Articles | Volume 18, issue 8
Research article 18 Apr 2018
Research article | 18 Apr 2018
The sensitivity of Alpine summer convection to surrogate climate change: an intercomparison between convection-parameterizing and convection-resolving models
Michael Keller et al.
No articles found.
Caroline A. Poulsen, Gregory R. McGarragh, Gareth E. Thomas, Martin Stengel, Matthew W. Christensen, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, Elisa Carboni, Rainer Hollmann, and Roy G. Grainger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2121–2135,Short summary
We have created a satellite cloud and radiation climatology from the ATSR-2 and AATSR on board ERS-2 and Envisat, respectively, which spans the period 1995–2012. The data set was created using a combination of optimal estimation and neural net techniques. The data set was created as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative program. The data set has been compared with active CALIOP lidar measurements and compared with MAC-LWP AND CERES-EBAF measurements and is shown to have good performance.
Nikos Benas, Jan Fokke Meirink, Karl-Göran Karlsson, Martin Stengel, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 457–474,Short summary
In this study we analyse aerosol and cloud changes over southern China from 2006 to 2015 and investigate their possible interaction mechanisms. Results show decreasing aerosol loads and increasing liquid cloud cover in late autumn. Further analysis based on various satellite data sets shows consistency with the aerosol semi-direct effect, whereby less absorbing aerosols in the cloud layer would lead to an overall decrease in the evaporation of cloud droplets, thus increasing cloud amount.
Martin Stengel, Stefan Stapelberg, Oliver Sus, Stephan Finkensieper, Benjamin Würzler, Daniel Philipp, Rainer Hollmann, Caroline Poulsen, Matthew Christensen, and Gregory McGarragh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 41–60,Short summary
The Cloud_cci AVHRR-PMv3 dataset contains global, cloud and radiative flux properties covering the period of 1982 to 2016. The properties were retrieved from AVHRR measurements recorded by afternoon satellites of the NOAA POES missions. Validation against CALIOP, BSRN and CERES demonstrates the high quality of the data. The Cloud_cci AVHRR-PMv3 dataset allows for a large variety of climate applications that build on cloud properties, radiative flux properties and/or the link between them.
Vladimir S. Kostsov, Anke Kniffka, Martin Stengel, and Dmitry V. Ionov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5927–5946,Short summary
Cloud liquid water path (LWP) is one of the target atmospheric parameters retrieved remotely from ground-based and space-borne platforms. The LWP data delivered by the satellite instruments SEVIRI and AVHRR together with the data provided by the ground-based radiometer RPG-HATPRO near St. Petersburg, Russia, have been compared. Our study revealed considerable differences between LWP data from SEVIRI and AVHRR in winter over ice-covered relatively small water bodies in this region.
Andreas Müller, Willem Deconinck, Christian Kühnlein, Gianmarco Mengaldo, Michael Lange, Nils Wedi, Peter Bauer, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz, Michail Diamantakis, Sarah-Jane Lock, Mats Hamrud, Sami Saarinen, George Mozdzynski, Daniel Thiemert, Michael Glinton, Pierre Bénard, Fabrice Voitus, Charles Colavolpe, Philippe Marguinaud, Yongjun Zheng, Joris Van Bever, Daan Degrauwe, Geert Smet, Piet Termonia, Kristian P. Nielsen, Bent H. Sass, Jacob W. Poulsen, Per Berg, Carlos Osuna, Oliver Fuhrer, Valentin Clement, Michael Baldauf, Mike Gillard, Joanna Szmelter, Enda O'Brien, Alastair McKinstry, Oisín Robinson, Parijat Shukla, Michael Lysaght, Michał Kulczewski, Milosz Ciznicki, Wojciech Piątek, Sebastian Ciesielski, Marek Błażewicz, Krzysztof Kurowski, Marcin Procyk, Pawel Spychala, Bartosz Bosak, Zbigniew P. Piotrowski, Andrzej Wyszogrodzki, Erwan Raffin, Cyril Mazauric, David Guibert, Louis Douriez, Xavier Vigouroux, Alan Gray, Peter Messmer, Alexander J. Macfaden, and Nick New
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4425–4441,Short summary
This paper presents an overview of the ESCAPE project. Dwarfs (key patterns in terms of computation and communication) are identified in weather prediction models. They are optimised for different hardware architectures. New algorithms are developed that are specifically designed for better energy efficiency and improved portability through domain-specific languages. Different numerical techniques are compared in terms of energy efficiency and performance for a variety of computing technologies.
Nikos Benas, Jan Fokke Meirink, Martin Stengel, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2863–2879,Short summary
Cloud glory and bow phenomena cause irregularities in satellite-based retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties. Here we combine two geostationary satellites over the same areas to analyze retrievals under those conditions. Results show a high sensitivity of retrievals to the assumed width of the cloud droplet size distribution and provide insights into possible improvements in satellite retrievals by appropriately adjusting this assumed parameter.
