annele Virtanen, Harri Kokkola, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The spatial and temporal restrictions of observations, and oversimplified aerosol representation in large-eddy-simulations (LES) limit our understanding of aerosol-stratocumulus interactions. In this closure study of in situ and remote sensing observations, and outputs from UCLALES-SALSA, we have assessed the role of convective overturning and aerosol effects in two cloud events observed at the Puijo SMEAR IV station, Finland, a diurnal-high aerosol case and a nocturnal-low aerosol case.
Ming Li, Husi Letu, Yiran Peng, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Yanluan Lin, Takashi Y. Nakajima, Anthony J. Baran, Zengyuan Guo, Yonghui Lei, and Jiancheng Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4809–4825,Short summary
To build on the previous investigations of the Voronoi model in the remote sensing retrievals of ice cloud products, this paper developed an ice cloud parameterization scheme based on the single-scattering properties of the Voronoi model and evaluate it through simulations with the Community Integrated Earth System Model (CIESM). Compared with four representative ice cloud schemes, results show that the Voronoi model has good capabilities of ice cloud modeling in the climate model.
Ulrike Proske, Sylvaine Ferrachat, David Neubauer, Martin Staab, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4737–4762,Short summary
Cloud microphysical processes shape cloud properties and are therefore important to represent in climate models. Their parameterization has grown more complex, making the model results more difficult to interpret. Using sensitivity analysis we test how the global aerosol–climate model ECHAM-HAM reacts to changes to these parameterizations. The model is sensitive to the parameterization of ice crystal autoconversion but not to, e.g., self-collection, suggesting that it may be simplified.
Jaakko Ahola, Tomi Raatikainen, Muzaffer Ege Alper, Jukka-Pekka Keskinen, Harri Kokkola, Antti Kukkurainen, Antti Lipponen, Jia Liu, Kalle Nordling, Antti-Ilari Partanen, Sami Romakkaniemi, Petri Räisänen, Juha Tonttila, and Hannele Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4523–4537,Short summary
Clouds are important for the climate, and cloud droplets have a significant role in cloud properties. Cloud droplets form when air rises and cools and water vapour condenses on small particles that can be natural or of anthropogenic origin. Currently, the updraft velocity, meaning how fast the air rises, is poorly represented in global climate models. In our study, we show three methods that will improve the depiction of updraft velocity and which properties are vital to updrafts.
Azusa Takeishi and Chien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4129–4147,Short summary
Nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles in the atmosphere, namely aerosols, play a crucial role in cloud formation as cloud droplets form on aerosols. This study uses a weather forecasting model to examine the impacts of a large emission of aerosol particles from biomass burning activities over Southeast Asia. We find that additional cloud droplets brought by fire-emitted particles can lead to taller and more reflective convective clouds with increased rainfall.
Ewe-Wei Saw and Xiaohui Meng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3779–3788,Short summary
Collision–coagulation of small droplets in turbulent clouds leads to the production of rain. Turbulence causes droplet clustering and higher relative droplet velocities, and these should enhance the collision–coagulation rate. We find, surprisingly, that collision–coagulation starkly diminishes clustering and strongly alters relative velocities. We provide a theory that explains this result. Our results call for a new perspective on how we understand particle/droplet collision in clouds.
Tomi Raatikainen, Marje Prank, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Juha Tonttila, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3763–3778,Short summary
Mineral dust or similar ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are needed to initiate cloud droplet freezing at temperatures common in shallow clouds. In this work we examine how INPs that are released from the sea surface impact marine clouds. Our high-resolution simulations show that turbulent updraughts carry these particles effectively up to the clouds, where they initiate cloud droplet freezing. Sea surface INP emissions become more important with decreasing background dust INP concentrations.
Kalli Furtado and Paul Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3391–3407,Short summary
The complex processes involved mean that no simple answer to this question has so far been discovered: do aerosols increase or decrease precipitation? Using high-resolution weather simulations, we find a self-similar property of rainfall that is not affected by aerosols. Using this invariant, we can collapse all our simulations to a single curve. So, although aerosol effects on rain are many, there may be a universal constraint on the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent them.
