Articles | Volume 18, issue 16
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The diverse chemical mixing state of aerosol particles in the southeastern United States
Amy L. Bondy
Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
Ryan C. Moffet
Department of Chemistry, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211, USA
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA
present address: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA
present address: Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Rachel M. Kirpes, Amy L. Bondy, Daniel Bonanno, Ryan C. Moffet, Bingbing Wang, Alexander Laskin, Andrew P. Ault, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3937–3949,Short summary
Arctic atmospheric particles have important climate impacts via cloud formation and precipitation, particularly in the wintertime. We show that sulfate, formed during atmospheric transport, is within individual sea spray particles and organic particles measured in the Alaskan Arctic. Greater contributions of combustion emissions were observed when the wind direction came from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields, showing its regional influence.
Feng Jiang, Kyla Siemens, Claudia Linke, Yanxia Li, Yiwei Gong, Thomas Leisner, Alexander Laskin, and Harald Saathoff
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
We investigated the optical properties, chemical composition, and formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and brown carbon (BrC) from the oxidation of indole with/without NO2 in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) simulation chamber. This work is one of the very few to link the optical properties and chemical composition of indole SOA with/without NO2 by simulation chamber experiments.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Haley M. Royer, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ovid Krüger, Edmund Blades, Peter Sealy, Nurun Nahar Lata, Zezhen Cheng, Swarup China, Andrew P. Ault, Patricia K. Quinn, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat Andreae, and Cassandra J. Gaston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 981–998,Short summary
This paper presents atmospheric particle chemical composition and measurements of aerosol water uptake properties collected at Ragged Point, Barbados, during the winter of 2020. The result of this study indicates the importance of small African smoke particles for cloud droplet formation in the tropical North Atlantic and highlights the large spatial and temporal pervasiveness of smoke over the Atlantic Ocean.
Qianjie Chen, Jessica A. Mirrielees, Sham Thanekar, Nicole A. Loeb, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia M. Upchurch, Anna J. Barget, Nurun Nahar Lata, Angela R. W. Raso, Stephen M. McNamara, Swarup China, Patricia K. Quinn, Andrew P. Ault, Aaron Kennedy, Paul B. Shepson, Jose D. Fuentes, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15263–15285,Short summary
During a spring field campaign in the coastal Arctic, ultrafine particles were enhanced during high wind speeds, and coarse-mode particles were reduced during blowing snow. Calculated periods blowing snow were overpredicted compared to observations. Sea spray aerosols produced by sea ice leads affected the composition of aerosols and snowpack. An improved understanding of aerosol emissions from leads and blowing snow is critical for predicting the future climate of the rapidly warming Arctic.
Daniel A. Knopf, Joseph C. Charnawskas, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Matthew Fraund, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Mary K. Gilles, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, Shira Raveh-Rubin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5377–5398,Short summary
Marine boundary layer aerosols collected in the remote region of the eastern North Atlantic induce immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation under typical mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions. Corresponding ice nucleation parameterizations for model applications have been derived. Chemical imaging of ambient aerosol and ice-nucleating particles demonstrates that the latter is dominated by sea salt and organics while also representing a major particle type in the particle population.
Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Peiwen Wang, Matthew Fraund, Johannes Weis, Guangjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Felipe Rivera-Adorno, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Daniel A. Knopf, Jian Wang, Mary K. Gilles, Ryan C. Moffet, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18123–18146,Short summary
Analysis of individual atmospheric particles shows that aerosol transported from North America during meteorological dry intrusion episodes may have a substantial impact on the mixing state and particle-type population over the mid-Atlantic, as organic contribution and particle-type diversity are significantly enhanced during these periods. These observations need to be considered in current atmospheric models.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
Matthew Fraund, Daniel J. Bonanno, Swarup China, Don Q. Pham, Daniel Veghte, Johannes Weis, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ken Teske, Mary K. Gilles, Alexander Laskin, and Ryan C. Moffet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11593–11606,Short summary
High viscosity organic particles (HVOPs) in the Southern Great Plains have been analyzed, and two particle types were found. Previously studied tar balls and the recently discovered airborne soil organic particles (ASOPs) are both shown to be brown carbon (BrC). These particle types can be identified in bulk by an absorption Ångström exponent approaching 2.6. HVOP types can be differentiated by comparing carbon absorption spectrum peak ratios between the carboxylic acid, alcohol, and sp2 peaks.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Lauren T. Fleming, Peng Lin, James M. Roberts, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1105–1129,Short summary
We have explored the nature and stability of molecules that give biomass burning smoke its faint brown color. Different types of biomass fuels were burned and the resulting smoke was collected for a detailed chemical analysis. We found that brown molecules in smoke become less colored when they are irradiated by sunlight, but this photobleaching process is very slow. This means that biomass burning smoke will remain brown-colored for a long time and efficiently warm up the atmosphere.