Marc Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, Andrew Mark Sayer, Martin Stengel, Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina Cochrane, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Kerry Meyer, Pablo Saide, Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Robert Wood, David Saint Martin, Romain Roehrig, Christina Hsu, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4963–4990,Short summary
The model is able to represent LWP but not the LCF. AOD is consistent over the continent but also over ocean (ACAOD). Differences are observed in SSA due to the absence of internal mixing in ALADIN-Climate. A significant regional gradient of the forcing at TOA is observed. An intense positive forcing is simulated over Gabon. Results highlight the significant effect of enhanced moisture on BBA extinction. The surface dimming modifies the energy budget.
Dominik Brunner, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Julia Marshall, Valentin Clément, Oliver Fuhrer, Grégoire Broquet, Armin Löscher, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4541–4559,Short summary
Atmospheric transport models are increasingly being used to estimate CO2 emissions from atmospheric CO2 measurements. This study demonstrates the importance of distributing CO2 emissions vertically in the model according to realistic profiles, since a major proportion of CO2 is emitted through tall stacks from power plants and industrial sources. With the traditional approach of emitting all CO2 at the surface, models may significantly overestimate the atmospheric CO2 levels.
Salomon Eliasson, Karl Göran Karlsson, Erik van Meijgaard, Jan Fokke Meirink, Martin Stengel, and Ulrika Willén
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 829–847,Short summary
To enable fair comparisons of clouds between climate models and the ESA Cloud_cci climate data record (CDR), we present a tool called the Cloud_cci simulator. The tool takes into account the geometry and cloud detection capabilities of the Cloud_cci CDR to allow fair comparisons. We demonstrate the simulator on two climate models. We find the impact of time sampling has a large effect on simulated cloud water amount and that the simulator reduces the cloud cover by about 10 % globally.
Martin Stengel, Cornelia Schlundt, Stefan Stapelberg, Oliver Sus, Salomon Eliasson, Ulrika Willén, and Jan Fokke Meirink
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17601–17614,Short summary
We present a new approach to evaluate ERA-Interim reanalysis clouds using satellite observations. A simplified satellite simulator was developed that uses reanalysis fields to emulate clouds as they would have been seen by those satellite sensors which were used to compose Cloud_cci observational cloud datasets. Our study facilitates an adequate evaluation of modelled ERA-Interim clouds using observational datasets, also taking into account systematic uncertainties in the observations.
Rocío Baró, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Martin Stengel, Dominik Brunner, Gabriele Curci, Renate Forkel, Lucy Neal, Laura Palacios-Peña, Nicholas Savage, Martijn Schaap, Paolo Tuccella, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15183–15199,Short summary
Particles in the atmosphere, such as pollution, desert dust, and volcanic ash, have an impact on meteorology. They interact with incoming radiation resulting in a cooling effect of the atmosphere. Today, the use of meteorology and chemistry models help us to understand these processes, but there are a lot of uncertainties. The goal of this work is to evaluate how these interactions are represented in the models by comparing them to satellite data to see how close they are to reality.
Nikos Benas, Jan Fokke Meirink, Karl-Göran Karlsson, Martin Stengel, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this study we analyse aerosol and cloud changes over South China and investigate their possible interactions. The results show decreasing aerosol loads and increasing liquid clouds. Further analysis of these changes based on various satellite data sets show consistency with the aerosol semi-direct effect, whereby less absorbing aerosols in the cloud layer would lead to an overall decrease in evaporation of cloud droplets, thus increasing cloud amount and cover.
Oliver Sus, Martin Stengel, Stefan Stapelberg, Gregory McGarragh, Caroline Poulsen, Adam C. Povey, Cornelia Schlundt, Gareth Thomas, Matthew Christensen, Simon Proud, Matthias Jerg, Roy Grainger, and Rainer Hollmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3373–3396,Short summary
This paper presents a new cloud detection and classification framework, CC4CL. It applies a sophisticated optimal estimation method to derive cloud variables from satellite data of various polar-orbiting platforms and sensors (AVHRR, MODIS, AATSR). CC4CL provides explicit uncertainty quantification and long-term consistency for decadal timeseries at various spatial resolutions. We analysed 5 case studies to show that cloud height estimates are very realistic unless optically thin clouds overlap.
Gregory R. McGarragh, Caroline A. Poulsen, Gareth E. Thomas, Adam C. Povey, Oliver Sus, Stefan Stapelberg, Cornelia Schlundt, Simon Proud, Matthew W. Christensen, Martin Stengel, Rainer Hollmann, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3397–3431,Short summary
Satellites are vital for measuring cloud properties necessary for climate prediction studies. We present a method to retrieve cloud properties from satellite based radiometric measurements. The methodology employed is known as optimal estimation and belongs in the class of statistical inversion methods based on Bayes' theorem. We show, through theoretical retrieval simulations, that the solution is stable and accurate to within 10–20% depending on cloud thickness.
Oliver Fuhrer, Tarun Chadha, Torsten Hoefler, Grzegorz Kwasniewski, Xavier Lapillonne, David Leutwyler, Daniel Lüthi, Carlos Osuna, Christoph Schär, Thomas C. Schulthess, and Hannes Vogt
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1665–1681,Short summary
The best hope for reducing long-standing uncertainties in climate projections is through increasing the horizontal resolution of climate models to the kilometer scale. We establish a baseline of what it would take to do such simulations using an atmospheric model that has been adapted to run on a supercomputer accelerated with graphics processing units. To our knowledge this represents the first production-ready atmospheric model being run entirely on accelerators on this scale.