Graham Feingold, Tom Goren, and Takanobu Yamaguchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3303–3319,Short summary
The evaluation of radiative forcing associated with aerosol–cloud interactions remains a significant source of uncertainty in future climate projections. Using high-resolution numerical model output, we mimic typical satellite retrieval methodologies to show that data aggregation can introduce significant error (hundreds of percent) in the cloud albedo susceptibility metric. Spatial aggregation errors tend to be countered by temporal aggregation errors.
Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2585–2600,Short summary
The goal of this study is to investigate the relative importance and interactions of primary and secondary ice production in the Arctic mixed-phase clouds. Our results show that the SIP is not only a result of ice crystals produced from ice nucleation, but also competes with the ice production; conversely, strong ice nucleation also suppresses SIP.
Yongjie Huang, Wei Wu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Ming Xue, Hugh Morrison, Jason Milbrandt, Alexei V. Korolev, Yachao Hu, Zhipeng Qu, Mengistu Wolde, Cuong Nguyen, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, and Ivan Heckman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2365–2384,Short summary
Numerous small ice crystals in tropical convective storms are difficult to detect and could be potentially hazardous for commercial aircraft. Previous numerical simulations failed to reproduce this phenomenon and hypothesized that key microphysical processes are still lacking in current models to realistically simulate the phenomenon. This study uses numerical experiments to confirm the dominant role of secondary ice production in the formation of these large numbers of small ice crystals.
Christian Barthlott, Amirmahdi Zarboo, Takumi Matsunobu, and Christian Keil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2153–2172,Short summary
The relative impact of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and the shape parameter of the cloud droplet size distribution is evaluated in realistic convection-resolving simulations. We find that an increase in the shape parameter can produce almost as large a variation in precipitation as a CCN increase from maritime to polluted conditions. The choice of the shape parameter may be more important than previously thought for determining cloud radiative characteristics.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1965–1988,Short summary
The modelling study focuses on the importance of ice multiplication processes in orographic mixed-phase clouds, which is one of the least understood cloud types in the climate system. We show that the consideration of ice seeding and secondary ice production through ice–ice collisional breakup is essential for correct predictions of precipitation in mountainous terrain, with important implications for radiation processes.
Zhiqiang Cui, Alan Blyth, Yahui Huang, Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Paul Field, Rachel Hawker, and Lindsay Bennett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1649–1667,Short summary
High concentrations of ice particles were observed at temperatures greater than about –8 C. The default scheme of the secondary ice production cannot explain the high concentrations. Relaxing the conditions for secondary ice production or considering dust aerosol alone is insufficient to produce the observed amount of ice particles. It is likely that multi-thermals play an important role in producing very high concentrations of secondary ice particles in some tropical clouds.
Justin A. Covert, David B. Mechem, and Zhibo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1159–1174,Short summary
Stratocumulus play an important role in Earth's radiative balance. The simulation of these cloud systems in climate models is difficult due to the scale at which cloud microphysical processes occur compared with model grid sizes. In this study, we use large-eddy simulation to analyze subgrid-scale variability of cloud water and its implications on a cloud water to drizzle model enhancement factor E. We find current values of E may be too large and that E should be vertically dependent in models.
Xiangde Xu, Chan Sun, Deliang Chen, Tianliang Zhao, Jianjun Xu, Shengjun Zhang, Juan Li, Bin Chen, Yang Zhao, Hongxiong Xu, Lili Dong, Xiaoyun Sun, and Yan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1149–1157,Short summary
A vertical transport window of tropospheric vapor exists on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The TP's thermal forcing drives the vertical transport
windowof vapor in the troposphere. The effects of the TP's vertical transport window of vapor are of importance in global climate change.
Jia He, Helene Brogniez, and Laurence Picon
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A 2003–2017 satellite-based atmospheric water vapour climate data record is used to assess climate models and reanalyses. The focus is on the tropical belt whose regional variations in the hydrological cycle are tight to the tropospheric overturning circulation. While there are similarities in the interannual variability, the major discrepancies can be explained by the presence of clouds, the representation of moisture fluxes at the surface, and cloud processes in the models.
Andreas Bier, Simon Unterstrasser, and Xavier Vancassel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 823–845,Short summary
We investigate contrail formation in an aircraft plume with a particle-based multi-trajectory 0D model. Due to the high plume heterogeneity, contrail ice crystals form first near the plume edge and then in the plume centre. The number of ice crystals varies strongly with ambient conditions and soot properties near the contrail formation threshold. Our results imply that the multi-trajectory approach does not necessarily lead to improved scientific results compared to a single mean trajectory.
