Articles | Volume 13, issue 17
Research article 05 Sep 2013
Research article | 05 Sep 2013
Atmospheric nitric oxide and ozone at the WAIS Divide deep coring site: a discussion of local sources and transport in West Antarctica
S. Masclin et al.
No articles found.
David N. Wagner, Matthew D. Shupe, Ola G. Persson, Taneil Uttal, Markus M. Frey, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Martin Schneebeli, Matthias Jaggi, Amy R. Macfarlane, Polona Itkin, Stefanie Arndt, Stefan Hendricks, Daniela Krampe, Robert Ricker, Julia Regnery, Nikolai Kolabutin, Egor Shimanshuck, Marc Oggier, Ian Raphael, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Based on measurements of the snow cover over sea ice and atmospheric measurements, we estimate snowfall and snow accumulation for the MOSAiC ice floe, between November 2019 and May 2020. For this period, we estimate 98–114 mm of precipitation. We suggest that about 34 mm of snow-water equivalent has accumulated until the end of April 2020 and that at least 50 % of the precipitated snow has been eroded or sublimated. Further, we suggest explanations for potential snowfall overestimation.
Tessa Maurer, Francesco Avanzi, Steven D. Glaser, and Roger C. Bales
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Predicting how much water will end up in rivers is more difficult during droughts because the relationship between precipitation and streamflow can change in unexpected ways. We differentiate between changes that are predictable based on the weather patterns and those that harder to predict because they depend on the land and vegetation of a particular region. This work helps clarify why models are less accurate during droughts and helps predict how much water will be available for human use.
Francesco Avanzi, Joseph Rungee, Tessa Maurer, Roger Bales, Qin Ma, Steven Glaser, and Martha Conklin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4317–4337,Short summary
Multi-year droughts in Mediterranean climates often see a lower fraction of precipitation allocated to runoff compared to non-drought years. By comparing observed water-balance components with simulations by a hydrologic model (PRMS), we reinterpret these shifts as a hysteretic response of the water budget to climate elasticity of evapotranspiration. Our results point to a general improvement in hydrologic predictions across drought and recovery cycles by including this mechanism.
V. Holly L. Winton, Alison Ming, Nicolas Caillon, Lisa Hauge, Anna E. Jones, Joel Savarino, Xin Yang, and Markus M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5861–5885,Short summary
The transfer of the nitrogen stable isotopic composition in nitrate between the air and snow at low accumulation sites in Antarctica leaves an UV imprint in the snow. Quantifying how nitrate isotope values change allows us to interpret longer ice core records. Based on nitrate observations and modelling at Kohnen, East Antarctica, the dominant factors controlling the nitrate isotope signature in deep snow layers are the depth of light penetration into the snowpack and the snow accumulation rate.
Markus M. Frey, Sarah J. Norris, Ian M. Brooks, Philip S. Anderson, Kouichi Nishimura, Xin Yang, Anna E. Jones, Michelle G. Nerentorp Mastromonaco, David H. Jones, and Eric W. Wolff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2549–2578,Short summary
A winter sea ice expedition to Antarctica provided the first direct observations of sea salt aerosol (SSA) production during snow storms above sea ice, thereby validating a model hypothesis to account for winter time SSA maxima in Antarctica not explained otherwise. Defining SSA sources is important given the critical roles that aerosol plays for climate, for air quality and as a potential ice core proxy for sea ice conditions in the past.
Xin Yang, Markus M. Frey, Rachael H. Rhodes, Sarah J. Norris, Ian M. Brooks, Philip S. Anderson, Kouichi Nishimura, Anna E. Jones, and Eric W. Wolff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8407–8424,Short summary
This is a comprehensive model–data comparison aiming to evaluate the proposed mechanism of sea salt aerosol (SSA) production from blowing snow on sea ice. Some key parameters such as snow salinity and blowing-snow size distribution were constrained by data collected in the Weddell Sea. The good agreement between modelled SSA and the cruise data strongly indicates that sea ice surface is a large SSA source in polar regions, a process which has not been considered in current climate models.
James W. Roche, Robert Rice, Xiande Meng, Daniel R. Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Douglas Alden, Sarina C. Patel, Megan A. Mason, Martha H. Conklin, and Roger C. Bales
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 101–110,Short summary
This paper summarizes climate, snow, and soil moisture data for the Tuolumne and Merced river watersheds in California, USA, for water years 2010–2014. Climate data include hourly air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Snow depth and soil moisture at three–six points per site are available at four locations. Snow depth and water content are available from instrumented snow pillow sites and manual snow survey locations.
