Articles | Volume 22, issue 21
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Are dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in Staffordshire
Louise Bøge Frederickson
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Danish Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
AirLabs Denmark, Nannasgade 28, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
AirLabs Denmark, Nannasgade 28, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
Johan Albrecht Schmidt
AirLabs Denmark, Nannasgade 28, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
No articles found.
Marie Kathrine Mikkelsen, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, Maarten M. J. W. van Herpen, Kurt Valentin Mikkelsen, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Aerosol Research Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ARShort summary
We analyse the mechanism whereby sunlight and iron catalyse the production of chlorine from chloride in sea spray aerosol. This process occurs naturally over the North Atlantic and is the most important single source of chlorine. We investigate the mechanism using quantum chemistry, laboratory experiment and aqueous chemistry modeling. The process will change depending on competing ions, light distribution, acidity and chloride concentration.
Merve Polat, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, Morten Krogsbøll, Thomas Blunier, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 8041–8067,Short summary
We have designed a process for removing methane from a gas stream so that nitrous oxide can be measured without interference. These are both key long-lived greenhouse gases frequently studied in relation to ice cores, plants, water treatment and so on. However, many researchers are not aware of the problem of methane interference, and in addition there have not been good methods available for solving the problem. Here we present and evaluate such a method.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Carl Meusinger, Ulrike Dusek, Stephanie M. King, Rupert Holzinger, Thomas Rosenørn, Peter Sperlich, Maxime Julien, Gerald S. Remaud, Merete Bilde, Thomas Röckmann, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6373–6391,Short summary
Isotope studies can constrain budgets of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is pivotal to air pollution and climate. SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis was found to be enriched in 13C relative to the precursor. The observed difference in 13C between the gas and particle phases may arise from isotope-dependent changes in branching ratios. Alternatively, some gas-phase products involve carbon atoms from highly enriched and depleted sites, giving a non-kinetic origin to the observed fractionations.
Hannah M. Horowitz, Daniel J. Jacob, Yanxu Zhang, Theodore S. Dibble, Franz Slemr, Helen M. Amos, Johan A. Schmidt, Elizabeth S. Corbitt, Eloïse A. Marais, and Elsie M. Sunderland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6353–6371,Short summary
Mercury is a toxic, global pollutant released to the air from human activities like coal burning. Chemical reactions in air determine how far mercury is transported before it is deposited to the environment, where it may be converted to a form that accumulates in fish. We use a 3-D atmospheric model to evaluate a new set of chemical reactions and its effects on mercury deposition. We find it is consistent with observations and leads to increased deposition to oceans, especially in the tropics.
Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Johan A. Schmidt, and Loretta J. Mickley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1557–1569,Short summary
We model pre-industrial to present day changes using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with halogens (Cl, Br, I). The model better captures pre-industrial O3 observations with halogens included. Halogens buffer the tropospheric forcing of O3 (RFTO3) from pre-industrial to present day, reducing RFTO3 by 0.087 Wm−2. This reduction is greater than that from halogens on stratospheric O3 (−0.05 Wm−2). This suggests that models that do not include halogens will overestimate RFTO3by ~ 25%.
Tomás Sherwen, Johan A. Schmidt, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Katja Großmann, Sebastian D. Eastham, Daniel J. Jacob, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Roman Sinreich, Ivan Ortega, Rainer Volkamer, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Cristina Prados-Roman, Anoop S. Mahajan, and Carlos Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12239–12271,Short summary
We present a simulation of tropospheric Cl, Br, I chemistry within the GEOS-Chem CTM. We find a decrease in tropospheric ozone burden of 18.6 % and a 8.2 % decrease in global mean OH concentrations. Cl oxidation of some VOCs range from 15 to 27 % of the total loss. Bromine plays a small role in oxidising oVOCs. Surface ozone, ozone sondes, and methane lifetime are in general improved by the inclusion of halogens. We argue that simulated bromine and chlorine represent a lower limit.
Qianjie Chen, Lei Geng, Johan A. Schmidt, Zhouqing Xie, Hui Kang, Jordi Dachs, Jihong Cole-Dai, Andrew J. Schauer, Madeline G. Camp, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11433–11450,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of sulfate in the marine boundary layer are not well understood, which could result in large uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing. We measure the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate collected in the MBL and analyze with a global transport model. Our results suggest that 33–50 % of MBL sulfate is formed via oxidation of S(IV) by hypohalous acids HOBr / HOCl in the aqueous phase, and the daily-mean HOBr/HOCl concentrations are on the order of 0.01–0.1 ppt.
Anders B. Bluhme, Jonas L. Ingemar, Carl Meusinger, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2669–2673,Short summary
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a malodorous, very poisonous, and flammable gas. It can be detected as SO2 using fluorescence after conversion using a hot catalyst. This technique is well established and as such also recommended by authorities such as the EPA. Our paper describes how at a relative humidity as low as 5 %, significant amounts of H2S pass the instrument undetected. At ambient levels of relative humidity, up to 1/3 of all H2S passes the instrument unnoticed.