Martin Stengel, Stefan Stapelberg, Oliver Sus, Cornelia Schlundt, Caroline Poulsen, Gareth Thomas, Matthew Christensen, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Rene Preusker, Jürgen Fischer, Abhay Devasthale, Ulrika Willén, Karl-Göran Karlsson, Gregory R. McGarragh, Simon Proud, Adam C. Povey, Roy G. Grainger, Jan Fokke Meirink, Artem Feofilov, Ralf Bennartz, Jedrzej S. Bojanowski, and Rainer Hollmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 881–904,Short summary
We present new cloud property datasets based on measurements from the passive imaging satellite sensors AVHRR, MODIS, ATSR2, AATSR and MERIS. Retrieval systems were developed that include cloud detection and cloud typing followed by optimal estimation retrievals of cloud properties (e.g. cloud-top pressure, effective radius, optical thickness, water path). Special features of all datasets are spectral consistency and rigorous uncertainty propagation from pixel-level data to monthly properties.
Nikos Benas, Stephan Finkensieper, Martin Stengel, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, Timo Hanschmann, Rainer Hollmann, and Jan Fokke Meirink
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 415–434,Short summary
This study focuses on an evaluation of CLAAS-2 (Cloud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2), which was created based on observations from geostationary Meteosat satellites. Using a variety of reference datasets, very good overall agreement is found. This suggests the usefulness of CLAAS-2 in applications ranging from high spatial and temporal resolution cloud process studies to the evaluation of regional climate models.
Sarah Taylor, Philip Stier, Bethan White, Stephan Finkensieper, and Martin Stengel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7035–7053,Short summary
Variability of convective cloud spans a wide range of temporal and spatial scales and is important for global weather and climate. This study uses satellite data from SEVIRI to quantify the diurnal cycle of cloud top temperatures over a large area. Results indicate that in some regions the diurnal cycle apparent in the observations may be significantly impacted by diurnal variability in the accuracy of the retrieval. These results may interest both the observation and modelling communities.
Karl-Göran Karlsson, Kati Anttila, Jörg Trentmann, Martin Stengel, Jan Fokke Meirink, Abhay Devasthale, Timo Hanschmann, Steffen Kothe, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Joseph Sedlar, Nikos Benas, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, Cornelia Schlundt, Diana Stein, Stefan Finkensieper, Nina Håkansson, and Rainer Hollmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5809–5828,Short summary
The paper presents the second version of a global climate data record based on satellite measurements from polar orbiting weather satellites. It describes the global evolution of cloudiness, surface albedo and surface radiation during the time period 1982–2015. The main improvements of algorithms are described together with some validation results. In addition, some early analysis is presented of some particularly interesting climate features (Arctic albedo and cloudiness + global cloudiness).
Ralf Bennartz, Heidrun Höschen, Bruno Picard, Marc Schröder, Martin Stengel, Oliver Sus, Bojan Bojkov, Stefano Casadio, Hannes Diedrich, Salomon Eliasson, Frank Fell, Jürgen Fischer, Rainer Hollmann, Rene Preusker, and Ulrika Willén
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1387–1402,Short summary
The microwave radiometers (MWR) on board ERS-1, ERS-2, and Envisat provide a continuous time series of brightness temperature observations between 1991 and 2012. Here we report on a new total column water vapour (TCWV) and wet tropospheric correction (WTC) dataset that builds on this time series. The dataset is publicly available under doi:10.5676/DWD_EMIR/V001.
David Leutwyler, Oliver Fuhrer, Xavier Lapillonne, Daniel Lüthi, and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3393–3412,Short summary
The representation of moist convection (thunderstorms and rain showers) in climate models represents a major challenge, as this process is usually approximated due to the lack of appropriate computational resolution. Climate simulations using horizontal resolution of O(1 km) allow one to explicitly resolve deep convection and thus allow for an improved representation of the water cycle. We present a set of such simulations covering the European scale using a climate model enabled for GPUs.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
R. Lindstrot, M. Stengel, M. Schröder, J. Fischer, R. Preusker, N. Schneider, T. Steenbergen, and B. R. Bojkov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 221–233,
M. Stengel, A. Kniffka, J. F. Meirink, M. Lockhoff, J. Tan, and R. Hollmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4297–4311,
A. Kniffka, M. Stengel, M. Lockhoff, R. Bennartz, and R. Hollmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 887–905,
K.-G. Karlsson, A. Riihelä, R. Müller, J. F. Meirink, J. Sedlar, M. Stengel, M. Lockhoff, J. Trentmann, F. Kaspar, R. Hollmann, and E. Wolters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5351–5367,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Cold cloud microphysical process rates in a global chemistry–climate modelPrecipitation enhancement in stratocumulus clouds through airborne seeding: sensitivity analysis by UCLALES-SALSASecondary ice production in summer clouds over the Antarctic coast: an underappreciated process in atmospheric modelsOpinion: Cloud-phase climate feedback and the importance of ice-nucleating particlesOn the ice-nucleating potential of warm hydrometeors in mixed-phase cloudsThe enhancement of droplet collision by electric charges and atmospheric electric fieldsCloud adjustments dominate the overall negative aerosol radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols in UKESM1 climate model simulations over the south-eastern AtlanticDependence of predictability of precipitation in the northwestern Mediterranean coastal region on the strength of synoptic controlThe decomposition of cloud–aerosol forcing in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1)Sensitivity of warm clouds to large