Daniel Hernandez-Deckers, Toshihisa Matsui, and Ann M. Fridlind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 711–724,Short summary
We investigate how the concentration of aerosols (small particles that serve as seeds for cloud droplets) affect the dynamics of simulated clouds using two different frameworks, i.e., the traditional selection of cloudy rising grid points and tracking small-scale coherent rising features (cumulus thermals). By doing so, we find that these cumulus thermals reveal useful information about the coupling between internal cloud circulations and cloud droplet and raindrop formation.
Sachin Patade, Vaughan Phillips, Deepak Waman, Akash Deshmukh, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Arti Jadav, Aaron Bansemer, Jacob Carlin, and Alexander Ryzhkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The modeling study focuses on the role of multiple groups of primary biological aerosol particles as ice nuclei on cloud properties and precipitation. This was done by implementing a more realistic scheme for biological ice nucleating particles in the aerosol cloud model. Results show that biological ice nucleating particles have a limited role in altering the ice phase and precipitation in deep convective clouds.
Ian Boutle, Wayne Angevine, Jian-Wen Bao, Thierry Bergot, Ritthik Bhattacharya, Andreas Bott, Leo Ducongé, Richard Forbes, Tobias Goecke, Evelyn Grell, Adrian Hill, Adele L. Igel, Innocent Kudzotsa, Christine Lac, Bjorn Maronga, Sami Romakkaniemi, Juerg Schmidli, Johannes Schwenkel, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, and Benoît Vié
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 319–333,Short summary
Fog forecasting is one of the biggest problems for numerical weather prediction. By comparing many models used for fog forecasting with others used for fog research, we hoped to help guide forecast improvements. We show some key processes that, if improved, will help improve fog forecasting, such as how water is deposited on the ground. We also showed that research models were not themselves a suitable baseline for comparison, and we discuss what future observations are required to improve them.
Hélène Bresson, Annette Rinke, Mario Mech, Daniel Reinert, Vera Schemann, Kerstin Ebell, Marion Maturilli, Carolina Viceto, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 173–196,Short summary
Arctic warming is pronounced, and one factor in this is the poleward atmospheric transport of heat and moisture. This study assesses the 4D structure of an Arctic moisture intrusion event which occurred in June 2017. For the first time, high-resolution pan-Arctic ICON simulations are performed and compared with global models, reanalysis, and observations. Results show the added value of high resolution in the event representation and the impact of the intrusion on the surface energy fluxes.
Manuel Baumgartner, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Julia Schneider, Tobias Schorr, Ottmar Möhler, Peter Spichtinger, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 65–91,Short summary
An important mechanism for the appearance of ice particles in the upper troposphere at low temperatures is homogeneous nucleation. This process is commonly described by the
Koop line, predicting the humidity at freezing. However, laboratory measurements suggest that the freezing humidities are above the Koop line, motivating the present study to investigate the influence of different physical parameterizations on the homogeneous freezing with the help of a detailed numerical model.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17513–17528,Short summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Yanda Zhang, Fangqun Yu, Gan Luo, Jiwen Fan, and Shuai Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17433–17451,Short summary
This paper explores the impacts of dust on summertime convective cloud and precipitation through a numerical experiment. The result indicates that the long-range-transported dust can notably affect the properties of convective cloud and precipitation by enhancing immersion freezing and invigorating convection. We also analyze the different dust effects predicted by the Morrison and SBM schemes, which are partially attributed to the saturation adjustment approach utilized in the bulk schemes.
Rachel E. Hawker, Annette K. Miltenberger, Jill S. Johnson, Jonathan M. Wilkinson, Adrian A. Hill, Ben J. Shipway, Paul R. Field, Benjamin J. Murray, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17315–17343,Short summary
We find that ice-nucleating particles (INPs), aerosols that can initiate the freezing of cloud droplets, cause substantial changes to the properties of radiatively important convectively generated anvil cirrus. The number concentration of INPs had a large effect on ice crystal number concentration while the INP temperature dependence controlled ice crystal size and cloud fraction. The results indicate information on INP number and source is necessary for the representation of cloud glaciation.
