Articles | Volume 21, issue 20
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15827–15845, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-15827-2021

Special issue: Shipping and the Environment – From Regional to Global...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15827–15845, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-15827-2021
Research article
22 Oct 2021
Research article | 22 Oct 2021

The impact of nitrogen and sulfur emissions from shipping on the exceedance of critical loads in the Baltic Sea region

Sara Jutterström et al.

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Cited articles

Amann, M., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Hettelingh, J.-P., Heyes, C., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Holland, M., Kiesewetter, G., Klimont, Z., Rafaj, P., Posch, M., Sander, R., Schöpp, W., Wagner, F., and Winiwarter, W.: The Final Policy Scenarios of the EU Clean Air Policy Package, TSAP Report #11, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 2014. 
Baltic LINes: Shipping in the Baltic Sea – Past, present and future developments relevant for Maritime Spatial Planning. Project Report I, 35 pp., available at: https://vasab.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Baltic-LINes-Shipping_Report-20122016.pdf (last access: October 2019), 2016. 
Bieser, J., Aulinger, A., Matthias, V., Quante, M., and Builtjes, P.: SMOKE for Europe – adaptation, modification and evaluation of a comprehensive emission model for Europe, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 47–68, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-47-2011, 2011. 
Bobbink, R. and Hettelingh, J.-P. (Eds.): Review and revision of empirical critical loads and dose response relationships, Proceedings of an international expert workshop, Noordwijkerhout, 23–25 June 2010, RIVM-Report 680359002, Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 243 pp., https://doi.org/10.21945/RIVM-680359002, 2011. 
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For the Baltic Sea countries, shipping emissions are an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the contribution of shipping emissions to the acidification and eutrophication of soils and freshwater within the airshed of the Baltic Sea in the years 2012 and 2040. The implementation of emission control areas and improving energy efficiency significantly reduces the negative impact on ecosystems expressed as a decrease in the exceedance of critical loads for sulfur and nitrogen.
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