particles in measured marine aerosol size distributions – a theoretical studyHectometric-scale simulations of a Mediterranean heavy-precipitation event during the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) first Special Observation Period (SOP1)Urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on sea-breeze circulation and convective precipitationShallow Cumulus Cloud Feedback in Large Eddy Simulations – Bridging the Gap to Storm Resolving ModelsSnow-induced buffering in aerosol–cloud interactionsEnvironmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 1: Selected thermodynamic conditionsEmploying airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations to improve cloud representation in ICON at kilometer-scale resolution in the ArcticCloud droplet diffusional growth in homogeneous isotropic turbulence: bin microphysics versus Lagrangian superdroplet simulationsAn idealized model sensitivity study on Dead Sea desertification with a focus on the impact on convectionModelling mixed-phase clouds with the large-eddy model UCLALES–SALSADevelopment of aerosol activation in the double-moment Unified Model and evaluation with CLARIFY measurementsSize dependence in chord characteristics from simulated and observed continental shallow cumulusImpact of aerosols and turbulence on cloud droplet growth: an in-cloud seeding case study using a parcel–DNS (direct numerical simulation) approachDiffusional growth of cloud droplets in homogeneous isotropic turbulence: DNS, scaled-up DNS, and stochastic modelDifferences in tropical high clouds among reanalyses: origins and radiative impactsThe importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic: A simulation study supported by observational dataThe behavior of high-CAPE summer convection in large-domain large-eddy simulations with ICONVertical redistribution of moisture and aerosol in orographic mixed-phase cloudsImproving the Southern Ocean cloud albedo biases in a general circulation modelSensitivity of mixed-phase moderately deep convective clouds to parameterisations of ice formation – An ensemble perspectiveEvaluation of Southern Ocean cloud in the HadGEM3 general circulation model and MERRA-2 reanalysis using ship-based observationsEnsemble daily simulations for elucidating cloud–aerosol interactions under a large spread of realistic environmental conditionsAerosol indirect effects on the temperature–precipitation scalingThe vertical structure and spatial variability of lower-tropospheric water vapor and clouds in the tradesDetection and attribution of aerosol–cloud interactions in large-domain large-eddy simulations with the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic modelTo what extents do urbanization and air pollution affect fog?Impacts of Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations on Simulated Aerosol–Cloud-Interactions for Deep Convective Clouds over HoustonThe effects of cloud–aerosol interaction complexity on simulations of presummer rainfall over southern ChinaGlobal response of parameterised convective cloud fields to anthropogenic aerosol forcingAtmospheric energy budget response to idealized aerosol perturbation in tropical cloud systemsUntangling causality in midlatitude aerosol–cloud adjustmentsTechnical note: Fundamental aspects of ice nucleation via pore condensation and freezing including Laplace pressure and growth into macroscopic iceThe relationship between low-level cloud amount and its proxies over the globe by cloud typeImpact of poleward heat and moisture transports on Arctic clouds and climate simulationImpact of resolution on large-eddy simulation of midlatitude summertime convectionThe diurnal stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition over land in southern West AfricaThe impacts of biomass burning activities on convective systems over the Maritime ContinentTechnical note: Deep learning for creating surrogate models of precipitation in Earth system modelsComparing the impact of environmental conditions and microphysics on the forecast uncertainty of deep convective clouds and hailEvaluation of aerosol and cloud properties in three climate models using MODIS observations and its corresponding COSP simulator, as well as their application in aerosol–cloud interactionsThe challenge of simulating the sensitivity of the Amazonian cloud microstructure to cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Odran Sourdeval, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1485–1505,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of the rates of both microphysical processes and unphysical correction terms that act as sources or sinks of ice crystals in cold clouds. By means of numerical simulations performed with a global chemistry–climate model, we assess the relevance of these rates at global and regional scales. This estimation is of fundamental importance to assign priority to the development of microphysics parameterizations and compare model output with observations.
Juha Tonttila, Ali Afzalifar, Harri Kokkola, Tomi Raatikainen, Hannele Korhonen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1035–1048,Short summary
The focus of this study is on rain enhancement by deliberate injection of small particles into clouds (
cloud seeding). The particles, usually released from an aircraft, are expected to enhance cloud droplet growth, but its practical feasibility is somewhat uncertain. To improve upon this, we simulate the seeding effects with a numerical model. The model reproduces the main features seen in field observations, with a strong sensitivity to the total mass of the injected particle material.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Gillian Young, Hugh Morrison, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 755–771,Short summary
Summer clouds have a significant impact on the radiation budget of the Antarctic surface and thus on ice-shelf melting. However, these are poorly represented in climate models due to errors in their microphysical structure, including the number of ice crystals that they contain. We show that breakup from ice particle collisions can substantially magnify the ice crystal number concentration with significant implications for surface radiation. This process is currently missing in climate models.