Mijung Song, Adrian M. Maclean, Yuanzhou Huang, Natalie R. Smith, Sandra L. Blair, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12515–12529,
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Matthew Fraund, Tim Park, Lin Yao, Daniel Bonanno, Don Q. Pham, and Ryan C. Moffet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1619–1633,Short summary
Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is a powerful tool which is able to determine the elemental and functional composition of aerosols on a subparticle level. The current work validates the use of STXM for quantitatively calculating the organic volume fraction of individual aerosols by applying the calculation to lab-prepared samples. The caveats and limitations for this calculation are shown as well.
Victoria E. Irish, Sarah J. Hanna, Megan D. Willis, Swarup China, Jennie L. Thomas, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Ana Cirisan, Meng Si, W. Richard Leaitch, Jennifer G. Murphy, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Alexander Laskin, Eric Girard, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1027–1039,Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are atmospheric particles that catalyse the formation of ice crystals in clouds. INPs influence the Earth's radiative balance and hydrological cycle. In this study we measured the concentrations of INPs in the Canadian Arctic marine boundary layer. Average INP concentrations fell within the range measured in other marine boundary layer locations. We also found that mineral dust is a more important contributor to the INP population than sea spray aerosol.
Chunlin Li, Quanfu He, Julian Schade, Johannes Passig, Ralf Zimmermann, Daphne Meidan, Alexander Laskin, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 139–163,
Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Peng Lin, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Allan K. Bertram, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6331–6351,Short summary
The phase transition of organic particles between glassy and semi-solid states occurs at the glass transition temperature. We developed a method to predict glass transition temperatures and the viscosity of secondary organic aerosols using molecular composition, with consistent results with viscosity measurements. The viscosity of biomass burning particles was also estimated using the chemical composition measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques.
Rachel M. Kirpes, Amy L. Bondy, Daniel Bonanno, Ryan C. Moffet, Bingbing Wang, Alexander Laskin, Andrew P. Ault, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3937–3949,Short summary
Arctic atmospheric particles have important climate impacts via cloud formation and precipitation, particularly in the wintertime. We show that sulfate, formed during atmospheric transport, is within individual sea spray particles and organic particles measured in the Alaskan Arctic. Greater contributions of combustion emissions were observed when the wind direction came from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields, showing its regional influence.
Matthew J. Gunsch, Nathaniel W. May, Miao Wen, Courtney L. H. Bottenus, Daniel J. Gardner, Timothy M. VanReken, Steven B. Bertman, Philip K. Hopke, Andrew P. Ault, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3701–3715,Short summary
During summer 2014, atmospheric particulate matter in northern Michigan was impacted by wildfire emissions under all air mass conditions (Canadian wildfires, US urban, and Canadian forest influences). Biomass burning particles coated with secondary organic aerosol contributed the majority of the submicron aerosol mass. Given increasing wildfires, the impacts of biomass burning on air quality must be assessed, particularly for downwind areas impacted by long-range transport.
Lauren T. Fleming, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Robert Weltman, Rufus D. Edwards, Narendra K. Arora, Ankit Yadav, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Ajay Pillarisetti, Kirk R. Smith, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2461–2480,Short summary
Household cooking emissions in India, which rely on traditional meal preparation with dung- and brushwood-fueled cookstoves, produce copious amounts of particulate matter. Detailed chemical analysis of the compounds found in this particulate matter detected a large number of previously unidentified nitrogen-containing organic compounds, originating from dung-fueled cookstoves.
Mallory L. Hinks, Julia Montoya-Aguilera, Lucas Ellison, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Manabu Shiraiwa, Donald Dabdub, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1643–1652,Short summary
We have observed a strong effect of relative humidity on the composition of particulate matter produced from the oxidation of toluene in clean air. At higher relative humidity, there was a significant reduction in the fraction of high-molecular-weight compounds present in the particles. The amount of particulate matter also decreased at higher relative humidity. The main implication of this study is that water vapor participates in the photooxidation of toluene in a complicated way.
Ryan D. Cook, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Zhuoyu Peng, Eric Boone, Rosalie K. Chu, James E. Dukett, Matthew J. Gunsch, Wuliang Zhang, Nikola Tolic, Alexander Laskin, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15167–15180,Short summary
Reactions occur within water in both atmospheric particles and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the organic compounds in cloud water. In this work, cloud water samples were collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, and analyzed using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of the dissolved organic compounds. The results focus on changes in cloud water composition with air mass origin – influences of forest, urban, and wildfire emissions.
Julia Montoya-Aguilera, Jeremy R. Horne, Mallory L. Hinks, Lauren T. Fleming, Véronique Perraud, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Donald Dabdub, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11605–11621,Short summary
Various plant species emit a chemical compound called indole under stressed conditions or during flowering events. Our experiments show that indole can be oxidized in the atmosphere to produce a brownish haze containing well-known indole-derived dyes, such as indigo dye. An airshed model that includes indole chemistry shows that indole aerosol makes a significant contribution to the total aerosol burden and to visibility.
Yevgeny Derimian, Marie Choël, Yinon Rudich, Karine Deboudt, Oleg Dubovik, Alexander Laskin, Michel Legrand, Bahaiddin Damiri, Ilan Koren, Florin Unga, Myriam Moreau, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Arnon Karnieli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11331–11353,Short summary
We present influence of daily occurrence of the sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea on physicochemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel. Sampled airborne dust was found be internally mixed with sea-salt particles and reacted with anthropogenic pollution, which makes the dust highly hygroscopic and a liquid coating of particles appears. These physicochemical transformations are associated with a change in aerosol radiative properties.