Roger C. Bales, Erin M. Stacy, Xiande Meng, Martha H. Conklin, Peter B. Kirchner, and Zeshi Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2115–2122,Short summary
This 2006–2016 record of snow depth, soil moisture and soil temperature, and meteorological data quantifies hydrologic inputs and storage in the mostly undeveloped Wolverton catchment (2180–2750 m) in Sequoia National Park. Two meteorological stations were installed, along with clustered sensors that recorded differences in snow and soil moisture across the landscape with regard to aspect and canopy cover at elevations of 2250 and 2625 m, just above the current rain–snow transition elevation.
Roger Bales, Erin Stacy, Mohammad Safeeq, Xiande Meng, Matthew Meadows, Carlos Oroza, Martha Conklin, Steven Glaser, and Joseph Wagenbrenner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1795–1805,Short summary
Strategically placed, spatially distributed sensors provide representative measures of changes in snowpack and subsurface water storage, plus the fluxes affecting these stores, in a set of nested headwater catchments. We present 8 years of hourly snow-depth, soil-moisture, and soil-temperature data from hundreds of sensors, as well as 14 years of streamflow and meteorological data that detail processes at the rain–snow transition at Providence Creek in the southern Sierra Nevada, California.
Hoi Ga Chan, Markus M. Frey, and Martin D. King
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1507–1534,Short summary
Emissions of reactive nitrogen from snowpacks influence remote air quality. Two physical air–snow models for nitrate were developed. One assumes that below a threshold temperature the air–snow grain interface is pure ice and above it a disordered interface emerges. The other assumes an air–ice interface below melting and that any liquid present is concentrated in micropockets. Only the latter matches observations at two Antarctic lcoations covering a wide range of environmental conditions.
Susan L. Brantley, William H. McDowell, William E. Dietrich, Timothy S. White, Praveen Kumar, Suzanne P. Anderson, Jon Chorover, Kathleen Ann Lohse, Roger C. Bales, Daniel D. Richter, Gordon Grant, and Jérôme Gaillardet
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 841–860,Short summary
The layer known as the critical zone extends from the tree tops to the groundwater. This zone varies globally as a function of land use, climate, and geology. Energy and materials input from the land surface downward impact the subsurface landscape of water, gas, weathered material, and biota – at the same time that differences at depth also impact the superficial landscape. Scientists are designing observatories to understand the critical zone and how it will evolve in the future.
Rachael H. Rhodes, Xin Yang, Eric W. Wolff, Joseph R. McConnell, and Markus M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9417–9433,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol comes from the open ocean or the sea ice surface. In the polar regions, this opens up the possibility of reconstructing sea ice history using sea salt recorded in ice cores. We use a chemical transport model to demonstrate that the sea ice source of aerosol is important in the Arctic. For the first time, we simulate realistic Greenland ice core sea salt in a process-based model. The importance of the sea ice source increases from south to north across the Greenland ice sheet.
Michel Legrand, Susanne Preunkert, Joël Savarino, Markus M. Frey, Alexandre Kukui, Detlev Helmig, Bruno Jourdain, Anna E. Jones, Rolf Weller, Neil Brough, and Hubert Gallée
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8053–8069,Short summary
Surface ozone, the most abundant atmospheric oxidant, has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d’Urville, and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. Long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites are discussed. Influences like sea ice extent and outflow from inland Antarctica are discussed.
Joël Savarino, William C. Vicars, Michel Legrand, Suzanne Preunkert, Bruno Jourdain, Markus M. Frey, Alexandre Kukui, Nicolas Caillon, and Jaime Gil Roca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2659–2673,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrate is collected on the East Antarctic ice sheet. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes and concentrations of nitrate are measured. Using a box model, we show that there is s systematic discrepancy between observations and model results. We suggest that this discrepancy probably results from unknown NOx chemistry above the Antarctic ice sheet. However, possible misconception in the stable isotope mass balance is not completely excluded.
Z. Zheng, P. B. Kirchner, and R. C. Bales
The Cryosphere, 10, 257–269,Short summary
By analyzing high-resolution lidar products and using statistical methods, we quantified the snow depth dependency on elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain and also the surrounding vegetation in four catchment size sites in the southern Sierra Nevada during snow peak season. The relative importance of topographic and vegetation attributes varies with elevation and canopy, but all these attributes were found significant in affecting snow distribution in mountain basins.
J. Erbland, J. Savarino, S. Morin, J. L. France, M. M. Frey, and M. D. King
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12079–12113,Short summary
In this paper, we describe the development of a numerical model which aims at representing nitrate recycling at the air-snow interface on the East Antarctic Plateau. Stable isotopes are used as diagnostic and evaluation tools by comparing the model's results to recent field measurements of nitrate and key atmospheric species at Dome C, Antarctica. From sensitivity tests conducted with the model, we propose a framework for the interpretation of the nitrate isotope record in deep ice cores.