Benjamin J. Murray, Kenneth S. Carslaw, and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 665–679,Short summary
The balance between the amounts of ice and supercooled water in clouds over the world's oceans strongly influences how much these clouds can dampen or amplify global warming. Aerosol particles which catalyse ice formation can dramatically reduce the amount of supercooled water in clouds; hence we argue that we need a concerted effort to improve our understanding of these ice-nucleating particles if we are to improve our predictions of climate change.
Michael Krayer, Agathe Chouippe, Markus Uhlmann, Jan Dušek, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 561–575,Short summary
We address the phenomenon of ice enhancement in the vicinity of warm hydrometeors using highly accurate flow simulation techniques. It is found that the transiently supersaturated zones induced by the hydrometeor's wake are by far larger than what has been previously estimated. The ice enhancement is quantified on the micro- and macroscale, and its relevance is discussed. The results provided may contribute to a (currently unavailable) parametrization of the phenomenon.
Shian Guo and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 69–85,Short summary
Observations in previous studies show that cloud droplets carry electric charges. We are curious about whether the electric interaction enhances the collision of cloud droplets. The effect of the electric charge and atmospheric electric field on the raindrop-formation process is studied numerically. Results indicate that a cloud with a small droplet size is more sensitive to an electric charge and field, which could significantly trigger droplet collision and accelerate raindrop formation.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Hamish Gordon, Duncan Watson-Parris, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17–33,Short summary
The south-eastern Atlantic is semi-permanently covered by some of the largest stratocumulus clouds and is influenced by one-third of the biomass burning emissions from African fires. A UKEMS1 model simulation shows that the absorption effect of biomass burning aerosols is the most significant on clouds and radiation. The dominate cooling and rapid adjustments induced by the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols result in an overall cooling in the south-eastern Atlantic.
Christian Keil, Lucie Chabert, Olivier Nuissier, and Laure Raynaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15851–15865,Short summary
During strong synoptic control, which dominates the weather on 80 % of the days in the 2-month HyMeX-SOP1 period, the domain-integrated precipitation predictability assessed with the normalized ensemble standard deviation is above average, the wet bias is smaller and the forecast quality is generally better. In contrast, the spatial forecast quality of the most intense precipitation in the afternoon, as quantified with its 95th percentile, is superior during weakly forced synoptic regimes.
Daniel P. Grosvenor and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15681–15724,Short summary
Particles arising from human activity interact with clouds and affect how much of the Sun's energy is reflected away. Lack of understanding about how to represent this in models leads to large uncertainties in climate predictions. We quantify cloud responses to particles in the latest UK Met Office climate model over the North Atlantic Ocean, showing that, in contrast to suggestions elsewhere, increases in cloud coverage and thickness are important over large areas.
Tom Dror, J. Michel Flores, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, Zev Levin, Assaf Vardi, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15297–15306,Short summary
We used in situ aerosol measurements over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific to initialize a cloud model and study the impact of aerosol concentration and sizes on warm clouds. We show that high aerosol concentration increases cloud mass and reduces surface rain when giant particles (diameter > 9 µm) are present. The large aerosols changed the timing and magnitude of internal cloud processes and resulted in an enhanced evaporation below cloud base and dramatically reduced surface rain.
Olivier Nuissier, Fanny Duffourg, Maxime Martinet, Véronique Ducrocq, and Christine Lac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14649–14667,Short summary
This present article demonstrates how numerical simulations with very high horizontal resolution (150 m) can contribute to better understanding the key physical processes (turbulence and microphysics) that lead to Mediterranean heavy precipitation.
Jiwen Fan, Yuwei Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Jiaxi Hu, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14163–14182,Short summary
We investigate the urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation over Houston. We find that Houston urbanization notably enhances storm intensity and precipitation, with the anthropogenic aerosol effect more significant. Urban land effect strengthens sea-breeze circulation, leading to a faster development of warm cloud into mixed-phase cloud and earlier rain. The anthropogenic aerosol effect accelerates the development of storms into deep convection.
Jule Radtke, Thorsten Mauritsen, and Cathy Hohenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Shallow trade wind clouds are a key source of uncertainty to projections of the Earth's changing climate. We perform high resolution simulations of trade cumulus and investigate how the representation and climate feedback of these clouds depends on the specific grid spacing. We find that the cloud feedback is positive when simulated with kilometer but near zero when simulated with hectometer grid spacing. These findings suggest that storm resolving models may exaggerate the trade cloud feedback.
Takuro Michibata, Kentaroh Suzuki, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13771–13780,Short summary
This work reveals that prognostic precipitation significantly reduces the magnitude of aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci), mainly due to the collection process associated with snowflakes and underlying cloud droplets. This precipitation-driven buffering effect, which is missing in traditional GCMs, can explain the model–observation discrepancy in ERFaci. These results underscore the necessity for a prognostic precipitation framework in GCMs for more reliable climate simulations.
Sonja Drueke, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, and Pavlos Kollias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13217–13239,Short summary
This numerical study provides insights into selected environmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution. Among the parameters under consideration, the dilution of the cloud cores is strongly sensitive to continentality and cloud-layer relative humidity and weakly sensitive to subcloud- and cloud-layer depths. The impacts of all four parameters are interpreted using a similarity theory of shallow cumulus and buoyancy-sorting arguments.