Markus Karrer, Axel Seifert, Davide Ori, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17133–17166,Short summary
Modeling precipitation is of great relevance, e.g., for mitigating damage caused by extreme weather. A key component in accurate precipitation modeling is aggregation, i.e., sticking together of snowflakes. Simulating aggregation is difficult due to multiple parameters that are not well-known. Knowing how these parameters affect aggregation can help its simulation. We put new parameters in the model and select a combination of parameters with which the model can simulate observations better.
Samira Khodayar, Silvio Davolio, Paolo Di Girolamo, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Emmanouil Flaounas, Nadia Fourrie, Keun-Ok Lee, Didier Ricard, Benoit Vie, Francois Bouttier, Alberto Caldas-Alvarez, and Veronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17051–17078,Short summary
Heavy precipitation (HP) constitutes a major meteorological threat in the western Mediterranean. Every year, recurrent events affect the area with fatal consequences. Despite this being a well-known issue, open questions still remain. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the modeling representation of the events must be improved. In this article we present the most recent lessons learned from the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX).
Seoung Soo Lee, Kyung-Ja Ha, Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan Manoj, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Hyungjun Kim, Nobuyuki Utsumi, Youtong Zheng, Byung-Gon Kim, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Jianping Guo, Kyoung Ock Choi, and Go-Un Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16843–16868,Short summary
Using a modeling framework, a midlatitude stratocumulus cloud system is simulated. It is found that cloud mass in the system becomes very low due to interactions between ice and liquid particles compared to that in the absence of ice particles. It is also found that interactions between cloud mass and aerosols lead to a reduction in cloud mass in the system, and this is contrary to an aerosol-induced increase in cloud mass in the absence of ice particles.
Yu-Hung Chang, Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, Christopher Moseley, and Chia-Chun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16709–16725,Short summary
The impacts of increasing cloud condensation nuclei on summertime diurnal precipitation in weak synoptic weather over complex topography in Taiwan were investigated by applying object-based tracking analyses to semi-realistic large-eddy simulations. In hotspots of orographic locking processes, rain initiation is delayed, which prolongs the development of local circulation and convection. For this organized regime, the occurrence of extreme diurnal precipitating systems is notably enhanced.
Eshkol Eytan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Mark Pinsky, and Alexander Khain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16203–16217,Short summary
Describing cloud mixing processes is among the most challenging fronts in cloud physics. Therefore, the adiabatic fraction (AF) that serves as a mixing measure is a valuable metric. We use high-resolution (10 m) simulations of single clouds with a passive tracer to test the skill of different methods used to derive AF. We highlight a method that is insensitive to the available cloud samples and allows considering microphysical effects on AF estimations in different environmental conditions.
Istvan Geresdi, Lulin Xue, Sisi Chen, Youssef Wehbe, Roelof Bruintjes, Jared A. Lee, Roy M. Rasmussen, Wojciech W. Grabowski, Noemi Sarkadi, and Sarah A. Tessendorf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16143–16159,Short summary
By releasing soluble aerosols into the convective clouds, cloud seeding potentially enhances rainfall. The seeding impacts are hard to quantify with observations only. Numerical models that represent the detailed physics of aerosols, cloud and rain formation are used to investigate the seeding impacts on rain enhancement under different natural aerosol backgrounds and using different seeding materials. Our results indicate that seeding may enhance rainfall under certain conditions.
Bernd Kärcher and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15213–15220,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions play an important role in climate change. Simulations of the competition between homogeneous solution droplet freezing and heterogeneous ice nucleation can be compromised by the misapplication of ice-active particle fractions frequently derived from laboratory measurements or parametrizations. Our study frames the problem and establishes a solution that is easy to implement in cloud models.
Zane Dedekind, Annika Lauber, Sylvaine Ferrachat, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15115–15134,Short summary
The RACLETS campaign combined cloud and snow research to improve the understanding of precipitation formation in clouds. A numerical weather prediction model, COSMO, was used to assess the importance of ice crystal enhancement by ice–ice collisions for cloud properties. We found that the number of ice crystals increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude when ice–ice collisions were permitted to occur, reducing localized regions of high precipitation and, thereby, improving the model performance.
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Climate model emulators can save computer time but are less accurate than full climate models. We use neural networks to build emulators of precipitation, trained on existing climate model runs. By doing so, we can capture nonlinearities and how the past state of a model (to some degree) shapes the future state. Our emulator outperforms a persistence forecast of precipitation.
Climate model emulators can save computer time but are less accurate than full climate models....