Matthew J. Gunsch, Rachel M. Kirpes, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Tate E. Barrett, Swarup China, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Alexander Laskin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Thomas Tuch, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10879–10892,Short summary
Arctic sea ice loss is leading to increasing petroleum extraction and shipping. It is necessary to identify emissions from these activities for improved Arctic air quality and climate assessment. Atmospheric particles were measured from August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik, AK. For periods influenced by Prudhoe Bay, significant influence associated with combustion emissions was observed, compared to fresh sea spray influence during Arctic Ocean periods.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Ryan C. Moffet, Rachel E. O'Brien, Peter A. Alpert, Stephen T. Kelly, Don Q. Pham, Mary K. Gilles, Daniel A. Knopf, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14515–14525,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC), commonly known as soot, is an important constituent of the earth that imparts a warming similar to that of carbon dioxide. However, BC is much shorter lived and has uncertain warming due to its mixture with other solid and liquid components. Here, advanced microscopic methods have provided a detailed look at thousands of BC particles sampled from central California; these measurements will lead towards a better understanding of the effects that BC has on climate.
Jiumeng Liu, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Shawn M. Kathmann, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Felisha Imholt, Vanessa Selimovic, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12815–12827,Short summary
Light absorbing organic aerosols (BrC) absorb sunlight thereby influencing climate; however, understanding of the link between their optical properties and environmental variables remains limited. Our chamber experiment results suggest that variables including NOx concentration, RH level, and photolysis time have considerable influence on secondary BrC optical properties. The results contribute to a more accurate characterization of the impacts of aerosols on climate, especially in urban areas.
Nathaniel W. May, Jessica L. Axson, Alexa Watson, Kerri A. Pratt, and Andrew P. Ault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4311–4325,Short summary
Aerosols are generated every time a wave breaks, as bubbles are formed that rise to the surface and burst. A great deal is known about sea spray aerosol from oceans, but very little is known about particles formed from freshwater, such as lakes and rivers. This study determines how "lake spray aerosol" is formed, which leads to distinctly different sizes and chemical composition from sea spray aerosol. These differences impact climate, weather, and human health near bodies of freshwater.
Lu Yu, Jeremy Smith, Alexander Laskin, Katheryn M. George, Cort Anastasio, Julia Laskin, Ann M. Dillner, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4511–4527,Short summary
The chemical evolution of SOA formed during aqueous reactions of phenolic compounds is studied via combined bulk and molecular analysis. Phenolic SOA evolve dynamically during photochemical aging, with different reaction mechanisms (oligomerization, fragmentation, and functionalization) leading to different generations of products that span an enormous range in volatilities and a large range in oxidation state and composition. Aqueous reactions of phenols are likely an important source of ELVOC.
H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, B. R. Ayres, A. Ault, A. Bondy, S. Takahama, R. L. Modini, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, C. Knote, A. Laskin, B. Wang, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685,Short summary
We report ion chromatographic measurements of gas- and aerosol-phase inorganic species at the SOAS 2013 field study. Our particular focus is on inorganic nitrate aerosol formation via HNO3 uptake onto coarse-mode dust and sea salt particles, which we find to be the dominant source of episodic inorganic nitrate at this site, due to the high acidity of the particles preventing formation of NH4NO3. We calculate a production rate of inorganic nitrate aerosol.
J. M. Creamean, A. P. Ault, A. B. White, P. J. Neiman, F. M. Ralph, P. Minnis, and K. A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6535–6548,Short summary
Aerosols impact how clouds and precipitation form. In the California Sierra Nevada, we found that the formation and resulting amount of rain and snow were impacted by mineral dust, bioparticles such as bacteria, and biomass burning and pollution particles during three winter seasons. Dust and bioparticles from distant sources impacted high-altitude clouds by forming ice, leading to more precipitation, whereas local biomass burning and pollution entered the base of clouds, leading to less rain.
R. C. Moffet, T. C. Rödel, S. T. Kelly, X. Y. Yu, G. T. Carroll, J. Fast, R. A. Zaveri, A. Laskin, and M. K. Gilles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10445–10459,
Related subject area
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Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel Moreno R., Noemi Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, Radovan Krejci, Vladislav Chrastny, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10325–10347,Short summary
La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. The sources of particulate matter (PM) in this conurbation were not previously investigated. This study identified 11 main sources of PM, of which dust and vehicular emissions stand out as the main ones. The influence of regional biomass combustion and local waste combustion was also observed, with the latter being a major source of hazardous compounds.
Sayako Ueda, Yoko Iwamoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Mingxu Liu, and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10117–10135,Short summary
We examine iron in atmospheric fine aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during shipborne observations in November 2018. Transmission electron microscopy analysis with water dialysis shows that various types of iron (fly ash, iron oxide, and mineral dust) co-exist with ammonium sulfate and that their solubility differs depending on the iron type. Using PM2.5 bulk samples and global model simulations, we elucidate their origins, aging, and implications for present iron simulations.