Jan Kretzschmar, Johannes Stapf, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Wendisch, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13145–13165,Short summary
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Wojciech W. Grabowski and Lois Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper presents a modeling study that investigates the impact of cloud turbulence on the diffusional growth of cloud droplets and compares modeling results to analytic solutions published in the past. The focus is on comparing the two microphysics modeling methodologies, the Eulerian bin microphysics and Lagrangian particle-based microphysics, and exposing their limitations.
Samiro Khodayar and Johannes Hoerner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12011–12031,
Jaakko Ahola, Hannele Korhonen, Juha Tonttila, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11639–11654,Short summary
In this study, we present an improved cloud model that reproduces the behaviour of mixed-phase clouds containing liquid droplets and ice crystals in more detail than before. This model is a convenient computational tool that enables the study of phenomena that cannot fit into a laboratory. These clouds have a significant role in climate, but they are not yet properly understood. Here, we show the advantages of the new model in a case study focusing on Arctic mixed-phase clouds.
Hamish Gordon, Paul R. Field, Steven J. Abel, Paul Barrett, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Adrian A. Hill, Jonathan Taylor, Jonathan Wilkinson, Huihui Wu, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10997–11024,Short summary
The Met Office's Unified Model is widely used both for weather forecasting and climate prediction. We present the first version of the model in which both aerosol and cloud particle mass and number concentrations are allowed to evolve separately and independently, which is important for studying how aerosols affect weather and climate. We test the model against aircraft observations near Ascension Island in the Atlantic, focusing on how aerosols can "activate" to become cloud droplets.
Philipp J. Griewank, Thijs Heus, Neil P. Lareau, and Roel A. J. Neggers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10211–10230,Short summary
The idea that larger shallow cumulus clouds have stronger updrafts than small shallow cumulus clouds is as intuitive as it is old. In this paper we gather years of upward-pointing laser measurements from a plain in Oklahoma and combine them with 28 d of high-resolution simulations. Our approach, which has much more data than previous studies, confirms that updraft strength and cloud size are linked and that the simulations reproduce the observed cloud wind and moisture structure.
Sisi Chen, Lulin Xue, and Man-Kong Yau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10111–10124,Short summary
This study employs a parcel–DNS (direct numerical simulation) modeling framework to accurately resolve the aerosol–droplet–turbulence interactions in an ascending air parcel. The effect of turbulence, aerosol hygroscopicity, and aerosol mass loading on droplet growth and rain formation is investigated through a series of in-cloud seeding experiments in which hygroscopic particles were seeded near the cloud base.
Lois Thomas, Wojciech W. Grabowski, and Bipin Kumar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9087–9100,Short summary
This work presents an extension of a classical small-scale modeling approach, direct numerical simulation (DNS), to large computational volumes, tens and hundreds of meters on the side. Diffusional growth of cloud droplets is more significantly affected by large scales of turbulent motions because vertical velocity perturbations associated with those scales result in larger and longer-lasting supersaturation perturbations that affect the spread of the droplet spectrum.
Jonathon S. Wright, Xiaoyi Sun, Paul Konopka, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Andrea M. Molod, Susann Tegtmeier, Guang J. Zhang, and Xi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8989–9030,Short summary
High clouds are influential in tropical climate. Although reanalysis cloud fields are essentially model products, they are indirectly constrained by observations and offer global coverage with direct links to advanced water and energy cycle metrics, giving them many useful applications. We describe how high cloud fields are generated in reanalyses, assess their realism and reliability in the tropics, and evaluate how differences in these fields affect other aspects of the reanalysis state.
Ines Bulatovic, Adele L. Igel, Caroline Leck, Jost Heintzenberg, Ilona Riipinen, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use detailed numerical modelling to show that small aerosol particles (diameters ~ 25–80 nm, so-called Aitken mode particles) significantly influence low-level cloud properties in the clean summertime high Arctic. The small particles can help sustain clouds when the concentration of larger particles is low (< 10–20 cm−3). Measurements from four different observational campaigns in the high Arctic support the modelling results as they indicate that Aitken mode aerosols are frequently activated.
Harald Rybka, Ulrike Burkhardt, Martin Köhler, Ioanna Arka, Luca Bugliaro, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ákos Horváth, Catrin I. Meyer, Jens Reichardt, Axel Seifert, and Johan Strandgren
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Current state of the art regional numerical weather prediction models employ kilometre scale horizontal grid resolutions, thereby still parametrizing convection. In this study, we use a high-resolution model to study summertime convection comparing to different ground and satellite based observational data sets. The results suggest a very close agreement to observations regarding timing, geometrical structure and cloud ice water path, supplying information for parametrization development.
Annette K. Miltenberger, Paul R. Field, Adrian H. Hill, and Andrew J. Heymsfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7979–8001,Short summary
Orographic wave clouds offer a natural laboratory to investigate cloud microphysical processes and their representation in atmospheric models. They impact the larger-scale flow by a vertical redistribution of moisture and aerosol. We use detailed observations from the ICE-L campaign to evaluate the representation of these clouds in a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model and explore the impact of environmental conditions on the vertical redistribution of moisture.