M. M. Frey, H. K. Roscoe, A. Kukui, J. Savarino, J. L. France, M. D. King, M. Legrand, and S. Preunkert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7859–7875,Short summary
Surprisingly large concentrations and flux of atmospheric nitrogen oxides were measured at Dome C, East Antarctica. It was found that the surface snow holds a significant reservoir of photochemically produced NOx and is a sink of gas-phase ozone. Main drivers of NOx snow emissions were large snow nitrate concentrations, with contributions of increased UV from decreases in stratospheric ozone. Observed halogen and hydroxyl radical concentrations were too low to explain large NO2:NO ratios.
H. G. Chan, M. D. King, and M. M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7913–7927,
S. Preunkert, M. Legrand, M. M. Frey, A. Kukui, J. Savarino, H. Gallée, M. King, B. Jourdain, W. Vicars, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6689–6705,Short summary
During two austral summers HCHO was investigated in air, snow, and interstitial air at the Concordia site located on the East Antarctic Plateau. Snow emission fluxes were estimated to be around 1 to 2 and 3 to 5 x 10^12 molecules m-2 s-1 at night and at noon, respectively. Shading experiments suggest that the photochemical HCHO production in the snowpack at Concordia remains negligible. The mean HCHO level of 130pptv observed at 1m above the surface is quite well reproduced by 1-D simulations.
H. Gallée, S. Preunkert, S. Argentini, M. M. Frey, C. Genthon, B. Jourdain, I. Pietroni, G. Casasanta, H. Barral, E. Vignon, C. Amory, and M. Legrand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6225–6236,Short summary
Regional climate model MAR was run for the region of Dome C located on the East Antarctic plateau, during summer 2011–2012, with a high vertical resolution in the lower troposphere. MAR is generally in very good agreement with the observations and provides sufficiently reliable information about surface turbulent fluxes and vertical profiles of vertical diffusion coefficients when discussing the representativeness of chemical measurements made nearby the ground surface at Dome C.
A. Kukui, M. Legrand, S. Preunkert, M. M. Frey, R. Loisil, J. Gil Roca, B. Jourdain, M. D. King, J. L. France, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12373–12392,Short summary
Concentrations of OH radicals and the sum of peroxy radicals, RO2, were measured in the boundary layer for the first time on the East Antarctic Plateau at the Concordia Station during the austral summer 2011/2012. The concentrations of radicals were comparable to those observed at the South Pole, confirming that the elevated oxidative capacity of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer found at the South Pole is not restricted to the South Pole but common over the high Antarctic plateau.
P. B. Kirchner, R. C. Bales, N. P. Molotch, J. Flanagan, and Q. Guo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4261–4275,Short summary
In this study we present results from LiDAR snow depth measurements made over 53 sq km and a 1600 m elevation gradient. We found a lapse rate of 15 cm accumulated snow depth and 6 cm SWE per 100 m in elevation until 3300 m, where depth sharply decreased. Residuals from this trend revealed the role of aspect and highlighted the importance of solar radiation and wind for snow distribution. Lastly, we compared LiDAR SWE estimations with four model estimates of SWE and total precipitation.