Farhan R. Nursanto, Roy Meinen, Rupert Holzinger, Maarten C. Krol, Xinya Liu, Ulrike Dusek, Bas Henzing, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10015–10034,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) is a harmful air pollutant that depends on the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Thus, in different regions and seasons, the way that PM is formed and grows can differ. In this study, we use a combined statistical analysis of the chemical composition and particle size distribution to determine what drives particle formation and growth across seasons, using varying wind directions to elucidate the role of different sources.
Kohei Sakata, Aya Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Yamakawa, Chihiro Miyamoto, Minako Kurisu, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9815–9836,Short summary
Anthropogenic iron is the dominant source of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles, but its contribution to dissolved Fe in aerosol particles has not been quantitatively evaluated. We established the molar concentration ratio of dissolved Fe to dissolved Al as a new indicator to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic iron. As a result, about 10 % of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles was derived from anthropogenic iron when aerosol particles were transported from East Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Li Li, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9597–9612,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has a unique geographical location, but there is a lack of detailed research on the real-time characteristics of full aerosol composition. This study elaborates the changes in chemical characteristics between transport and local fine particles during the pre-monsoon, reveals the size distribution and the mixing states of different individual particles, and highlights the contributions of photooxidation and aqueous reaction to the formation of the secondary species.
Erin K. Boedicker, Elisabeth Andrews, Patrick J. Sheridan, and Patricia K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9525–9547,Short summary
We present 15 years of measurements from a marine site on the northern California coast and characterize the seasonal trends of aerosol ion composition and optical properties at the site. We investigate the relationship between the chemical and optical properties and show that they both support similar seasonal variations in aerosol sources at the site. Additionally, we show through comparisons to other marine aerosol observations that the site is representative of a clean marine environment.
Qian Li, Dantong Liu, Xiaotong Jiang, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Siyuan Li, Kang Hu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Ruijie Li, Kai Bi, Shaofei Kong, Deping Ding, and Chenjie Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9439–9453,Short summary
By attributing the shortwave absorption from black carbon, primary organic aerosol and secondary organic aerosol in a suburban environment, we firstly observed that the photochemically produced nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosol may contribute to the enhancement of brown carbon absorption, partly compensating for some bleaching effect on the absorption of primary organic aerosol, hereby exerting radiative impacts.
Yong Zhang, Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Lu Qi, Manousos Ioannis Manousakas, Yuemei Han, Weikang Ran, Yele Sun, Huikun Liu, Renjian Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Tianqu Cui, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Jay Gates Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9455–9471,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution still frequently occurs in northern China during winter, and it is necessary to figure out the causes of air pollution based on intensive real-time measurement. The findings elaborate the chemical characteristics and source contributions of PM2.5 in three pilot cities, reveal potential formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlling biomass burning and inhibiting generation of secondary aerosol for air quality improvement.
Qi Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Chen, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Wei Hu, Dantong Liu, Pingqing Fu, Huiwang Gao, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9385–9399,Short summary
This study for the first time found large amounts of liquid–liquid phase separation particles with soot redistributing in organic coatings instead of sulfate cores in the eastern Tibetan Plateau atmosphere. The particle size and the ratio of the organic matter coating thickness to soot size are two of the major possible factors that likely affect the soot redistribution process. The soot redistribution process promoted the morphological compaction of soot particles.
Yuting Lyu, Yin Hau Lam, Yitao Li, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, and Theodora Nah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9245–9263,Short summary
We measured singlet oxygen (1O2*) and triplet excited states of organic matter (3C*) in illuminated aqueous extracts of PM2.5 collected in different seasons at different sites in Hong Kong SAR, South China. In contrast to the locations, seasonality had significant effects on 3C* and 1O2* production due to seasonal variations in long-range air mass transport. The steady-state concentrations of 3C* and 1O2* correlated with the concentration and absorbance of water-soluble organic carbon.
Sophie L. Haslett, David M. Bell, Varun Kumar, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu S. Wang, Suneeti Mishra, Neeraj Rastogi, Atinderpal Singh, Dilip Ganguly, Joel Thornton, Feixue Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, David Hadden, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9023–9036,Short summary
In Delhi, some aspects of daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry are inverted, and parodoxically, vehicle emissions may be limiting other forms of particle production. This is because the nighttime emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) by traffic and biomass burning prevent some chemical processes that would otherwise create even more particles and worsen the urban haze.
Rose Marie Miller, Robert M. Rauber, Larry Di Girolamo, Matthew Rilloraza, Dongwei Fu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Luke D. Ziemba, Sarah Woods, and Kenneth Lee Thornhill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8959–8977,Short summary
The influence of human-produced aerosols on clouds remains one of the uncertainties in radiative forcing of Earth’s climate. Measurements of aerosol chemistry from sources around the Philippines illustrate the linkage between aerosol chemical composition and cloud droplet characteristics. Differences in aerosol chemical composition in the marine layer from biomass burning, industrial, ship-produced, and marine aerosols are shown to impact cloud microphysical structure just above cloud base.