Vidya Varma, Olaf Morgenstern, Paul Field, Kalli Furtado, Jonny Williams, and Patrick Hyder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7741–7751,Short summary
The present generation of global climate models has an insufficiently reflected short-wave radiation, especially over the Southern Ocean. This leads to an excessive heating of the ocean surface in the model, creating sea surface temperature biases and subsequent problems with atmospheric dynamics. Misrepresentation of clouds could be attributed to this radiation bias; we try to address this issue by slowing the growth rate of ice crystals and improving the supercooled liquid clouds in the model.
Annette K. Miltenberger and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Simon P. Alexander, John J. Cassano, Sally Garrett, Jamie Halla, Sean Hartery, Mike J. Harvey, Simon Parsons, Graeme Plank, Vidya Varma, and Jonny Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6607–6630,Short summary
We evaluate clouds over the Southern Ocean in the climate model HadGEM3 and reanalysis MERRA-2 using ship-based ceilometer and radiosonde observations. We find the models underestimate cloud cover by 18–25 %, with clouds below 2 km dominant in reality but lacking in the models. We find a strong link between clouds, atmospheric stability and sea surface temperature in observations but not in the models, implying that sub-grid processes do not generate enough cloud in response to these conditions.
Guy Dagan and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6291–6303,Short summary
Ensemble daily simulations for two separate month-long periods over a region near Barbados were conducted to investigate aerosol effects on cloud properties and the atmospheric energy budget. For each day, two simulations were conducted with low and high cloud droplet number concentrations representing clean and polluted conditions, respectively. These simulations are used to distinguish between properties that are robustly affected by changes in aerosol concentrations and those that are not.
Nicolas Da Silva, Sylvain Mailler, and Philippe Drobinski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6207–6223,Short summary
Microphysical effects of aerosols were found to weaken precipitation in a Euro-Mediterranean area. The present numerical study quantifies the processes that may be involved through the use of the temperature–precipitation relationship. It shows larger aerosol effects at low temperatures. At these temperatures, the process that contributes most is the increase in atmospheric stability through an enhanced aerosol cooling effect in the lower troposphere compared to the upper troposphere.
Ann Kristin Naumann and Christoph Kiemle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6129–6145,Short summary
The interaction of water vapor and cloudiness poses challenges for weather and climate models. In this study we compare airborne lidar measurements from two field campaigns in the tropical Atlantic with high-resolution simulations. We find that at kilometer-scale grid spacing, the simulations show good skill in reproducing the water vapor distribution in the trades but struggle to capture the transition from cloud-free to low cloud fraction with increasing moisture.
Montserrat Costa-Surós, Odran Sourdeval, Claudia Acquistapace, Holger Baars, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Christa Genz, Jonas Hesemann, Cristofer Jimenez, Marcel König, Jan Kretzschmar, Nils Madenach, Catrin I. Meyer, Roland Schrödner, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, Matthias Brueck, Guido Cioni, Jan Frederik Engels, Kerstin Fieg, Ksenia Gorges, Rieke Heinze, Pavan Kumar Siligam, Ulrike Burkhardt, Susanne Crewell, Corinna Hoose, Axel Seifert, Ina Tegen, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5657–5678,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is a key uncertainty in climate change. This study analyses large-domain simulations with a new high-resolution model to investigate the differences in clouds between 1985 and 2013 comparing multiple observational datasets. The differences in aerosol and in cloud droplet concentrations are clearly detectable. For other quantities, the detection and attribution proved difficult, despite a substantial impact on the Earth's energy budget.
Shuqi Yan, Bin Zhu, Yong Huang, Jun Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Chunsong Lu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5559–5572,Short summary
The development of China has caused rapid urbanization and severe air pollution. However, the extent of their individual and combined effects on fog is not well understood. Through numerical experiments, we find that urbanization suppresses low-level fog but probably promotes upper-level fog. Additional aerosols generally promote fog. Urbanization affects fog to a much larger extent than aerosols do.
Yuwei Zhang, Jiwen Fan, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds (DCCs) and precipitation are investigated using both the Morrison bulk and spectral-bin microphysics (SBM) schemes. With the SBM scheme, anthropogenic aerosols notably invigorate convective intensity and precipitation, making the simulated DCCs agreeing better with observations whereas such effect is absent with Morrison, mainly due to limitations of the saturation adjustment approach for droplet condensation and evaporation.
Kalli Furtado, Paul Field, Yali Luo, Tianjun Zhou, and Adrian Hill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5093–5110,Short summary
By combining observations with simulations from a weather forecasting model, new insights are obtained into extreme rainfall processes. We use a model which includes the effects of aerosols on clouds in a fully consistent way. This greater complexity improves realism but raises the computational cost. We address the cost–benefit relationship of this and show that cloud–aerosol interactions have important, measurable benefits for simulating climate extremes.
Zak Kipling, Laurent Labbouz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4445–4460,
Guy Dagan, Philip Stier, Matthew Christensen, Guido Cioni, Daniel Klocke, and Axel Seifert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4523–4544,Short summary
In order to better understand the physical processes behind aerosol effects on the atmospheric energy budget, we analyse numerical simulations of tropical cloud systems. Two sets of simulations, at different dates during the NARVAL 2 field campaign, are simulated with different dominant cloud modes. Our results demonstrate that under different environmental conditions, the response of the atmospheric energy budget to aerosol perturbation could be different.