L. M. T. Joelsson, J. A. Schmidt, E. J. K. Nilsson, T. Blunier, D. W. T. Griffith, S. Ono, and M. S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4439–4449,Short summary
We present experimental kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for the OH oxidation of CH3D and 13CH3D and their temperature dependence. Our determination of the 13CH3D + OH KIE is novel and we find no "clumped" isotope effect within the experimental uncertainty.
T. A. Berhanu, J. Savarino, J. Erbland, W. C. Vicars, S. Preunkert, J. F. Martins, and M. S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11243–11256,Short summary
In this field study at Dome C, Antarctica, we investigated the effect of solar UV photolysis on the stable isotopes of nitrate in snow via comparison of two identical snow pits while exposing only one to solar UV. From the difference between the average isotopic fractionations calculated for each pit, we determined a purely photolytic nitrogen isotopic fractionation of -55.8‰, in good agreement with what has been recently determined in a laboratory study.
E. J. K. Nilsson, J. A. Schmidt, and M. S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 551–558,
J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, S. Hattori, N. Yoshida, S. Nanbu, and R. Schinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1511–1520,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Airborne measurements of NOx fluxes over Los Angeles during the RECAP-CA 2021 campaignInfluence of anthropogenic emissions on the composition of highly oxygenated organic molecules in Helsinki: a street canyon and urban background station comparisonChanges in surface ozone in South Korea on diurnal to decadal timescales for the period of 2001–2021Characterization of the nitrogen stable isotope composition (δ15N) of ship-emitted NOxVolatile organic compound fluxes in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley – spatial distribution, source attribution, and inventory comparisonExploring the amplified role of HCHO in the formation of HMS and O3 during the co-occurring PM2.5 and O3 pollution in a coastal city of southeast ChinaHigh potential for CH4 emission mitigation from oil infrastructure in one of EU's major production regionsMeasurement report: Source apportionment and environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Lhasa, a highland city in ChinaOH, HO2, and RO2 radical chemistry in a rural forest environment: measurements, model comparisons, and evidence of a missing radical sinkThe atmospheric fate of 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH): spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and deposition to Canadian coastal regionsA single-point modeling approach for the intercomparison and evaluation of ozone dry deposition across chemical transport models (Activity 2 of AQMEII4)Direct observations of NOx emissions over the San Joaquin Valley using airborne flux measurements during RECAP-CA 2021 field campaignTrends and seasonal variability in ammonia across major biomes in western and central Africa inferred from long-term series of ground-based and satellite measurementsA rise in HFC-23 emissions from eastern Asia since 2015Measurement report: Inland ship emissions and their contribution to NOx and ultrafine particle concentrations at the RhineVariation and trend of nitrate radical reactivity towards volatile organic compounds in Beijing, ChinaIntra- and interannual changes in isoprene emission from central AmazoniaLevels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Antarctic atmosphere over time (1980 to 2021) and estimation of their atmospheric half-livesAirborne observations of peroxy radicals during the EMeRGe campaign in EuropeVertical distribution of sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds within a boreal forest canopyO3 and PAN in southern Tibetan Plateau determined by distinct physical and chemical processesTechnical note: Isolating methane emissions from animal feeding operations in an interfering locationParameterizations of US wildfire and prescribed fire emission ratios and emission factors based on FIREX-AQ aircraft measurementsUndetected BVOCs from Norway spruce drive total ozone reactivity measurementsTropospheric Bromine Monoxide Vertical Profiles Retrieved Across the Alaskan Arctic in SpringtimeNitrous Acid Budgets in Coastal Atmosphere: Insights into the Absence of a Daytime Marine SourceMeasurement report: Atmospheric CH4 at regional stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration–Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: measurement, characteristics, and long-term changes of its driversMeasurement report: MAX-DOAS measurements characterise Central London ozone pollution episodes during 2022 heatwavesOH measurements in the coastal atmosphere of South China: possible missing OH sinks in aged air massesPhotochemical aging of aerosols contributes significantly to the production of atmospheric formic acidMeasurement report: Underestimated reactive organic gases from residential combustion – insights from a near-complete speciationQuantification of fossil fuel CO2 from combined CO, δ13CO2 and Δ14CO2 observationsMeasurement report: Hydrogen peroxide in the upper tropical troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa during the CAFE-Africa aircraft campaignA new insight into the vertical differences in NO2 heterogeneous reaction to produce HONO over inland and marginal seasEvaluation of modelled climatologies of O3, CO, water vapour and NOy in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere using regular in situ observations by passenger aircraftChemical