M. Legrand, S. Preunkert, M. Frey, Th. Bartels-Rausch, A. Kukui, M. D. King, J. Savarino, M. Kerbrat, and B. Jourdain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9963–9976,
J. Erbland, W. C. Vicars, J. Savarino, S. Morin, M. M. Frey, D. Frosini, E. Vince, and J. M. F. Martins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6403–6419,
M. M. Frey, N. Brough, J. L. France, P. S. Anderson, O. Traulle, M. D. King, A. E. Jones, E. W. Wolff, and J. Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3045–3062,
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iodide-CIMS with FIGAERO in urban airMeasurements of higher alkanes using NO+ chemical ionization in PTR-ToF-MS: important contributions of higher alkanes to secondary organic aerosols in ChinaObservations of iodine monoxide over three summers at the Indian Antarctic bases, Bharati and MaitriLong-term variations in ozone levels in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over Beijing: observations and model simulationsVariability in gaseous elemental mercury at Villum Research Station, Station Nord, in North Greenland from 1999 to 2017Role of the dew water on the ground surface in HONO distribution: a case measurement in MelpitzEmission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from warm and oligotrophic seawater in the Eastern MediterraneanImpact of the South Asian monsoon outflow on atmospheric hydroperoxides in the upper troposphereNew approach to evaluate satellite derived XCO2 over oceans by integrating ship and aircraft observations
Xuewu Fu, Chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Yue Xu, Hui Zhang, Jun Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Gan Zhang, Hai Guo, Xun Wang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6721–6734,Short summary
TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions in 10 Chinese cities showed strong seasonality with higher TGM concentrations and Δ199Hg and lower δ202Hg in summer. We found the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions were highly related to regional surface Hg(0) emissions, suggesting land surface Hg(0) emissions are an important source of atmospheric TGM that contribute dominantly to the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nina G. Reijrink, Achim Edtbauer, Akima Ringsdorf, Nora Zannoni, Alessandro Araújo, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Marta O. Sá, Anywhere Tsokankunku, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Jošt V. Lavrič, Christopher Pöhlker, Matthias Sörgel, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6231–6256,Short summary
Tropical forests are globally significant for atmospheric chemistry. However, the mixture of reactive organic gases emitted by these ecosystems is poorly understood. By comprehensive observations at an Amazon forest site, we show that oxygenated species were previously underestimated in their contribution to the tropical-forest reactant mix. Our results show rain and temperature effects and have implications for models and the understanding of ozone and particle formation above tropical forests.
David S. McLagan, Geoff W. Stupple, Andrea Darlington, Katherine Hayden, and Alexandra Steffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5635–5653,Short summary
An assessment of mercury emissions from a burning boreal forest was made by flying an aircraft through its plume to collect in situ gas and particulate measurements. Direct data show that in-plume gaseous elemental mercury concentrations reach up to 2.4× background for this fire and up to 5.6× when using a correlation with CO data. These unique data are applied to a series of known empirical emissions estimates and used to highlight current uncertainties in the literature.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Mengdi Song, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Xuena Yu, Songxiu Zhou, Yiming Yang, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Keren Liao, Qi Chen, Keding Lu, Ningning Zhang, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4939–4958,Short summary
Due to their lower diffusion capacities and higher conversion capacities, urban areas in Xi’an experienced severe ozone pollution in the summer. In this study, a campaign of comprehensive field observations and VOC grid sampling was conducted in Xi’an from 20 June to 20 July 2019. We found that Xi'an has a strong local emission source of VOCs, and vehicle exhaust was the primary VOC source. In addition, alkenes, aromatics, and oxygenated VOCs played a dominant role in secondary transformations.
Nur H. Orak, Matthew Reeder, and Natalie J. Pekney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4729–4739,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the effect of unconventional natural gas development activities on local air quality. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to collect high-time-resolution ambient concentrations of compounds emitted from well pad activity on Marcellus Shale during various phases of operation such that the relative air quality effect of each phase of development can be investigated.
Di Liu, Wanqi Sun, Ning Zeng, Pengfei Han, Bo Yao, Zhiqiang Liu, Pucai Wang, Ke Zheng, Han Mei, and Qixiang Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4599–4614,Short summary
It is difficult to directly observe the COVID-19 signals in CO2 due to the strong weather induced variations. Here, we determined the on-road CO2 concentration declines in Beijing using mobile observatory data before (BC), during (DC) and after COVID-19 (AC). We chose trips with the most similar weather and calculated the enhancement, the difference between on-road and the city “background”. We showed a clear on-road CO2 decrease in DC, which is consistent with the emissions reductions in DC.
Clémence Rose, Matti P. Rissanen, Siddharth Iyer, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, John B. Nowak, Aurélie Colomb, Régis Dupuy, Xu-Cheng He, Janne Lampilahti, Yee Jun Tham, Daniela Wimmer, Jean-Marc Metzger, Pierre Tulet, Jérôme Brioude, Céline Planche, Markku Kulmala, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4541–4560,Short summary
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is commonly accepted as a key precursor for atmospheric new particle formation. However, direct measurements of [H2SO4] remain challenging, motivating the development of proxies. Using data collected in two different volcanic plumes, we show, under these specific conditions, the good performance of a proxy from the literature and also highlight the benefit of the newly developed proxies for the prediction of the highest [H2SO4] values.
Ziru Lan, Weili Lin, Weiwei Pu, and Zhiqiang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4561–4573,Short summary
Haze related to particulate matter has become a big problem in eastern China, and ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in secondary particulate matter formation. In this work, variations in the NH3 mixing ratio showed that the contributions of NH3 sources and sinks in urban and suburban areas were quite different, although the areas were under the influence of similar weather systems. This study furthers the understanding of the behavior of NH3 in a megacity environment.