Yiyu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Song, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Chaomin Wang, Caihong Wu, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Sasho Gligorovski, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8855–8877,Short summary
We studied the variability and molecular composition of ambient oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in both gas and particle phases using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Biomass burning and secondary formation were found to be the two major sources of OON. Daytime nitrate radical chemistry for OON formation was more important than previously thought. Our results improved the understanding of the sources and molecular composition of OON in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Frédéric Ledoux, Cloé Roche, Gilles Delmaire, Gilles Roussel, Olivier Favez, Marc Fadel, and Dominique Courcot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8607–8622,Short summary
We quantify the emissions from the marine sector in northern France, whether from natural or human-made sources. Therefore, a 1-year PM10 sampling campaign was conducted at a French coastal site. Results showed that sea salts contributed 37 %, while secondary nitrate and sulfate contributed 42 %, biomass burning 8 %, and heavy-fuel-oil combustion from shipping emissions 5 %. Sources contributing more than 80 % of PM10 are of regional and/or long-range origin.
Shuhui Zhu, Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Dan Dan Huang, Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Changhong Chen, Cheng Huang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7551–7568,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is increasingly important in urban PM2.5 pollution as inorganic ions are becoming lower. We investigated the chemical characteristics of OA during nine episodes in Shanghai. The availability of bi-hourly measured molecular markers revealed that the control of local urban sources such as vehicular and cooking emissions lessened the severity of local episodes. Regional control of precursors and biomass burning would reduce PM2.5 episodes influenced by regional transport.
Karolina Siegel, Yvette Gramlich, Sophie L. Haslett, Gabriel Freitas, Radovan Krejci, Paul Zieger, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7569–7587,Short summary
Hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF) is a recently discovered oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). We present a full year of concurrent gas- and particle-phase observations of HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products from the Arctic. We did not observe significant amounts of HPMTF in the particle phase but a good agreement between gas-phase HMPTF and methanesulfonic acid in the summer. Our study provides information about the relationship between HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products.
Yutong Liang, Rebecca A. Wernis, Kasper Kristensen, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Philip L. Croteau, Scott C. Herndon, Arthur W. H. Chan, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
We measured the gas-particle partitioning behaviors of biomass burning markers and examined the effect of wildfire organic aerosol on the partitioning of SVOCs. We found that most compounds measured are less volatile than model prediction. Wildfire aerosol enhanced the condensation of polar compounds, while causing some nonpolar compounds (such as PAHs) to partition more into the gas phase, which can affect their lifetimes in the atmosphere and the mode of exposure.
Samira Atabakhsh, Laurent Poulain, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Mira Pöhlker, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6963–6988,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol chemical variations found in the rural-background station of Melpitz based on ACSM and MAAP measurements. Source apportionment on both organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (eBC) was performed, and source seasonality was also linked to air mass trajectories. Overall, three anthropogenic sources were identified in OA and eBC plus two additional aged OA. Our results demonstrate the influence of transported coal-combustion-related OA even during summer time.
Yanqin Ren, Gehui Wang, Jie Wei, Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, and Hong Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6835–6848,Short summary
Nine quantified nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 were examined at the peak of Mt. Wuyi. They manifested a significant rise in overall abundance in the winter and autumn. The transport of contaminants had a significant impact on NACs. Under low-NOx conditions, the formation of NACs was comparatively sensitive to NO2, suggesting that NACs would become significant in the aerosol characteristics when nitrate concentrations decreased as a result of emission reduction measures.
Yu Xu, Xin-Ni Dong, Chen He, Dai-She Wu, Hong-Wei Xiao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6775–6788,Short summary
The air pollution associated with fine particles and secondary organic aerosol is not weakened by the application of mist cannon trucks but rather is aggravated. Our results provide not only new insights into the formation processes of aerosol water-soluble organic compounds associated with the water mist sprayed by mist cannon trucks in the road atmospheric environment but also crucial information for the decision makers to regulate the operation of mist cannon trucks in many cities in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Sanja Frka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6571–6590,Short summary
Important marine organic carbon compounds were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and marine aerosol particles. These compounds were strongly enriched in the atmosphere. Their enrichment was, however, not solely explained via sea-to-air transfer but also via atmospheric in situ formation. The identified compounds constituted about 50 % of the organic carbon on the aerosol particles, and a pronounced coupling between ocean and atmosphere for this oligotrophic region could be concluded.
Aliki Christodoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maximillien Desservettaz, Michael Pikridas, Elie Bimenyimana, Jonilda Kushta, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Philippe Goloub, Konstantina Oikonomou, Roland Sarda-Estève, Chrysanthos Savvides, Charbel Afif, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stéphane Sauvage, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6431–6456,Short summary
Our study presents, for the first time, a detailed source identification of aerosols at an urban background site in Cyprus (eastern Mediterranean), a region strongly impacted by climate change and air pollution. Here, we identify an unexpected high contribution of long-range transported pollution from fossil fuel sources in the Middle East, highlighting an urgent need to further characterize these fast-growing emissions and their impacts on regional atmospheric composition, climate, and health.