identification of new particle formation and growth precursors through positive matrix factorization of ambient ion measurementsSnowpack nitrate photolysis drives the summertime atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) budget in coastal AntarcticaRevealing the sources and sinks of negative cluster ions in an urban environment through quantitative analysisSources and Long-term Variability of Carbon Monoxide at Mount Kenya and in NairobiMeasurement report: Molecular-level investigation of atmospheric cluster ions at the tropical high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesObservations of biogenic volatile organic compounds over a mixed temperate forest during the summer to autumn transitionUnexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Lhasa, the largest city in the Tibetan PlateauReal-time measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the central Indo-Gangetic basin, Lucknow, India: source characterisation and their role in O3 and secondary organic aerosol formationMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertimeMeasurement report: Volatile organic compound characteristics of the different land-use types in Shanghai: spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment and impact on secondary formations of ozone and aerosolO3–precursor relationship over multiple patterns of timescale: a case study in Zibo, Shandong Province, ChinaHigh emission rates and strong temperature response make boreal wetlands a large source of isoprene and terpenesElucidate the formation mechanism of particulate nitrate based on direct radical observations in the Yangtze River Delta summer 2019Pandemic restrictions in 2020 highlight the significance of non-road NOx sources in central LondonMeasurement report: Emission factors of NH3 and NHx for wildfires and agricultural fires in the United States
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Bryan K. Place, Qindan Zhu, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Paul Wooldridge, Benjamin C. Schulze, Caleb Arata, Ryan Ward, Anthony Bucholtz, John H. Seinfeld, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13015–13028,Short summary
NOx is a precursor to hazardous tropospheric ozone and can be emitted from various anthropogenic sources. It is important to quantify NOx emissions in urban environments to improve the local air quality, which still remains a challenge, as sources are heterogeneous in space and time. In this study, we calculate NOx emissions over Los Angeles, based on aircraft measurements in June 2021, and compare them to a local emission inventory, which we find mostly overpredicts the measured values.
Magdalena Okuljar, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Joni Kalliokoski, Hilkka Timonen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Pauli Paasonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Yanjun Zhang, Heidi Hellén, Heino Kuuluvainen, Minna Aurela, Hanna E. Manninen, Mikko Sipilä, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Miikka Dal Maso, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12965–12983,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) form secondary organic aerosol that affects air quality and health. In this study, we demonstrate that in a moderately polluted city with abundant vegetation, the composition of HOMs is largely controlled by the effect of NOx on the biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation. Comparing the results from two nearby stations, we show that HOM composition and formation pathways can change considerably within small distances in urban environments.
Si-Wan Kim, Kyoung-Min Kim, Yujoo Jeong, Seunghwan Seo, Yeonsu Park, and Jeongyeon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12867–12886,Short summary
Surface ozone is a pollutant regulated for public health. This study derived surface ozone trends over South Korea from 2001 to 2021 and highlighted that South Korea has been a nonattainment area since 2010, based on the US EPA standard. However, the occurrences of high ozone condition decreased in spring during the COVID-19 pandemic, partly due to large reductions of ozone precursor concentrations in China and South Korea.
Zeyu Sun, Zheng Zong, Yang Tan, Chongguo Tian, Zeyu Liu, Fan Zhang, Rong Sun, Yingjun Chen, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12851–12865,Short summary
This is the first report of ship-emitted nitrogen stable isotope composition (δ15N) of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The results showed that δ15N–NOx from ships was −18.5 ± 10.9 ‰ and increased monotonically with tightening emission regulations. The selective catalytic reduction system was the most vital factor. The temporal variation in δ15N–NOx was evaluated and can be used to select suitable δ15N–NOx for a more accurate assessment of the contribution of ship-emitted exhaust to atmospheric NOx.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Caleb Arata, Qindan Zhu, Benjamin C. Schulze, Roy Woods, John H. Seinfeld, Anthony Bucholtz, Ronald C. Cohen, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12753–12780,Short summary
The San Joaquin Valley is an agricultural area with poor air quality. Organic gases drive the formation of hazardous air pollutants. Agricultural emissions of these gases are not well understood and have rarely been quantified at landscape scale. By combining aircraft-based emission measurements with land cover information, we found mis- or unrepresented emission sources. Our results help in understanding of pollution sources and in improving predictions of air quality in agricultural regions.