Haiyan Li, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Yanjun Zhang, Steven Thomas, Liine Heikkinen, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4123–4147,Short summary
For the first time, we performed binPMF analysis on the complex mass spectra acquired with the Vocus PTR-TOF in two European pine forests and identified various primary emission sources and secondary oxidation processes of atmospheric organic vapors, i.e., terpenes and their oxidation products, with varying oxidation degrees. Further insights were gained regarding monoterpene and sesquiterpene reactions based on the interpretation results.
Shona E. Wilde, Pamela A. Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen J. Andrews, Prudence Bateson, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Ioana Colfescu, James France, James R. Hopkins, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, Tom Lachlan-Cope, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Mobbs, Alexandra Weiss, Stuart Young, and Ruth M. Purvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3741–3762,Short summary
We use airborne measurements to evaluate the speciation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations in the North Sea. The composition of emissions varied across regions associated with either gas, condensate or oil extraction, demonstrating that VOC emissions are not uniform across the whole O&G sector. We compare our results to VOC source profiles in the UK emissions inventory, showing these emissions are not currently fully characterized.
Julian Rüdiger, Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, J. Maarten de Moor, Rolf Sander, Florian Dinger, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Martha Ibarra, Armando Saballos, María Martínez, Elvis Mendoza, Arnoldo Ferrufino, John Stix, Juan Valdés, Jonathan M. Castro, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3371–3393,Short summary
We present an innovative approach to study halogen chemistry in the plume of Masaya volcano in Nicaragua. An unique data set was collected using multiple techniques, including drones. These data enabled us to determine the fraction of activation of the respective halogens at various plume ages, where in-mixing of ambient air causes chemical reactions. An atmospheric chemistry box model was employed to further examine the field results and help our understanding of volcanic plume chemistry.
Christian Lamprecht, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Michael Stichaner, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3091–3102,Short summary
The first European SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) wave and associated lockdown provided a unique sensitivity experiment to study air pollution. We find significantly different emission trajectories between classical air pollution and climate gases (e.g., carbon dioxide). The analysis suggests that European policies, shifting residential, public, and commercial energy demand towards cleaner combustion, have helped to improve air quality more than expected.
Jakob B. Pernov, Rossana Bossi, Thibaut Lebourgeois, Jacob K. Nøjgaard, Rupert Holzinger, Jens L. Hjorth, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2895–2916,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important constituent in the Arctic atmosphere due to their effect on aerosol and ozone formation. However, an understanding of their sources is lacking. This research presents a multiseason high-time-resolution dataset of VOCs in the Arctic and details their temporal characteristics and source apportionment. Four sources were identified: biomass burning, marine cryosphere, background, and Arctic haze.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Daniel Say, Alistair J. Manning, Luke M. Western, Dickon Young, Adam Wisher, Matthew Rigby, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Mühle, Christina M. Harth, Brendan Evans, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2149–2164,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent greenhouse gases with exceedingly long lifetimes. We used atmospheric measurements from a global monitoring network to track the accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere. In the case of the two most abundant PFCs, recent measurements indicate that global emissions are increasing. In Europe, we used a model to estimate regional PFC emissions. Our results show that there was no significant decline in northwest European PFC emissions between 2010 and 2019.
Laura Röhler, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pawel Rostkowski, Roland Kallenborn, and Martin Schlabach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1697–1716,Short summary
A novel non-destructive, sulfuric-acid-free clean-up method for high-volume air samples was developed and evaluated with organic chemicals covering a wide range of polarities (logP 2–11). This method, providing quantitative results of comparable quality to traditional methods, was combined with newly developed data treatment strategies for simultaneous suspect and non-target screening. The application to air samples from southern Norway revealed 90 new potential chemicals of emerging concern.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Clara Nussbaumer, Ivan Tadic, Dirk Dienhart, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Lisa Ernle, Jonathan Williams, Florian Obersteiner, Isidoro Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Lightning over continental and coastal areas is frequent and accompanied by deep convection while lightning over marine areas and particularly in tropical cyclones is rare. This research presents in situ observations of the tropical storm Florence 2018 near Cape Verde. We show the absence of lightning in the tropical storm despite the occurrence of deep convective processes by atmospheric trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CO, H2O2, DMS and CH3I.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Thérèse Salameh, Jean Sciare, François Dulac, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1449–1484,Short summary
This study provides a better characterization of the seasonal variations in VOC sources impacting the western Mediterranean region, based on a comprehensive chemical composition measured over 25 months at a representative receptor site (Ersa) and by determining factors controlling their temporal variations. Some insights into dominant drivers for VOC concentration variations in Europe are also provided, built on comparisons of Ersa observations with the concomitant ones of 17 European sites.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Satoshi Sugawara, Yasunori Tohjima, Daisuke Goto, Kentaro Ishijima, Yosuke Niwa, Nobuyuki Aoki, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1357–1373,Short summary
The surface Ar / N2 ratio showed not only secular increasing trends, but also interannual variations in phase with the global ocean heat content (OHC). Sensitivity test by using a two-dimensional model indicated that the secular trend in the Ar / N2 ratio is modified by the gravitational separation in the stratosphere. The analytical results imply that the surface Ar/N2 ratio is an important tracer for detecting spatiotemporally integrated changes in OHC and stratospheric circulation.