Tingting Li, Jun Li, Zeyu Sun, Hongxing Jiang, Chongguo Tian, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6395–6407,Short summary
N-NH4+ and N-NO3- were vital components in nitrogenous aerosols and contributed 69 % to total nitrogen in PM2.5. Coal combustion was still the most important source of urban atmospheric NO3-. However, the non-agriculture sources play an increasingly important role in NH4+ emissions.
Thomas Audoux, Benoit Laurent, Karine Desboeufs, Gael Noyalet, Franck Maisonneuve, Olivier Lauret, and Servanne Chevaillier
In the Paris region, a campaign was conducted to study the wet deposition of aerosol particles during rainfall events. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol and wet deposition allowed to discuss their transfer from the atmosphere to rain. Chemical evolution within events revealed meteorology, atmospheric conditions and local vs. long range sources as key factors. This study highlights the variability of wet deposition and the need to consider event-specific factors to understand its mechanisms.
Yuan Cheng, Xu-bing Cao, Jiu-meng Liu, Ying-jie Zhong, Qin-qin Yu, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6241–6253,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols were explored in the northernmost megacity in China during a frigid winter and an agricultural-fire-impacted spring. BrC was more light absorbing at night for both seasons, with more pronounced diurnal variations in spring, and the dominant drivers were identified as regulations on heavy-duty diesel trucks and open burning, respectively. Agricultural fires resulted in unique absorption spectra of BrC, which were characterized by a distinct peak at ∼365 nm.
Eka Dian Pusfitasari, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Aleksi Tiusanen, Markus Suuronen, Jesse Haataja, Yusheng Wu, Juha Kangasluoma, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Jussila, Kari Hartonen, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5885–5904,Short summary
A miniaturized air-sampling drone system was successfully applied for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and for the measurement of black carbon (BC) and total particle number concentrations in atmospheric air. Here we report, for the first time, the vertical profiles of BC and aerosol number concentrations above the boreal forest in Hyytiälä (Finland) at high altitudes close to the boundary layer in autumn 2021. VOC composition with its distribution was studied as well.
Yifang Gu, Ru-Jin Huang, Jing Duan, Wei Xu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Ying Wang, Haiyan Ni, Quan Liu, Ruiguang Xu, Litao Wang, and Yong Jie Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5419–5433,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be produced by various pathways, but its formation mechanisms are unclear. Observations were conducted in the North China Plain during a highly oxidizing atmosphere in summer. We found that fast photochemistry dominated SOA formation during daytime. Two types of aqueous-phase chemistry (nocturnal and daytime processing) take place at high relative humidity. The potential transformation from primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA was also an important pathway.
Miao Zhong, Jianzhong Xu, Huiqin Wang, Li Gao, Haixia Zhu, Lixiang Zhai, Xinghua Zhang, and Wenhui Zhao
This study focus on coal combustion dominated aerosol in urban areas in Northwest China and combines the results of optical measurement and chemical analysis to deduce the evolution of these characteristics in the atmosphere, which has far from been known previously. The results provide insights into the effects of atmospheric processes and emissions on BrC properties.
Miaomiao Zhai, Ye Kuang, Li Liu, Yao He, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Yu Zou, Fei Li, Changqin Yin, Chunhui Li, Hanbing Xu, and Xuejiao Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5119–5133,Short summary
Using year-long aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, roles of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) during haze formations in an urban area of southern China were systematically analyzed. Almost all severe haze events were accompanied by continuous daytime and nighttime SOA formations, whereas coordinated gas-phase photochemistry and aqueous-phase reactions likely played significant roles in quick daytime SOA formations, and nitrate radicals played significant roles in nighttime SOA formations.
Li Wu, Hyo-Jin Eom, Hanjin Yoo, Dhrubajyoti Gupta, Hye-Rin Cho, Pingqing Fu, and Chul-Un Ro
Hygroscopicity of ambient marine aerosols are of critical relevance to investigate their atmospheric impacts, which however, remains uncertain due to their complex compositions and mixing states. Therefore, a study on the hygroscopic behavior of ambient marine aerosols for understanding its phase states when interacting with water vapor at different RHs as well as their subsequent impacts on the heterogeneous chemical reactions, atmospheric environment, and human health, is of vital importance.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven G. Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4775–4799,Short summary
Southern Africa produces approximately one-third of the world’s carbon from fires. The thick smoke layer can flow westward, interacting with the southeastern Atlantic cloud deck. The net radiative impact can alter regional circulation patterns, impacting rainfall over Africa. We find that the smoke is highly absorbing of sunlight, mostly because it contains more black carbon than smoke over the Northern Hemisphere.
Rui Li, Yining Gao, Yubao Chen, Meng Peng, Weidong Zhao, Gehui Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4709–4726,Short summary
A random forest model was used to isolate the effects of emission and meteorology to trace elements in PM2.5 in Tangshan. The results suggested that control measures facilitated decreases of Ga, Co, Pb, Zn, and As, due to the strict implementation of coal-to-gas strategies and optimisation of industrial structure and layout. However, the deweathered levels of Ca, Cr, and Fe only displayed minor decreases, indicating that ferrous metal smelting and vehicle emission controls should be enhanced.