Youwei Hong, Keran Zhang, Dan Liao, Gaojie Chen, Min Zhao, Yiling Lin, Xiaoting Ji, Ke Xu, Yu Wu, Ruilian Yu, Gongren Hu, Sung-Deuk Choi, Likun Xue, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10795–10807,Short summary
Particle uptakes of HCHO and the impacts on PM2.5 and O3 production remain highly uncertain. Based on the investigation of co-occurring wintertime O3 and PM2.5 pollution in a coastal city of southeast China, we found enhanced heterogeneous formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) and increased ROx concentrations and net O3 production rates. The findings of this study are helpful to better explore the mechanisms of key precursors for co-occurring PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Foteini Stavropoulou, Katarina Vinković, Bert Kers, Marcel de Vries, Steven van Heuven, Piotr Korbeń, Martina Schmidt, Julia Wietzel, Pawel Jagoda, Jaroslav M. Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Hossein Maazallahi, Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Sylvia Walter, Béla Tuzson, Jonas Ravelid, Randulph Paulo Morales, Lukas Emmenegger, Dominik Brunner, Michael Steiner, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Antonio Delre, Maklawe Essonanawe Edjabou, Charlotte Scheutz, Marius Corbu, Sebastian Iancu, Denisa Moaca, Alin Scarlat, Alexandru Tudor, Ioana Vizireanu, Andreea Calcan, Magdalena Ardelean, Sorin Ghemulet, Alexandru Pana, Aurel Constantinescu, Lucian Cusa, Alexandru Nica, Calin Baciu, Cristian Pop, Andrei Radovici, Alexandru Mereuta, Horatiu Stefanie, Alexandru Dandocsi, Bas Hermans, Stefan Schwietzke, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Huilin Chen, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10399–10412,Short summary
In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions from onshore oil production sites in Romania at source and facility level using a combination of ground- and drone-based measurement techniques. We show that the total CH4 emissions in our studied areas are much higher than the emissions reported to UNFCCC, and up to three-quarters of the detected emissions are related to operational venting. Our results suggest that oil and gas production infrastructure in Romania holds a massive mitigation potential.
Chunxiang Ye, Shuzheng Guo, Weili Lin, Fangjie Tian, Jianshu Wang, Chong Zhang, Suzhen Chi, Yi Chen, Yingjie Zhang, Limin Zeng, Xin Li, Duo Bu, Jiacheng Zhou, and Weixiong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10383–10397,Short summary
Online volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, with other O3 precursors, were used to identify key VOC and other key sources in Lhasa. Total VOCs (TVOCs), alkanes, and aromatics are half as abundant as in Beijing. Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) consist of 52 % of the TVOCs. Alkenes and OVOCs account for 80 % of the ozone formation potential. Aromatics dominate secondary organic aerosol potential. Positive matrix factorization decomposed residential sources.
Brandon Bottorff, Michelle M. Lew, Youngjun Woo, Pamela Rickly, Matthew D. Rollings, Benjamin Deming, Daniel C. Anderson, Ezra Wood, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Dylan B. Millet, Andrew Weinheimer, Geoff Tyndall, John Ortega, Sebastien Dusanter, Thierry Leonardis, James Flynn, Matt Erickson, Sergio Alvarez, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Joshua D. Shutter, Frank Keutsch, Detlev Helmig, Wei Wang, Hannah M. Allen, Johnathan H. Slade, Paul B. Shepson, Steven Bertman, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10287–10311,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO2), and organic peroxy (RO2) radicals play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and have significant air quality implications. Here, we compare measurements of OH, HO2, and total peroxy radicals (XO2) made in a remote forest in Michigan, USA, to predictions from a series of chemical models. Lower measured radical concentrations suggest that the models may be missing an important radical sink and overestimating the rate of ozone production in this forest.
Jenny Oh, Chubashini Shunthirasingham, Ying Duan Lei, Faqiang Zhan, Yuening Li, Abigaëlle Dalpé Castilloux, Amina Ben Chaaben, Zhe Lu, Kelsey Lee, Frank A. P. C. Gobas, Sabine Eckhardt, Nick Alexandrou, Hayley Hung, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10191–10205,Short summary
An emerging brominated flame retardant (BFR) called TBECH (1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane) has never been produced or imported for use in Canada yet is found to be one of the most abundant gaseous BFRs in the Canadian atmosphere. The recorded spatial and temporal variability of TBECH suggest that the release from imported consumer products containing TBECH is the most likely explanation for its environmental occurrence in Canada.
Olivia E. Clifton, Donna Schwede, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Sam Bland, Philip Cheung, Mhairi Coyle, Lisa Emberson, Johannes Flemming, Erick Fredj, Stefano Galmarini, Laurens Ganzeveld, Orestis Gazetas, Ignacio Goded, Christopher D. Holmes, László Horváth, Vincent Huijnen, Qian Li, Paul A. Makar, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, J. William Munger, Juan L. Pérez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Limei Ran, Roberto San Jose, Sam J. Silva, Ralf Staebler, Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, Eran Tas, Timo Vesala, Tamás Weidinger, Zhiyong Wu, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9911–9961,Short summary
A primary sink of air pollutants is dry deposition. Dry deposition estimates differ across the models used to simulate atmospheric chemistry. Here, we introduce an effort to examine dry deposition schemes from atmospheric chemistry models. We provide our approach’s rationale, document the schemes, and describe datasets used to drive and evaluate the schemes. We also launch the analysis of results by evaluating against observations and identifying the processes leading to model–model differences.