Ivan Tadic, Clara Nussbaumer, Birger Bohn, Hartwig Harder, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Florian Obersteiner, Uwe Parchatka, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Although mechanisms of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are well understood, studies reporting on ozone formation derived from field measurements are challenging and remain sparse in number. We use airborne measurements to quantify nitric oxide (NO) and O3 distributions in the upper troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and West Africa and compare our measurements to model simulations. Our results show that NO and ozone formation are greatest over the tropical areas of West Africa.
Y. Sim Tang, Chris R. Flechard, Ulrich Dämmgen, Sonja Vidic, Vesna Djuricic, Marta Mitosinkova, Hilde T. Uggerud, Maria J. Sanz, Ivan Simmons, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh Twigg, Netty van Dijk, Yannick Fauvel, Francisco Sanz, Martin Ferm, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Catrambone, David Leaver, Christine F. Braban, J. Neil Cape, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 875–914,Short summary
The DELTA® approach provided speciated, monthly data on reactive gases (NH3, HNO3, SO2, HCl) and aerosols (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+) across Europe (2006–2010). Differences in spatial and temporal concentrations and patterns between geographic regions and four ecosystem types were captured. NH3 and NH4NO3 were dominant components, highlighting their growing relative importance in ecosystem impacts (acidification, eutrophication) and human health effects (NH3 as a precursor to PM2.5) in Europe.
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Nighttime losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentration was measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box mode. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing, which provides more insight into NPs pollution control strategies.
Shuo Liu, Shuangxi Fang, Peng Liu, Miao Liang, Minrui Guo, and Zhaozhong Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 393–413,Short summary
We analyzed 26-year CH4 measurements at Mount Waliguan in the Tibetan Plateau, China. The CH4 increased ~ 133 parts per billion (ppb) with a rate of 5.1 ± 0.1 ppb yr-1 from 1994 to 2019. Major source regions were identified in northeast and southwest. The influence of human activities is more and more serious, and northern India has possibly become a stronger contributor than city regions were in the past. It has become urgent to control CH4 emissions in the Tibetan Plateau.
Jun Zhou, Zhangwei Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang, Charles T. Driscoll, and Che-Jen Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16117–16133,Short summary
Mercury (Hg) emissions from natural resources have a large uncertainty, which is mainly derived from the forest. A long-term and multiplot (10) study of soil–air fluxes at subtropical and temperate forests was conducted. Forest soils are an important atmospheric Hg source, especially for subtropical forests. The compensation points imply that the atmospheric Hg concentration plays a critical role in inhibiting Hg emissions from the forest floor. Climate change can enhance soil Hg emissions.
Yijing Chen, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Yao, and Wei Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15969–15982,Short summary
CO is one of the major air pollutants. Our study showed that the long-term CO levels at a background station in one of the most developed areas of China decreased significantly and verified that this downward trend was attributed to the decrease in anthropogenic emissions, which indicated that the adopted pollution control policies were effective. Also, this decrease has an implication for the atmospheric chemistry considering the negative correlation between CO levels and OH radical's lifetime.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Aku Helin, Simon Schallhart, Piia P. Schiestl-Aalto, Jaana Bäck, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Even though terpene emissions of boreal needle trees have been studied quite intensively, there is less knowledge on the emissions of broadleaved deciduous trees and emissions of larger terpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Here we studied the downy birch (Betula pubescens) emissions and especially sesquiterpene and oxygenated sesquiterpene emissions were found to be high. These emissions may have significant effects on SOA formation in boreal area.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Jérôme Brioude, Jean-François Müller, Niels Schoon, Nicolas Kumps, Aurélie Colomb, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christopher F. Lee, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14821–14845,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes arriving at the Maïdo observatory located in the south-west Indian Ocean during August 2018 and August 2019 are studied using trace gas measurements, Lagrangian transport models and the CAMS near-real-time atmospheric composition service. We investigate (i) secondary production of volatile organic compounds during transport, (ii) efficacy of the CAMS model to reproduce the chemical makeup of BB plumes and (iii) the impact of BB on the remote marine boundary layer.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, Keeyoon Sung, and Katelyn Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We report measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8) from analysis of ground-based, infra-red solar absorption spectra measured from various sites. These measurements suggest that exploitation of natural gas fields is a major and growing source of propane in the USA. Also, there seem to be propane sources in large cities such as Los Angeles, possibly related to use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG).