Jinyoung Jung, Yuzo Miyazaki, Jin Hur, Yun Kyung Lee, Mi Hae Jeon, Youngju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Cho, Hyun Young Chung, Kitae Kim, Jung-Ok Choi, Catherine Lalande, Joo-Hong Kim, Taejin Choi, Young Jun Yoon, Eun Jin Yang, and Sung-Ho Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4663–4684,Short summary
This study examined the summertime fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols over the western Arctic Ocean. We found that the WSOC in fine-mode aerosols in coastal areas showed a higher polycondensation degree and aromaticity than in sea-ice-covered areas. The fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC in the summertime marine Arctic boundary can improve our understanding of the WSOC chemical and biological linkages at the ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interface.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Jianjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4343–4359,Short summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequency of new particle formation (NPF) events at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau: 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher frequency of southerly air masses, which brought the organic precursors to participate in the NPF process. It increased the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect earth's radiation balance.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3955–3983,Short summary
We measured the chemical composition of ambient ions at a coastal New Zealand site and connected these data with aerosol size distribution data to study the chemical precursors of new particle formation at the site. Our results showed that iodine oxides and sulfur species were important for particle formation in marine air, while in land-influenced air sulfuric acid and organics were connected to new particle formation events.
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andres Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo González-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3861–3885,Short summary
Desert dust is a major aerosol component of the Earth system and affects the climate. Dust properties are influenced by particle size, mineralogy, shape, and mixing state. This work characterizes freshly emitted individual mineral dust particles from a major source region using electron microscopy. Our new insights into critical particle-specific information will contribute to better constraining climate models that consider mineralogical variations in their representation of the dust cycle.
Bojiang Su, Xinhui Bi, Zhou Zhang, Yue Liang, Congbo Song, Tao Wang, Yaohao Hu, Lei Li, Zhen Zhou, Jinpei Yan, Xinming Wang, and Guohua Zhang
During R/V Xuelong cruise observations over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the concentrations of water-soluble Ca2+ and the mass spectra of individual particles were measured. Our results indicated that lower temperature, lower wind speed, and the presence of sea ice may facilitate Ca2+ enrichment in SSAs and highlighted the potential contribution of organically complexed calcium to calcium enrichment, which has been neglected when only Ca2+ was considered in the estimation.
Huanhuan Zhang, Rui Li, Chengpeng Huang, Xiaofei Li, Shuwei Dong, Fu Wang, Tingting Li, Yizhu Chen, Guohua Zhang, Yan Ren, Qingcai Chen, Ru-jin Huang, Siyu Chen, Tao Xue, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3543–3559,Short summary
This work investigated the seasonal variation of aerosol Fe solubility for coarse and fine particles in Xi’an, a megacity in northwestern China severely affected by anthropogenic emission and desert dust aerosol. In addition, we discussed in depth what controlled aerosol Fe solubility at different seasons for coarse and fine particles.
Yiqun Lu, Yingge Ma, Dan Dan Huang, Shengrong Lou, Sheng'ao Jing, Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Hui Chen, Yunhua Chang, Naiqiang Yan, Jianmin Chen, Christian George, Matthieu Riva, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3233–3245,Short summary
N-containing oxygenated organic molecules have been identified as important precursors of aerosol particles. We used an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with an online sample inlet to accurately measure their molecular composition, concentration level and variation patterns. We show their formation process and influencing factors in a Chinese megacity involving various volatile organic compound precursors and atmospheric oxidants, and we highlight the influence of PM2.5 episodes.
Boming Liu, Xin Ma, Jianping Guo, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yingying Ma, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3181–3193,Short summary
Wind energy is one of the most essential clean and renewable forms of energy in today’s world. However, the traditional power law method generally estimates the hub-height wind speed by assuming a constant exponent between surface and hub-height wind speeds. This inevitably leads to significant uncertainties in estimating the wind speed profile. To minimize the uncertainties, we here use a machine learning algorithm known as random forest to estimate the wind speed at hub height.
Rui Li, Kun Zhang, Qing Li, Liumei Yang, Shunyao Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Hui Chen, Yanan Yi, Jialiang Feng, Qiongqiong Wang, Ling Huang, Wu Wang, Yangjun Wang, Jian Zhen Yu, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3065–3081,Short summary
Molecular markers in organic aerosol (OA) provide specific source information on PM2.5, and the contribution of cooking emissions to OA is significant, especially in urban environments. This study investigates the variation in concentrations and oxidative degradation of fatty acids and corresponding oxidation products in ambient air, which can be a guide for the refinement of aerosol source apportionment and provide scientific support for the development of emission source control policies.
Jiyuan Yang, Guoyang Lei, Chang Liu, Yutong Wu, Kai Hu, Jinfeng Zhu, Junsong Bao, Weili Lin, and Jun Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3015–3029,Short summary
The characteristics of n-alkanes and the contributions of various sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere in Beijing were studied. There were marked seasonal and diurnal differences in the n-alkane concentrations (p<0.01). Particulate-bound n-alkanes were supplied by anthropogenic and biogenic sources; fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor. Vehicle exhausts strongly affect PM2.5 pollution. Controlling vehicle exhaust emissions is key to control n-alkane and PM2.5 pollution in Beijing.