Qindan Zhu, Bryan Place, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Sha Tong, Huanxin Zhang, Jun Wang, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Paul Wooldridge, Benjamin C. Schulze, Caleb Arata, Anthony Bucholtz, John H. Seinfeld, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9669–9683,Short summary
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a hazardous air pollutant, and it is the precursor of short-lived climate forcers like tropospheric ozone and aerosol particles. While NOx emissions from transportation has been strictly regulated, soil NOx emissions are overlooked. We use the airborne flux measurements to observe NOx emissions from highways and urban and cultivated soil land cover types. We show non-negligible soil NOx emissions, which are significantly underestimated in current model simulations.
Money Ossohou, Jonathan Edward Hickman, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Marcellin Adon, Véronique Yoboué, Eric Gardrat, Maria Dias Alvès, and Corinne Galy-Lacaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9473–9494,Short summary
The updated analyses of ground-based concentrations and satellite total vertical columns of atmospheric ammonia help us to better understand 21st century ammonia dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. We conclude that the drivers of trends are agriculture in the dry savanna of Katibougou, Mali; air temperature and agriculture in the wet savanna of Djougou, Benin, and Lamto, Côte d'Ivoire; and leaf area index, air temperature, residential, and agriculture in forests of Bomassa, Republic of Congo.
Hyeri Park, Jooil Kim, Haklim Choi, Sohyeon Geum, Yeaseul Kim, Rona L. Thompson, Jens Mühle, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon O'Doherty, Paul J. Fraser, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9401–9411,Short summary
Based on atmospheric HFC-23 observations, the first estimate of post-CDM HFC-23 emissions in eastern Asia for 2008–2019 shows that these emissions contribute significantly to the global emissions rise. The observation-derived emissions were much larger than the bottom-up estimates expected to approach zero after 2015 due to national abatement activities. These discrepancies could be attributed to unsuccessful factory-level HFC-23 abatement and inaccurate quantification of emission reductions.
Philipp Eger, Theresa Mathes, Alex Zavarsky, and Lars Duester
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8769–8788,Short summary
We investigated the contribution of inland shipping to air pollution at the river Rhine in Germany. Land-based measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were carried out for more than 1 year to provide a realistic estimate for the exposure of people to air pollution close to the riverside. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter relative to the amount of fuel used, as well as their dependence on ship size, engine type and operating conditions, were examined.
Hejun Hu, Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Jie Wang, Zelong Zheng, Xuezhen Xu, Tianyu Zhai, Xiaorui Chen, Xiao Lu, Wenxing Fu, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8211–8223,Short summary
Nitrate radical chemistry is critical to the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secondary organic aerosol formation. This work investigated the level, seasonal variation, and trend of nitrate radical reactivity towards volatile organic compounds (kNO3) in Beijing. We show the key role of isoprene and styrene in regulating seasonal variation in kNO3 and rebuild a long-term record of kNO3 based on the reported VOC measurements.
Eliane Gomes Alves, Raoni Aquino Santana, Cléo Quaresma Dias-Júnior, Santiago Botía, Tyeen Taylor, Ana Maria Yáñez-Serrano, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Jonathan Williams, Pedro Ivo Lembo Silveira de Assis, Giordane Martins, Rodrigo de Souza, Sérgio Duvoisin Júnior, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Matthias Sörgel, Bruce Nelson, Davieliton Pinto, Shujiro Komiya, Diogo Martins Rosa, Bettina Weber, Cybelli Barbosa, Michelle Robin, Kenneth J. Feeley, Alvaro Duque, Viviana Londoño Lemos, Maria Paula Contreras, Alvaro Idarraga, Norberto López, Chad Husby, Brett Jestrow, and Iván Mauricio Cely Toro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8149–8168,Short summary
Isoprene is emitted mainly by plants and can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. But, there are uncertainties in model emission estimates and follow-up atmospheric processes. In our study, with long-term observational datasets of isoprene and biological and environmental factors from central Amazonia, we show that isoprene emission estimates could be improved when biological processes were mechanistically incorporated into the model.
Thais Luarte, Victoria A. Gómez-Aburto, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Nicolas Huneeus, Marco Molina-Montenegro, Claudia Egas, Germán Azcune, Andrés Pérez-Parada, Rainier Lohmann, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jordi Dachs, Susan Bengtson-Nash, Gustavo Chiang, Karla Pozo, and Cristóbal J. Galbán-Malagón
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8103–8118,Short summary
In the last 40 years, different research groups have reported on the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctica. In the present work, we make a compilation to understand the historical trends and estimate the atmospheric half-life of each compound. Of the compounds studied, HCB was the only one that showed no clear trend, while the rest of the studied compounds showed a significant decrease over time. This is consistent with results for polar and sub-polar zones.