Sarah E. Benish, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sandra J. Roberts, Ross J. Salawitch, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Fang Zhang, Min Shao, Sihua Lu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14523–14545,Short summary
Airborne observations of ozone and related pollutants show smog was pervasive in spring 2016 over Hebei Province, China. We find high amounts of ozone precursors throughout and even above the PBL, continuing to generate ozone at high rates to be potentially transported downwind. Concentrations even in the rural areas of this highly industrialized province promote widespread ozone production, and we show that to improve air quality over Hebei both NOx and VOCs should be targeted.
Yixuan Gu, Fengxia Yan, Jianming Xu, Yuanhao Qu, Wei Gao, Fangfang He, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14361–14375,Short summary
High levels and statistically insignificant changes of ozone are detected at a remote monitoring site on Sheshan Island in Shanghai, China, from 2012 to 2017; 6-year observations suggest regional transport exerted minimum influence on the offshore oceanic air in September and October. Both city plumes and oceanic air inflows could contribute to ozone enhancements in Shanghai, and the latter are found to lead to 20–30 % increases in urban ozone concentrations based on WRF-Chem simulations.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Mriganka S. Biswas, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Anja Schönhardt, Nuria Benavent, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Iodine plays a vital role in oxidation chemistry over Antarctica, with past observations showing highly elevated levels of iodine oxide (IO) leading to severe depletion of boundary layer ozone. We present IO observations over three summers (2015–2017) at the Indian Antarctic bases, Bharati and Maitri. IO was observed during all campaigns, with mixing ratios below 2 pptv, which are lower than the peak levels observed in West Antarctica showing the differences in regional chemistry and emissions.
Yuli Zhang, Mengchu Tao, Jinqiang Zhang, Yi Liu, Hongbin Chen, Zhaonan Cai, and Paul Konopka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13343–13354,
Henrik Skov, Jens Hjorth, Claus Nordstrøm, Bjarne Jensen, Christel Christoffersen, Maria Bech Poulsen, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, David Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, and Jesper Heile Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13253–13265,Short summary
Mercury is toxic in all its forms. It bioaccumulates in food webs, is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and atmospheric transport is an important source for this element in the Arctic. Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury have been carried out at the Villum Research Station at Station Nord in northern Greenland since 1999. The measurements are compared with model results from the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model. In this way, the dynamics of mercury are investigated.
Yangang Ren, Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Benoit Grosselin, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13069–13089,Short summary
We present HONO measurements from the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany. Investigations of HONO sources and sinks revealed the nighttime formation by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO followed by a significant surface deposition at night. The evaporation of dew was identified as the main HONO source in the morning. In the following, dew measurements with a self-made dew collector were performed to estimate the amount of evaporated HONO from dew in the atmospheric HONO distribution.
Chen Dayan, Erick Fredj, Pawel K. Misztal, Maor Gabay, Alex B. Guenther, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12741–12759,Short summary
We studied the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, a global warming hot spot. We focused on isoprene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which are well recognized for their effect on climate and strong impact on photochemical pollution by the former. We found high emissions of isoprene and a strong decadal decrease in the emission of DMS which can both be attributed to the strong increase in seawater temperature.
Bettina Hottmann, Sascha Hafermann, Laura Tomsche, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Marco Neumaier, Andreas Zahn, Birger Bohn, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12655–12673,Short summary
During OMO we observed enhanced mixing ratios of hydroperoxides (ROOH) in the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) relative to the background. The observed mixing ratios are higher than steady-state calculations and EMAC simulations, especially in the AMA, indicating atmospheric transport of ROOH. Uncertainties in the scavenging efficiencies likely cause deviations from EMAC. Longitudinal gradients indicate a pool of ROOH towards the center of the AMA associated with upwind convection over India.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations, and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific. This new dataset has a great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Anastasio, C. and Chu, L.: Photochemistry of Nitrous Acid (\chemHONO) and Nitrous Acidium Ion (\chemH_2ONO^+) in Aqueous Solution and Ice, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 1108–1114, https://doi.org/10.1021/es802579a, 2009.
Anastasio, C. and Robles, T.: Light absorption by soluble chemical species in Arctic and Antarctic snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D24304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008695, 2007.