Sanna Saarikoski, Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Simon Schallhart, Petri Clusius, Jarkko V. Niemi, Anu Kousa, Toni Tykkä, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Minna Aurela, Laura Salo, Topi Rönkkö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Liisa Pirjola, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2963–2982,Short summary
This study elucidates properties and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic aerosol (OA) in a traffic environment. Anthropogenic VOCs (aVOCs) were clearly higher than biogenic VOCs (bVOCs), but bVOCs produced a larger portion of oxidation products. OA consisted mostly of oxygenated OA, representing secondary OA (SOA). SOA was partly associated with bVOCs, but it was also related to long-range transport. Primary OA originated mostly from traffic.
Veronica Z. Berta, Lynn M. Russell, Derek J. Price, Chia-Li Chen, Alex K. Y. Lee, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Thomas G. Bell, and Michael J. Behrenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2765–2787,Short summary
Amines are compounds emitted from a variety of marine and continental sources and were measured by aerosol mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy during the North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) cruises. Secondary continental and primary marine sources of amines were identified by comparisons to tracers. The results show that the two methods are complementary for investigating amines in the marine environment.
Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Yi-Yun Chien, Charles C. K. Chou, Chian-Yi Liu, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Birger Bohn, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Benjamin Weyland, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2627–2647,Short summary
During the EMeRGe campaign in Asia, atmospheric pollutants were measured on board the HALO aircraft. The WRF-Chem model was employed to evaluate the biomass burning (BB) plume transported from Indochina and its impact on the downstream areas. The combination of BB aerosol enhancement with cloud water resulted in a reduction in incoming shortwave radiation at the surface in southern China and the East China Sea, which potentially has significant regional climate implications.
Fei Xie, Yue Su, Yongli Tian, Yanju Shi, Xingjun Zhou, Peng Wang, Ruihong Yu, Wei Wang, Jiang He, Jinyuan Xin, and Changwei Lü
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2365–2378,Short summary
This work finds the shifting of secondary inorganic aerosol formation mechanisms during haze aggravation and explains the decisive role of aerosol liquid water on a broader scale (~ 500 μg m3) in an ammonia-rich atmosphere based on the in situ high-resolution online monitoring datasets.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Peter Tunved, Johan Ström, Radovan Krejci, Eyal Freud, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Eija Asmi, Angelo Lupi, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2183–2198,Short summary
Our results emphasize how understanding the geographical variation in surface types across the Arctic is key to understanding secondary aerosol sources. We provide a harmonised analysis of new particle formation across the Arctic.
Zhichao Dong, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Zhanjie Xu, Yu Wang, Peisen Li, Pingqing Fu, and Cong-Qiang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2119–2143,Short summary
This study has provided comprehensive baseline data of carbonaceous and inorganic aerosols as well as their isotope ratios in the Tianjin region, North China, found that Tianjin aerosols were derived from coal combustion, biomass burning and photochemical reactions of VOCs, and also implied that the Tianjin aerosols were more aged during long-range atmospheric transport in summer via carbonaceous and isotope data analysis.
Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Junjun Deng, Yanbing Fan, Qiang Zhang, Qiaorong Xie, Yulin Qi, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, Di Liu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Yisheng Xu, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2061–2077,Short summary
This study investigated the role of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) loading on the molecular composition of wintertime urban aerosols by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Results demonstrate that the SOA loading is an important factor associated with the oxidation degree, nitrate group content, and chemodiversity of nitrooxy–organosulfates. Our study also found that the hydrolysis of nitrooxy–organosulfates is a possible pathway for the formation of organosulfates.
Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Yongyong Ma, Jin Wang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1879–1892,Short summary
We investigated the light absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). BrC made a substantial contribution to the submicron aerosol absorption, which is related to the cross-border transport of biomass burning emission and secondary aerosol from Southeast Asia. The radiative effect of BrC was half that of black carbon, which can remarkably affect the radiative balance of the TP.
Allen, H. M., Draper, D. C., Ayres, B. R., Ault, A., Bondy, A., Takahama, S., Modini, R. L., Baumann, K., Edgerton, E., Knote, C., Laskin, A., Wang, B., and Fry, J. L.: Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-10669-2015, 2015.
Anttila, T., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Mentel, T. F., and Tillmann, R.: Size dependent partitioning of organic material: evidence for the formation of organic coatings on aqueous aerosols, J. Atmos. Chem., 57, 215–237, 2007.
Artaxo, P. and Orsini, C.: PIXE and receptor models applied to remote aerosol source apportionment in Brazil, Nucl. Instrum. Methods, Sect. B, 22, 259–263, 1987.
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To determine important sources of aerosols during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), as well as their mixing with secondary species, individual particles were analyzed with electron and X-ray microscopy to determine size and chemical composition. Secondary organic aerosol, sea spray aerosol, and mineral dust each dominated during different periods. Particles were less similar chemically to each other than is commonly assumed, which is important for air quality and climate models.
To determine important sources of aerosols during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS),...