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, John Philip Burrows, Birger Bohn, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Theresa Harlaß, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, Flora Kluge, Katja Bigge, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7799–7822,Short summary
The applicability of photostationary steady-state (PSS) assumptions to estimate the amount of the sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) during the EMeRGe airborne observations from the known radical chemistry and onboard measurements of RO2* precursors, photolysis frequencies, and other trace gases such as NOx and O3 was investigated. The comparison of the calculated RO2* with the actual measurements provides an insight into the main processes controlling their concentration in the air masses measured.
Ross Petersen, Thomas Holst, Meelis Mölder, Natascha Kljun, and Janne Rinne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7839–7858,Short summary
We investigate variability in the vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in boreal forest, determined through multiyear measurements at several heights in a boreal forest in Sweden. VOC source/sink seasonality in canopy was explored using these vertical profiles and with measurements from a collection of sonic anemometers on the station flux tower. Our results show seasonality in the source/sink distribution for several VOCs, such as monoterpenes and water-soluble compounds.
Wanyun Xu, Yuxuan Bian, Weili Lin, Yingjie Zhang, Yaru Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Xiaoyi Zhang, Gen Zhang, Chunxiang Ye, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7635–7652,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are both photochemical pollutants harmful to the ecological environment and human health, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the factors determining their variations in the TP have not been comprehensively investigated. Results from field measurements and observation-based models revealed that day-to-day variations in O3 and PAN were in fact controlled by distinct physiochemical processes.
Megan E. McCabe, Ilana B. Pollack, Emily V. Fischer, Kathryn M. Steinmann, and Dana R. Caulton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7479–7494,Short summary
Agriculture emissions, including those from beef and dairy cattle feeding operations, make up a large portion of the United States’ total greenhouse gas emissions, but many of these operations reside in areas where methane from oil and natural gas is prevalent, making it difficult to attribute methane in these areas. This work investigates two approaches to emission attribution for cattle feeding operations and provides guidance for emission attribution in other complicated regions.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Hannah Allen, Eric C. Apel, Katherine Ball, Megan M. Bela, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jason M. St. Clair, James H. Crawford, John D. Crounse, Douglas A. Day, Joshua DiGangi, Glenn Diskin, Alan Fried, Jessica Gilman, Hongyu Guo, Johnathan W. Hair, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem Hannun, Alan Hills, Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Joseph M. Katich, Aaron Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jin Liao, Jakob Lindaas, Stuart A. McKeen, Tomas Mikoviny, Benjamin A. Nault, James A. Neuman, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Jeff Peischl, Anne E. Perring, Felix Piel, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Melinda K. Schueneman, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Joshua P. Schwarz, Kanako Sekimoto, Vanessa Selimovic, Taylor Shingler, David J. Tanner, Laura Tomsche, Krystal Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Rebecca Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, Paul O. Wennberg, Armin Wisthaler, Glenn Wolfe, Caroline Womack, Lu Xu, Robert Yokelson, and Carsten Warneke
This study reports emissions of gases and particles from wildfires. These emissions are related to chemical proxies that can be measured by satellite and incorporated into models to improve predictions of wildfire impacts on air quality and climate.
Steven Job Thomas, Toni Tykkä, Heidi Hellén, Federico Bianchi, and Arnaud P. Praplan
The study employed total ozone reactivity to demonstrate how the emissions of Norway spruce readily react with ozone and could be a major ozone sink, particularly under stress. Additionally, this approach provided insight into the limitations of current analytical techniques that measure the compounds present or emitted into the atmosphere. The study shows how the technique used was not enough to measure all compounds emitted and this could potentially underestimate various atmospheric processes
Nathaniel Brockway, Peter Peterson, Katja Bigge, Kristian Hajny, Paul Shepson, Kerri Pratt, Jose Fuentes, Tim Starn, Robert Kaeser, Brian Stirm, and William Simpson
Bromine monoxide (BrO) strongly affects atmospheric chemistry in the springtime Arctic, yet there are still many uncertainties around its sources and recycling, particularly in the context of a rapidly changing Arctic. In this study, we observed BrO as a function of altitude above the Alaskan Arctic. We found that BrO was often most concentrated near the ground, confirming the ability of snow to produce and recycle reactive bromine and identified four common vertical distributions of BrO.
Xuelian Zhong, Hengqing Shen, Min Zhao, Ji Zhang, Yue Sun, Yuhong Liu, Yingnan Zhang, Ye Shan, Hongyong Li, Jiangshan Mu, Yu Yang, Yanqiu Nie, Jinghao Tang, Can Dong, Xinfeng Wang, Yujiao Zhu, Mingzhi Guo, Wenxing Wang, and Likun Xue
We discovered that nitrous acid (HONO) - an important part of our atmosphere - behaves differently in clean coastal and marine environments compared to polluted areas. The unknown source of HONO could have significant impacts on our atmosphere. As such, our work suggests that more research is needed to understand HONO's role in marine and coastal settings.