Banta, J. R., Mcconnell, J. R., Frey, M. M., Bales, R. C., and Taylor, K.: Spatial and temporal variability in snow accumulation at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide over recent centuries, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010235, 2008.
Bauguitte, S. J.-B., Brough, N., Frey, M. M., Jones, A. E., Maxfield, D. J., Roscoe, H. K., Rose, M. C., and Wolff, E. W.: A network of autonomous surface ozone monitors in Antarctica: technical description and first results, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 645–658, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-645-2011, 2011.
Bauguitte, S. J.-B., Bloss, W. J., Evans, M. J., Salmon, R. A., Anderson, P. S., Jones, A. E., Lee, J. D., Saiz-Lopez, A., Roscoe, H. K., Wolff, E. W., and Plane, J. M. C.: Summertime NOx measurements during the CHABLIS campaign: can source and sink estimates unravel observed diurnal cycles?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 989–1002, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-989-2012, 2012.
Bisiaux, M. M., Edwards, R., McConnell, J. R., Curran, M. A. J., Van Ommen, T. D., Smith, A. M., Neumann, T. A., Pasteris, D. R., Penner, J. E., and Taylor, K.: Changes in black carbon deposition to Antarctica from two high-resolution ice core records, 1850–2000 AD, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4107–4115, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-4107-2012, 2012.
Bloss, W. J., Lee, J. D., Heard, D. E., Salmon, R. A., Bauguitte, S. J.-B., Roscoe, H. K., and Jones, A. E.: Observations of OH and HO2 radicals in coastal Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4171–4185, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4171-2007, 2007.
Boxe, C. S. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Multiphase modeling of nitrate photochemistry in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL): implications for NOx release from the Arctic and coastal Antarctic snowpack, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4855–4864, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-4855-2008, 2008.
Burkhart, J. F., Hutterli, M. A., Bales, R. C., and Mcconnell, J. R.: Seasonal accumulation timing and preservation of nitrate in firn at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D19302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004658, 2004.
Chen, G., Davis, D. D., Crawford, J. H., Hutterli, M. A., Huey, G., Slusher, D., Mauldin, L., Eisele, F., Tanner, D., Dibb, J. E., Buhr, M., Mcconnell, J. R., Lefer, B., Shetter, R., Blake, D. R., Song, C., Lombardi, K., and Arnoldy, J.: A reassessment of HOx South Pole chemistry based on observations recorded during ISCAT 2000, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5451–5461, 2004.
Chen, G., Huey, G., Crawford, J. H., Olson, J. R., Hutterli, M. A., Sjostedt, S. J., Tanner, D., Dibb, J. E., Lefer, B., Blake, N. J., Davis, D. D., and Stohl, A.: An assessment of the polar HOx photochemical budget based on 2003 Summit Greenland field observations, Atmos. Environ., 41, 7806–7820, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.07.018, 2007.
Chu, L. and Anastasio, C.: Quantum yields of hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide from the photolysis of nitrate on ice, J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 9594–9602, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0349132, 2003.
Chu, L. and Anastasio, C.: Temperature and wavelength dependence of nitrite photolysis in frozen and aqueous solutions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 3626–3632, https://doi.org/10.1021/es062731q, 2007.
Davis, D. D., Nowak, J., Chen, G., Buhr, M., Arimoto, R., Hogan, A., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D., Shetter, R., Lefer, B., and McMurry, P.: Unexpected high levels of NO observed at South Pole, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3625–3628, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012584, 2001.
Davis, D. D., Chen, G., Buhr, M., Crawford, J. H., Lenschow, D., Lefer, B., Shetter, R., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., and Hogan, A.: South Pole NOx chemistry: an assessment of factors controlling variability and absolute levels, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5375–5388, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.04.039, 2004.
Davis, D. D., Seelig, J., Huey, G., Crawford, J. H., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Buhr, M., Helmig, D., Neff, W., Blake, D. R., Arimoto, R., and Eisele, F.: A reassessment of Antarctic plateau reactive nitrogen based on ANTCI 2003 airborne and ground based measurements, Atmos. Environ., 42, 2831–2848, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.07.039, 2008.
Dibb, J. E., Huey, G., Slusher, D., and Tanner, D.: Soluble reactive nitrogen oxides at South Pole during ISCAT 2000, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5399–5409, 2004.
Dibb, J. E., Whitlow, S. I., and Arsenault, M.: Seasonal variations in the soluble ion content of snow at Summit. Greenland: Constraints from three years of daily surface snow samples, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5007–5019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.01.001, 2007.
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