Daniel T. McCoy, Paul Field, Hamish Gordon, Gregory S. Elsaesser, and Daniel P. Grosvenor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4085–4103,Short summary
Incomplete understanding of how aerosol affects clouds degrades our ability to predict future climate. In particular, it is unclear how aerosol affects the lifetime of clouds. Does it increase or decrease it? This confusion is partially because causality flows from aerosol to clouds and clouds to aerosol, and it is hard to tell what is happening in observations. Here, we use simulations to tell us about how clouds affect aerosol and use this to interpret observations, showing increased lifetime.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3209–3230,Short summary
Pore condensation and freezing (PCF) is an ice nucleation mechanism explaining ice formation at low ice supersaturation. It is assumed that liquid water condenses in pores of solid aerosol particles below water saturation followed by ice nucleation within the pores. This study discusses conditions of pore filling, homogeneous ice nucleation within the volume of porewater, and growth of ice out of the pores, taking the effect of negative pressure within pores below water saturation into account.
Jihoon Shin and Sungsu Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3041–3060,Short summary
In this work, we show that the previously identified strong spatiotemporal correlation relationship between the low-level cloud amount (LCA) and its large-scale environmental proxy, the estimated low-level cloud fraction (ELF), holds for various low-level cloud types over the globe rather than for a specific cloud type. However, we also identify several weaknesses of the ELF and suggest a potential pathway to further improve it in the future as a global proxy for LCA.
Eun-Hyuk Baek, Joo-Hong Kim, Sungsu Park, Baek-Min Kim, and Jee-Hoon Jeong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2953–2966,Short summary
Many general circulation models (GCMs) have difficulty simulating Arctic clouds and climate, causing substantial inter-model spread. By analyzing various model simulation results, we found that the association between the enhanced poleward transports of heat and moisture and an increase in liquid clouds over the Arctic is evident in GCMs. Our study demonstrates that enhanced poleward heat and moisture transport in a model can improve simulations of Arctic clouds and climate.
Christopher Moseley, Ieda Pscheidt, Guido Cioni, and Rieke Heinze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2891–2910,Short summary
In this paper, we analyze a climate simulation over Germany of a continuous period in May and June 2016, with resolutions of 600 m, 300 m, and 150 m. This resolution is high enough that strong convective rain events like rain showers and thunderstorms are sufficiently resolved. Our analysis shows that the tendency of convection to organize is improved at higher resolution and that the highest-resolution simulation is closest to weather radar data.
Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Stephan R. de Roode, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Norbert Kalthoff, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2735–2754,Short summary
Using a high-resolution model we simulate the transition from night to day clouds on southern West Africa using observations from the DACCIWA project. We find that the radiative effects of clouds help mantain a thick cloud layer in the night, while the mixing of cloud air with air above during the day, aided by moisture and heat fluxes at the surface, thins this layer and promotes its transition to other clouds. The effect of changing wind with height accelerates the transition.
Hsiang-He Lee and Chien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2533–2548,Short summary
This study has demonstrated how biomass burning activities could affect convective systems in the Maritime Continent by altering cloud microphysics and dynamics. Because near-surface heating from the absorption of fire aerosols can enhance the prevailing wind from the ocean during the daytime and further weaken land breeze and surface convergence at nighttime, it changes the diurnal rainfall intensity, especially those low-level wind patterns associated with the weak westerly (WW) regime.
Theodore Weber, Austin Corotan, Brian Hutchinson, Ben Kravitz, and Robert Link
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2303–2317,Short summary
Climate model emulators can save computer time but are less accurate than full climate models. We use neural networks to build emulators of precipitation, trained on existing climate model runs. By doing so, we can capture nonlinearities and how the past state of a model (to some degree) shapes the future state. Our emulator outperforms a persistence forecast of precipitation.
Constanze Wellmann, Andrew I. Barrett, Jill S. Johnson, Michael Kunz, Bernhard Vogel, Ken S. Carslaw, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2201–2219,Short summary
Severe hailstorms may cause damage to buildings and crops. Thus, the forecast of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models should be as reliable as possible. Using statistical emulation, we identify those model input parameters describing environmental conditions and cloud microphysics which lead to large uncertainties in the prediction of deep convection. We find that the impact of the input parameters on the uncertainty depends on the considered output variable.
Giulia Saponaro, Moa K. Sporre, David Neubauer, Harri Kokkola, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Inger H. H. Karset, Ari Laaksonen, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1607–1626,Short summary
The understanding of cloud processes is based on the quality of the representation of cloud properties. We compared cloud parameters from three models with satellite observations. We report on the performance of each data source, highlighting strengths and deficiencies, which should be considered when deriving the effect of aerosols on cloud properties.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
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Deep convection is often associated with thunderstorms and heavy rain events. In this study, the sensitivity of Alpine deep convective events to environmental parameters and climate warming is investigated. To this end, simulations are conducted at resolutions of 12 and 2 km. The results show that the climate change signal strongly depends upon the horizontal resolution. In particular, significant differences are found in terms of the radiative feedbacks.
Deep convection is often associated with thunderstorms and heavy rain events. In this study, the...