Haeyoung Lee, Wonick Seo, Shanlan Li, Soojeong Lee, Samuel Takele Kenea, and Sangwon Joo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7141–7159,Short summary
We introduced three Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) monitoring stations with monitoring systems and measurement uncertainty. We also analyzed the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station. CH4 levels measured at KMA stations are compared to those measured at other Asian stations. From the long-term records of CH4 and δ13CH4 at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia.
Robert G. Ryan, Eloise A. Marais, Eleanor Gershenson-Smith, Robbie Ramsay, Jan-Peter Muller, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, and Udo Frieß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7121–7139,Short summary
We describe the first data retrieval from a newly installed instrument providing measurements of vertical profiles of air pollution over Central London during heatwaves in summer 2022. We use these observations with surface air quality network measurements to support interpretation that an exponential increase in biogenic emissions of isoprene during heatwaves provides the limiting ingredient for severe ozone pollution, leading to non-compliance with the national ozone air quality standard.
Zhouxing Zou, Qianjie Chen, Men Xia, Qi Yuan, Yi Chen, Yanan Wang, Enyu Xiong, Zhe Wang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7057–7074,Short summary
We present OH observation and model simulation results at a coastal site in Hong Kong. The model predicted the OH concentration under high-NOx well but overpredicted it under low-NOx conditions. This implies an insufficient understanding of OH chemistry under low-NOx conditions. We show evidence of missing OH sinks as a possible cause of the overprediction.
Yifan Jiang, Men Xia, Zhe Wang, Penggang Zheng, Yi Chen, and Tao Wang
This study provides the first estimate of high rates of formic acid (HCOOH) production from the photochemical aging of real ambient particles and demonstrates the potential importance of this pathway in the formation of HCOOH under ambient conditions. Incorporating this pathway significantly improved the performance of a widely used chemical model. Our solution irradiation experiments demonstrated the importance of nitrate photolysis in HCOOH production via the production of oxidants.
Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Lingling Yuan, Shengao Jing, Bin Yuan, Guofeng Shen, Liang Zhu, Abigail Koss, Yingjie Li, Qian Wang, Dan Dan Huang, Shuhui Zhu, Shikang Tao, Shengrong Lou, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6633–6646,Short summary
A near-complete speciation of reactive organic gases from residential combustion was developed to get more insights into their atmospheric effects. Oxygenated species, higher hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing species played larger roles in these emissions compared with common hydrocarbons. Based on the near-complete speciation, these emissions were largely underestimated, leading to more underestimation of their hydroxyl radical reactivity and secondary organic aerosol formation potential.
Jinsol Kim, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Scott J. Lehman, Sylvia E. Michel, Vineet Yadav, Nick E. Rollins, and William M. Berelson
In this study, we present the partitioning of CO2 signals from biogenic, petroleum and natural gas sources by combining CO, δ13CO2, and Δ14CO2 measurements. Using measurements from flask air samples at three sites in the greater Los Angels region, we find larger and positive contributions of biogenic signals in winter and smaller and negative contributions in summer. Largest contribution of natural gas combustion generally occurs in summer.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, Roland Rohloff, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Birger Bohn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5929–5943,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide is a key contributor to the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere through its link to the most prominent oxidants controlling its self-cleansing capacity, HOx. During the CAFE-Africa campaign, H2O2 was measured over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa in August/September 2018. The study gives an overview of the distribution of H2O2 in the upper tropical troposphere and investigates the impact of convective processes in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on the budget of H2O2.
Chengzhi Xing, Shiqi Xu, Yuhang Song, Cheng Liu, Yuhan Liu, Keding Lu, Wei Tan, Chengxin Zhang, Qihou Hu, Shanshan Wang, Hongyu Wu, and Hua Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5815–5834,Short summary
High RH could contribute to the secondary formation of HONO in the sea atmosphere. High temperature could promote the formation of HONO from NO2 heterogeneous reactions in the sea and coastal atmosphere. The aerosol surface plays a more important role during the above process in coastal and sea cases. The generation rate of HONO from the NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the sea cases is larger than that in inland cases in higher atmospheric layers above 600 m.
Yann Cohen, Didier Hauglustaine, Bastien Sauvage, Susanne Rohs, Patrick Konjari, Ulrich Bundke, Andreas Petzold, Valérie Thouret, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
The upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UT-LS) is a key region regarding the lower atmospheric composition. This study consists of a comprehensive evaluation of an up-to-date chemistry-climate model in this layer, using regular in situ measurements based on passenger aircraft. For this purpose, a specific software (Interpol-IAGOS) has been updated and made publicly available. The model reproduces particularly well the carbon monoxide peaks due to biomass burning over the continental tropics.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5567–5585,Short summary
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region, a little studied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use, and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differs significantly from that in other ecosystems.
Amelia M. H. Bond, Markus M. Frey, Jan Kaiser, Jörg Kleffmann, Anna E. Jones, and Freya A. Squires
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5533–5550,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) amount fractions measured at Halley Research Station, Antarctica, were found to be low. Vertical fluxes of HONO from the snow were also measured and agree with the estimated HONO production rate from photolysis of snow nitrate. In a simple box model of HONO sources and sinks, there was good agreement between the measured flux and amount fraction. HONO was found to be an important OH radical source at Halley.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5279–5296,Short summary
Atmospheric cluster ions are important constituents in the atmosphere. However, the quantitative research on their compositions is still limited, especially in urban environments. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of an in situ quantification method of cluster ions measured by a high-resolution mass spectrometer and reveal their governing factors, sources, and sinks in urban Beijing through quantitative analysis of cluster ions, reagent ions, neutral molecules, and condensation sink.
Leonard Kirago, Örjan Gustafsson, Samuel M. Gaita, Sophie L. Haslett, Michael J. Gatari, Marie E. Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Christoph Zellweger, Martin Steinbacher, Jörg Klausen, Christian Félix, David Njiru, and August Andersson
This study provides ground-observational evidence that supports earlier suggestions that savanna fires are the main emitters and modulators of carbon monoxide gas in Africa. Using isotope-based technique, the study has shown that about two thirds of this gas emitted from savanna fires, while for urban areas in this case Nairobi city, primary sources approach 100 %. The latter has implications for air quality policy, suggesting primary emissions such as traffic should be targeted.
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4559–4576,Short summary
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from January to May 2018 at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. With state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4123–4148,Short summary
Reactive carbon species emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Predictions of these emissions are based on plant responses during the growing season and do not consider potential effects from seasonal changes. To address this, we made measurements of reactive carbon over a forest during the summer to autumn transition. We learned that observed concentrations and emissions for some key species are larger than model predictions.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3937–3953,Short summary
Lhasa is the largest city in the Tibetan Plateau, and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2997–3014,Short summary
Based on a field campaign in a suburban area of Shanghai during summer 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term on cloudy and rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
Yu Han, Tao Wang, Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Yusen Duan, Song Gao, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2877–2900,Short summary
Limited knowledge is available on volatile organic compound (VOC) multi-site research of different land-use types at city level. This study performed a concurrent multi-site observation campaign on the three typical land-use types of Shanghai, East China. The results showed that concentrations, sources and ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of VOCs varied with the land-use types.
Zhensen Zheng, Kangwei Li, Bo Xu, Jianping Dou, Liming Li, Guotao Zhang, Shijie Li, Chunmei Geng, Wen Yang, Merched Azzi, and Zhipeng Bai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2649–2665,Short summary
Previous box model studies applied different timescales of observational datasets to identify the O3–precursor relationship, but there is a lack of comparison among these different timescales regarding the impact of O3 formation chemistry. Through a case study at Zibo in China, we find that the O3 formation regime showed overall consistency but non-negligible variability among various patterns of timescale. This would be complementary in developing more accurate O3 pollution control strategies.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Tianyu Zhai, Keding Lu, Haichao Wang, Shengrong Lou, Xiaorui Chen, Renzhi Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2379–2391,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is a growing issue in air pollution. Based on comprehensive field measurement, we show heavy nitrate pollution in eastern China in summer. OH reacting with NO2 at daytime dominates nitrate formation on clean days, while N2O5 hydrolysis largely enhances and become comparable with that of OH reacting with O2 on polluted days (67.2 % and 30.2 %). Model simulation indicates that VOC : NOx = 2 : 1 is effective in mitigating the O3 and nitrate pollution coordinately.
Samuel J. Cliff, Will Drysdale, James D. Lee, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Stefan Metzger, and Janet F. Barlow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2315–2330,Short summary
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere are an ongoing air quality issue. This study directly measures emissions of NOx and carbon dioxide from a tall tower in central London during the coronavirus pandemic. It was found that transport NOx emissions had reduced by >73 % since 2017 as a result of air quality policy and reduced congestion during coronavirus restrictions. During this period, central London was thought to be dominated by point-source heat and power generation emissions.
Laura Tomsche, Felix Piel, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus J. Nielsen, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Melinda K. Schueneman, Jose L. Jimenez, Hannah Halliday, Glenn Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Emily Gargulinski, Amber J. Soja, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2331–2343,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and fires are among the poorly investigated sources. During the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) aircraft campaign, we measured gaseous NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) in smoke plumes emitted from 6 wildfires in the Western US and 66 small agricultural fires in the Southeastern US. We herein present a comprehensive set of emission factors of NH3 and NHx, where NHx = NH3 + NH4+.
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Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality...