Articles | Volume 19, issue 24
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in the northwest Indo-Gangetic Plain using a positive matrix factorization model
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S.A.S Nagar, Manauli PO, Punjab, 140306, India
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S.A.S Nagar, Manauli PO, Punjab, 140306, India
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S.A.S Nagar, Manauli PO, Punjab, 140306, India
No articles found.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Gaurav Govardhan, Prodip Acharja, Rachana Kulkarni, Rajesh Kumar, Baerbel Sinha, Vinayak Sinha, Chinmay Jena, Preeti Gunwani, Tapan Kumar Adhya, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 41–59,Short summary
In this study, for the first time in South Asia we compare simulated ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia using the WRF-Chem model and MARGA measurements during winter in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. Since observations show HCl promotes the fraction of high chlorides in Delhi, we added HCl / Cl emissions to the model. We conducted three sensitivity experiments with changes in HCl emissions, and improvements are reported in accurately simulating ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7775–7807,Short summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Vinod Kumar, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Sebastian Donner, Yang Wang, Vinayak Sinha, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14183–14235,Short summary
We present the first long-term MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosols, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde tropospheric columns, vertical distributions, and temporal variation from Mohali in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We investigate the effect of various emission sources and meteorological conditions on the measured pollutants and how they control ozone formation. These measurements are also used to validate the corresponding satellite observations and are also compared against in situ observations.
Ashish Kumar, Vinayak Sinha, Muhammed Shabin, Haseeb Hakkim, Bernard Bonsang, and Valerie Gros
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12133–12152,Short summary
Source apportionment studies require information on the chemical fingerprints of pollution sources to correctly quantify source contributions to ambient composition. These chemical fingerprints vary from region to region, depending on fuel composition and combustion conditions, and are poorly constrained over developing regions such as South Asia. This work characterises the chemical fingerprints of urban and agricultural sources using 49 non-methane hydrocarbons and their environmental impacts.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Lejish Vettikkat, Vinayak Sinha, Savita Datta, Ashish Kumar, Haseeb Hakkim, Priya Yadav, and Baerbel Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 375–389,Short summary
There are several widely grown tree species whose BVOC emission potentials are still unknown. Studies over the Amazon rainforest have reported presence of terrestrial dimethyl sulfide sources. Here, we show that mahogany, which is grown widely in several regions of the world, is a high emitter of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes. With future land use and land cover changes promoting plantations of this tree for economic purposes, its impact on air quality could be quite significant.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Baerbel Sinha, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8129–8156,Short summary
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in the Kathmandu Valley. Combining high-resolution in situ NMVOC data and model analyses, we show that REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. Furthermore, REAS v2.1 overestimates the contribution of residential biofuel use and industries.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Vinod Kumar, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Panday, Khadak S. Mahata, Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhogendra Kathayat, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3979–4003,Short summary
First deployment of PTR-TOF-MS in South Asia. High acetaldehyde and biogenic isoprene concentrations detected even in winter in the Kathmandu Valley. Isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane were detected for the first time in South Asian air. Oxygenated VOCs and isoprene-dominated OH reactivity and ozone production potentials (> 68 % OPP). Regulation of emissions from biomass co-fired brick kilns' by cleaner technology would improve air quality of the valley.
R. F. Hansen, M. Blocquet, C. Schoemaecker, T. Léonardis, N. Locoge, C. Fittschen, B. Hanoune, P. S. Stevens, V. Sinha, and S. Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4243–4264,Short summary
This paper describes and presents results from a intercomparison, in an environment rich in NOx (i.e., NO+NO2), of two OH reactivity instruments: one based on the comparative reactivity method, and one based on the pump-probe method. Co-located measurements were made of both ambient air and standard mixtures. Ambient OH reactivity values measured by both instruments were found to be in good agreement for ambient NOx mixing ratios as high as 100 ppbv.
N. Zannoni, S. Dusanter, V. Gros, R. Sarda Esteve, V. Michoud, V. Sinha, N. Locoge, and B. Bonsang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3851–3865,Short summary
Our manuscript shows results of an intercomparison exercise conducted on two home-built comparative reactivity method (CRM) instruments operating under the same settings for measuring total OH reactivity. Despite the corrections of the raw data sets for instrumental artifacts having different weights on the two CRMs, we found very consistent results for the final processed data of ambient OH reactivity. Furthermore, we present in detail how to validate the instruments and process the raw data.
B. Sinha, K. Singh Sangwan, Y. Maurya, V. Kumar, C. Sarkar, B. P. Chandra, and V. Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9555–9576,Short summary
We use ozone measurements at a suburban site in Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize in Punjab and Haryana for the years 2011-2013. Crop production losses amount to 10.3-20.8 Mt yr-1 for wheat and 3.2-5.4 Mt yr-1 for rice, enough to feed 225-437 million of India’s poor. The lower limit for the ozone-related economic losses is 3.7-6.5 billion USD (Punjab and Haryana), while the upper limit amounts to 3.5-20% of Indian GDP (all of India).
H. Pawar, S. Garg, V. Kumar, H. Sachan, R. Arya, C. Sarkar, B. P. Chandra, and B. Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9501–9520,Short summary
We quantify the contribution of long-range transport to PM levels in the NW-IGP through back-trajectory climatology analysis. Transport from the west significantly enhanced coarse- and fine-mode PM mass loadings during all seasons. Local pollution episodes enhanced coarse-mode PM only during winter and fine-mode PM during winter and summer seasons. South-easterly air masses (source region: SE-IGP) were associated with significantly lower fine- and coarse-mode PM mass loadings during all seasons.
S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859–7868,
V. Sinha, V. Kumar, and C. Sarkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5921–5941,
E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, J. Schneider, L. Poulain, J. Collett, B. D'Anna, B. Fahlbusch, S. Foley, K. W. Fomba, C. George, T. Gnauk, S. Henning, T. Lee, S. Mertes, A. Roth, F. Stratmann, S. Borrmann, P. Hoppe, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4219–4235,
J. A. Adame, M. Martínez, M. Sorribas, P. J. Hidalgo, H. Harder, J.-M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, W. Song, J. Williams, V. Sinha, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, R. Sander, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, J. Lelieveld, and B. De la Morena
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2325–2342,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
M. D. Andrés-Hernández, D. Kartal, J. N. Crowley, V. Sinha, E. Regelin, M. Martínez-Harder, V. Nenakhov, J. Williams, H. Harder, H. Bozem, W. Song, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, Z. Hosaynali Beigi, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5731–5749,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
A. C. Nölscher, V. Sinha, S. Bockisch, T. Klüpfel, and J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2981–2992,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Molecular-level investigation of atmospheric cluster ions at the tropical high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesObservations of biogenic volatile organic compounds over a mixed temperate forest during the summer to autumn transitionUnexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Lhasa, the largest city in the Tibetan PlateauReal-time measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the central Indo-Gangetic basin, Lucknow, India: source characterisation and their role in O3 and secondary organic aerosol formationMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertimeMeasurement report: Volatile organic compound characteristics of the different land-use types in Shanghai: spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment and impact on secondary formations of ozone and aerosolO3–precursor relationship over multiple patterns of timescale: a case study in Zibo, Shandong Province, ChinaHigh emission rates and strong temperature response make boreal wetlands a large source of isoprene and terpenesElucidate the formation mechanism of particulate nitrate based on direct radical observations in the Yangtze River Delta summer 2019Pandemic restrictions in 2020 highlight the significance of non-road NOx sources in central LondonMeasurement report: Emission factors of NH3 and NHx for wildfires and agricultural fires in the United StatesExperimental chemical budgets of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals in rural air in western Germany during the JULIAC campaign 2019Chemical and dynamical identification of emission outflows during the HALO campaign EMeRGe in Europe and AsiaLevels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Antarctic atmosphere over time (1980 to 2021) and estimation of their atmospheric half-lives.Flaring efficiencies and NOx emission ratios measured for offshore oil and gas facilities in the North SeaMeasurement report: Long-range transport and the fate of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the free troposphere derived from observations at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesSnowpack nitrate photolysis drives the summertime atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) budget in coastal AntarcticaFormaldehyde and hydroperoxide distribution around the Arabian Peninsula – evaluation of EMAC model results with ship-based measurementsHeterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the remote troposphere defined by aircraft measurements – correctedFundamental oxidation processes in the remote marine atmosphere investigated using the NO–NO2–O3 photostationary stateEmission factors and evolution of SO2 measured from biomass burning in wildfires and agricultural firesChemical identification of new particle formation and growth precursors through positive matrix factorization of ambient ion measurementsThe unexpected high frequency of nocturnal surface ozone enhancement events over China: characteristics and mechanismsSource apportionment of VOCs, IVOCs and SVOCs by positive matrix factorization in suburban Livermore, CaliforniaMeasurement report: Intra- and interannual variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, central ChinaFormation and impacts of nitryl chloride in Pearl River DeltaMultidecadal increases in global tropospheric ozone derived from ozonesonde and surface site observations: can models reproduce ozone trends?What caused ozone pollution during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown? Insights from ground and satellite observationsAmmonium adduct chemical ionization to investigate anthropogenic oxygenated gas-phase organic compounds in urban airAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationCharacteristics of Negative Cluster Ions in an Urban EnvironmentAre dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in StaffordshireTechnical note: Northern midlatitude baseline ozone – long-term changes and the COVID-19 impactQuantifying the importance of vehicle ammonia emissions in an urban area of northeastern USA utilizing nitrogen isotopesSeasonal variation in nitryl chloride and its relation to gas-phase precursors during the JULIAC campaign in GermanyMeasurement Report: Atmospheric CH4 at regional stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration/Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: measurement, characteristics and long-term changes of its driversRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen in 2018Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station networkMeasurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehicles
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4559–4576,Short summary
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from January to May 2018 at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. With state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4123–4148,Short summary
Reactive carbon species emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Predictions of these emissions are based on plant responses during the growing season and do not consider potential effects from seasonal changes. To address this, we made measurements of reactive carbon over a forest during the summer to autumn transition. We learned that observed concentrations and emissions for some key species are larger than model predictions.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3937–3953,Short summary
Lhasa is the largest city in the Tibetan Plateau, and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2997–3014,Short summary
Based on a field campaign in a suburban area of Shanghai during summer 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term on cloudy and rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
Yu Han, Tao Wang, Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Yusen Duan, Song Gao, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2877–2900,Short summary
Limited knowledge is available on volatile organic compound (VOC) multi-site research of different land-use types at city level. This study performed a concurrent multi-site observation campaign on the three typical land-use types of Shanghai, East China. The results showed that concentrations, sources and ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of VOCs varied with the land-use types.
Zhensen Zheng, Kangwei Li, Bo Xu, Jianping Dou, Liming Li, Guotao Zhang, Shijie Li, Chunmei Geng, Wen Yang, Merched Azzi, and Zhipeng Bai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2649–2665,Short summary
Previous box model studies applied different timescales of observational datasets to identify the O3–precursor relationship, but there is a lack of comparison among these different timescales regarding the impact of O3 formation chemistry. Through a case study at Zibo in China, we find that the O3 formation regime showed overall consistency but non-negligible variability among various patterns of timescale. This would be complementary in developing more accurate O3 pollution control strategies.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Tianyu Zhai, Keding Lu, Haichao Wang, Shengrong Lou, Xiaorui Chen, Renzhi Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2379–2391,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is a growing issue in air pollution. Based on comprehensive field measurement, we show heavy nitrate pollution in eastern China in summer. OH reacting with NO2 at daytime dominates nitrate formation on clean days, while N2O5 hydrolysis largely enhances and become comparable with that of OH reacting with O2 on polluted days (67.2 % and 30.2 %). Model simulation indicates that VOC : NOx = 2 : 1 is effective in mitigating the O3 and nitrate pollution coordinately.
Samuel J. Cliff, Will Drysdale, James D. Lee, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Stefan Metzger, and Janet F. Barlow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2315–2330,Short summary
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere are an ongoing air quality issue. This study directly measures emissions of NOx and carbon dioxide from a tall tower in central London during the coronavirus pandemic. It was found that transport NOx emissions had reduced by >73 % since 2017 as a result of air quality policy and reduced congestion during coronavirus restrictions. During this period, central London was thought to be dominated by point-source heat and power generation emissions.
Laura Tomsche, Felix Piel, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus J. Nielsen, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Melinda K. Schueneman, Jose L. Jimenez, Hannah Halliday, Glenn Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Emily Gargulinski, Amber J. Soja, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2331–2343,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and fires are among the poorly investigated sources. During the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) aircraft campaign, we measured gaseous NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) in smoke plumes emitted from 6 wildfires in the Western US and 66 small agricultural fires in the Southeastern US. We herein present a comprehensive set of emission factors of NH3 and NHx, where NHx = NH3 + NH4+.
Changmin Cho, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Thorsten Hohaus, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Zhaofeng Tan, Ralf Tillmann, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2003–2033,Short summary
With this study, we investigated the processes leading to the formation, destruction, and recycling of radicals for four seasons in a rural environment. Complete knowledge of their chemistry is needed if we are to predict the formation of secondary pollutants from primary emissions. The results highlight a still incomplete understanding of the paths leading to the formation of the OH radical, which has been observed in several other environments as well and needs to be further investigated.
Eric Förster, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Nikos Daskalakis, Alexandros Panagiotis Poulidis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Michael Lichtenstern, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1893–1918,Short summary
The airborne megacity campaign EMeRGe provided an unprecedented amount of trace gas measurements. We combine measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with trajectory-modelled emission uptakes to identify potential source regions of pollution. We also characterise the chemical fingerprints (e.g. biomass burning and anthropogenic signatures) of the probed air masses to corroborate the contributing source regions. Our approach is the first large-scale study of VOCs originating from megacities.
Thais Luarte, Victoria Antonieta Gómez-Aburto, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Nicolás Hunneus, Marco Molina-Montenegro, Claudia Egas, Germán Azcune, Andrés Pérez-Parada, Rainier Lohmann, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jordi Dachs, Susan Bengtson-Nash, Gustavo Chiang, Karla Pozo, and Cristóbal Galbán-Malagón
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In the last 40 years different research groups have reported on the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctica. In the present work we make a compilation to understand the historical trends. We estimate the atmospheric half-life of each compound. Of all the compounds studied HCB was the only one that showed no clear trend, while the rest of the studied compounds showed a significant decrease over time. This is consistent with results for polar and sub-polar zones.
Jacob T. Shaw, Amy Foulds, Shona Wilde, Patrick Barker, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, Ruth Purvis, Ralph Burton, Ioana Colfescu, Stephen Mobbs, Samuel Cliff, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Stuart Young, Stefan Schwietzke, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1491–1509,Short summary
Flaring is used by the oil and gas sector to dispose of unwanted natural gas or for safety. However, few studies have assessed the efficiency with which the gas is combusted. We sampled flaring emissions from offshore facilities in the North Sea. Average measured flaring efficiencies were ~ 98 % but with a skewed distribution, including many flares of lower efficiency. NOx and ethane emissions were also measured. Inefficient flaring practices could be a target for mitigating carbon emissions.
Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Diego Aliaga, Cheng Wu, Samara Carbone, Isabel Moreno, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Liine Heikkinen, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Gaelle Uzu, Eva Partoll, Markus Leiminger, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Laj, Patrick Ginot, Paolo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, Marcos Andrade, Victoria Sinclair, Federico Bianchi, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 895–920,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the ocean, is the most abundant biogenic sulfur emission into the atmosphere. OH radicals, among others, can oxidize DMS to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acid, which are relevant for aerosol formation. We quantified DMS and nearly all DMS oxidation products with novel mass spectrometric instruments for gas and particle phase at the high mountain station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes in free tropospheric air after long-range transport.
Amelia M. H. Bond, Markus M. Frey, Jan Kaiser, Jörg Kleffmann, Anna E. Jones, and Freya A. Squires
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) amount fractions measured at Halley Research Station, Antarctica, were found to be low. Vertical fluxes of HONO from the snow were also measured and agree with the estimated HONO production rate from photolysis of snow nitrate. In simple box model of HONO sources and sinks there was good agreement between the measured flux and amount fraction. HONO was found to be an important OH radical source at Halley.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 99–117,Short summary
We have prepared a unique and unusual result from the recent ATom aircraft mission: a measurement-based derivation of the production and loss rates of ozone and methane over the ocean basins. These are the key products of chemistry models used in assessments but have thus far lacked observational metrics. It also shows the scales of variability of atmospheric chemical rates and provides a major challenge to the atmospheric models.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15747–15765,Short summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air, known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Pamela S. Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Jeff Peischl, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15603–15620,Short summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region – an understudied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use – and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differ significantly from those in other ecosystems.
Cheng He, Xiao Lu, Haolin Wang, Haichao Wang, Yan Li, Guowen He, Yuanping He, Yurun Wang, Youlang Zhang, Yiming Liu, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15243–15261,Short summary
We report that nocturnal ozone enhancement (NOE) events are observed at a high annual frequency of 41 % over 800 sites in China in 2014–2019 (about 50 % higher than that over Europe or the US). High daytime ozone provides a rich ozone source in the nighttime residual layer, determining the overall high frequency of NOE events in China, and enhanced atmospheric mixing then triggers NOE events by allowing the ozone-rich air in the residual layer to be mixed into the nighttime boundary layer.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Xuan Lu, Xiao Li, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14859–14878,Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018–2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment, and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and sources among interannual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develop control strategies.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Yue Tan and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14455–14466,Short summary
We present a timely analysis of the effects of the recent lockdown in Shanghai on ground-level ozone (O3). Despite a huge reduction in human activity, O3 concentrations frequently exceeded the O3 air quality standard during the 2-month lockdown, implying that future emission reductions similar to those that occurred during the lockdown will not be sufficient to eliminate O3 pollution in many urban areas without the imposition of additional VOC controls or substantial decreases in NOx emissions.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catherine Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14037–14058,Short summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas-phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas-phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
The negative cluster ions with specific compositions are measured and quantified through the in-situ measurement of an atmospheric pressure interface high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer in urban Beijing. The governing factors of atmospheric negative cluster ion concentration and composition at polluted urban sites are revealed and the fate of two representative ions in the urban atmosphere is characterized.
Louise Bøge Frederickson, Ruta Sidaraviciute, Johan Albrecht Schmidt, Ole Hertel, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13949–13965,Short summary
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Ian C. Faloona, and Charles A. Mims
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13423–13430,Short summary
Accounting for the continuing long-term decrease of pollution ozone and the large 2020 Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion event improves estimates of background ozone changes caused by COVID-19-related emission reductions; they are smaller than reported earlier. Cooperative, international emission control efforts aimed at maximizing the ongoing decrease in hemisphere-wide background ozone may be the most effective approach to improving ozone pollution in northern midlatitude countries.
Wendell W. Walters, Madeline Karod, Emma Willcocks, Bok H. Baek, Danielle E. Blum, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13431–13448,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia and its products are a significant source of urban haze and nitrogen deposition. We have investigated the seasonal source contributions to a mid-sized city in the northeastern US megalopolis utilizing geospatial statistical analysis and novel isotopic constraints, which indicate that vehicle emissions were significant components of the urban-reduced nitrogen budget. Reducing vehicle ammonia emissions should be considered to improve ecosystems and human health.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Haeyoung Lee, Won-Ick Seo, Shanlan Li, Soojeong Lee, Samuel Kenea, and Sangwon Joo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We introduce 3 monitoring Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations with monitoring system and measurement uncertainty. We also analyzed the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station. We also compared the CH4 levels measured at KMA stations with those measured at other Asia stations. From the long-term records of CH4 and δ13CH4 at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12525–12542,Short summary
We present the OH and HO2 radical observations at the Shenzhen site (Pearl River Delta, China) in the autumn of 2018. The diurnal maxima were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 for OH and 4.2 × 108 cm−3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 23 %–28 % from RO2 radicals during the daytime). The OH underestimation was identified again, and it was attributable to the missing OH sources. HO2 heterogeneous uptake, ROx sources and sinks, and the atmospheric oxidation capacity were evaluated as well.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Amann, M., Bertok, I., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Heyes, C., Hoeglund-Isaksson, L., Klimont, Z., Nguyen, B., Posch, M., Rafaj, P., Sandler, R., Schoepp, W., Wagner, F., and Winiwarter, W.: Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: Modeling and policy applications, Environ. Model Softw., 26, 1489–1501., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.012, 2011. a, b
Bethel, H. L., Atkinson, R., and Arey, J.: Products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with p-xylene and 1, 2, 3- and 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene: effect of NO2 concentration, J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 8922–8929, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp001161s, 2000. a
Bon, D. M., Ulbrich, I. M., de Gouw, J. A., Warneke, C., Kuster, W. C., Alexander, M. L., Baker, A., Beyersdorf, A. J., Blake, D., Fall, R., Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C., Huey, L. G., Knighton, W. B., Ortega, J., Springston, S., and Vargas, O.: Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 2399–2421, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-2399-2011, 2011. a, b
Brown, S. G., Frankel, A., and Hafner, H. R.: Source apportionment of VOCs in the Los Angeles area using positive matrix factorization, Atmos. Environ., 41, 227–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.021, 2007. a
Brown, S. G., Eberly, S., Paatero, P., and Norris, G. A.: Methods for estimating uncertainty in PMF solutions: Examples with ambient air and water quality data and guidance on reporting PMF results, Sci. Total Environ., 518, 626–635, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.022, 2015. a, b
Census: Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, available at: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/Searchdata.aspx (last access: 25 July 2018), 2011. a
Chandra, B., Sinha, V., Hakkim, H., and Sinha, B.: Storage stability studies and field application of low cost glass flasks for analyses of thirteen ambient VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 419, 11–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2017.05.008, 2017. a, b
Chandra, B. P. and Sinha, V.: Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the NW Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide, Environ. Int., 88, 187–197, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.025, 2016. a, b, c, d
Derwent, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Utembe, S. R., Shallcross, D. E., Murrells, T. P., and Passant, N. R.: Secondary organic aerosol formation from a large number of reactive man-made organic compounds, Sci. Total Environ., 408, 3374–3381, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.013, 2010. a
Ensberg, J. J., Hayes, P. L., Jimenez, J. L., Gilman, J. B., Kuster, W. C., de Gouw, J. A., Holloway, J. S., Gordon, T. D., Jathar, S., Robinson, A. L., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Emission factor ratios, SOA mass yields, and the impact of vehicular emissions on SOA formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2383–2397, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2383-2014, 2014. a
Ervens, B., Feingold, G., Frost, G. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: A modeling study of aqueous production of dicarboxylic acids: 1. Chemical pathways and speciated organic mass production, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D15205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004387, 2004. a
Gaimoz, C., Sauvage, S., Gros, V., Herrmann, F., Williams, J., Locoge, N., Perrussel, O., Bonsang, B., d’Argouges, O., and Sarda-Estève, R.: Volatile organic compounds sources in Paris in spring 2007. Part II: source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation, Environ. Chem., 8, 91–103, https://doi.org/10.1071/EN10067, 2011. a, b, c
Ho, K., Lee, S., Guo, H., and Tsai, W.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Hong Kong, Sci. Total Environ., 322, 155–166, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.004, 2004. a
Hopke, P.: Review of receptor modeling methods for source apportionment, J. Air Waste Manage., 66, 237–259, https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2016.1140693, 2016. a
Huang, G., Brook, R., Crippa, M., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Schieberle, C., Dore, C., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., and Friedrich, R.: Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7683–7701, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7683-2017, 2017. a, b
IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42, Supplement 7, available at: https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/suppl7/Suppl7.pdf (last access: 1 April 2019), 1987. a
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited byL Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324, 2013. a
Jobson, B., Alexander, M. L., Maupin, G. D., and Muntean, G. G.: Online analysis of organic compounds in diesel exhaust using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 245, 78–89, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2005.05.009, 2005. a
Karl, T., Jobson, T., Kuster, W. C., Williams, E., Stutz, J., Shetter, R., Hall, S. R., Goldan, P., Fehsenfeld, F., and Lindinger, W.: Use of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry to characterize volatile organic compound sources at the La Porte super site during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4508, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003333, 2003. a
Kesselmeier, J. and Staudt, M.: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC): an overview on emission, physiology and ecology, J. Atmos. Chem., 33, 23–88, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006127516791, 1999. a
Kumar, V., Sarkar, C., and Sinha, V.: Influence of post-harvest crop residue fires on surface ozone mixing ratios in the NW IGP analyzed using 2 years of continuous in situ trace gas measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 3619–3633, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024308, 2016. a, b, c, d
Kumar, V., Chandra, B., and Sinha, V.: Large unexplained suite of chemically reactive compounds present in ambient air due to biomass fires, Sci. Rep., 8, 626, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-19139-3, 2018. a, b
Kurokawa, J., Ohara, T., Morikawa, T., Hanayama, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Fukui, T., Kawashima, K., and Akimoto, H.: Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000–2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11019–11058, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-11019-2013, 2013. a, b
Leuchner, M. and Rappenglück, B.: VOC source–receptor relationships in Houston during TexAQS-II, Atmos. Environ., 44, 4056–4067, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.02.029, 2010. a, b
Li, J., Zhang, M., Wu, F., Sun, Y., and Tang, G.: Assessment of the impacts of aromatic VOC emissions and yields of SOA on SOA concentrations with the air quality model RAMS-CMAQ, Atmos. Environ., 158, 105–115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.03.035, 2017. a
Li, W. and Cocker III, D. R.: Assessment of the impacts of aromatic VOC emissions and yields of SOA on SOA concentrations with the air quality model RAMS-CMAQ, Atmos. Environ., 184, 17–23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.059, 2018. a
Majumdar, D., Mukherjee, A., and Sen, S.: Apportionment of Sources to Determine Vehicular Emission Factors of BTEX in Kolkata, India, Water Air Soil Pollut., 209, 379–388, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9951-1, 2009. a, b
Nagpure, A. S., Ramaswami, A., and Russell, A.: Characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of open burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian cities, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 12904–12912, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03243, 2015. a
Paatero, P.: Least squares formulation of robust non-negative factor analysis, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 37, 23–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(96)00044-5, 1997. a, b
Paatero, P. and Hopke, P. K.: Rotational tools for factor analytic models, J. Chemometr., 23, 91–100, https://doi.org/10.1002/cem.1197, 2009. a, b
Paatero, P. and Tapper, U.: Positive matrix factorization: A non-negative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data values, Environmetrics, 5, 111–126, https://doi.org/10.1002/env.3170050203, 1994. a, b
Paatero, P., Hopke, P. K., Song, X. H., and Ramadan, Z.: Understanding and controlling rotations in factor analytic models, Chemometr. Intell. Lab., 60, 253–264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(01)00200-3, 2002. a
Paatero, P., Eberly, S., Brown, S. G., and Norris, G. A.: Methods for estimating uncertainty in factor analytic solutions, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 781–797, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-781-2014, 2014. a, b, c
Paulot, F., Wunch, D., Crounse, J. D., Toon, G. C., Millet, D. B., DeCarlo, P. F., Vigouroux, C., Deutscher, N. M., González Abad, G., Notholt, J., Warneke, T., Hannigan, J. W., Warneke, C., de Gouw, J. A., Dunlea, E. J., De Mazière, M., Griffith, D. W. T., Bernath, P., Jimenez, J. L., and Wennberg, P. O.: Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1989–2013, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1989-2011, 2011. a
Pawar, H., Garg, S., Kumar, V., Sachan, H., Arya, R., Sarkar, C., Chandra, B. P., and Sinha, B.: Quantifying the contribution of long-range transport to particulate matter (PM) mass loadings at a suburban site in the north-western Indo-Gangetic Plain (NW-IGP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9501–9520, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-9501-2015, 2015. a, b
Ramanathan, V., Cicerone, R. J., Singh, H. B., and Kiehl, J. T.: Trace gas trends and their potential role in climate change, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 90, 5547–5566, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD090iD03p05547, 1985. a
Roberts, J. M., Veres, P. R., Cochran, A. K., Warneke, C., Burling, I. R., Yokelson, R. J., Lerner, B., Gilman, J. B., Kuster, W. C., Fall, R., and de, G. J.: Isocyanic acid in the atmosphere and its possible link to smoke-related health effects, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 8966–8971, 2011. a
Rogers, T., Grimsrud, E., Herndon, S., Jayne, J., Kolb, C. E., Allwine, E., Westberg, H., Lamb, B., Zavala, M., and Molina, L.: On-road measurements of volatile organic compounds in the Mexico City metropolitan area using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 252, 26–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2006.01.027, 2006. a, b
Salameh, T., Afif, C., Sauvage, S., Borbon, A., and Locoge, N.: Speciation of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) from anthropogenic sources in Beirut, Lebanon, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 21, 10867–10877, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2978-5, 2014. a
Salameh, T., Sauvage, S., Afif, C., Borbon, A., and Locoge, N.: Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3595–3607, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3595-2016, 2016. a
Sarkar, C., Sinha, V., Kumar, V., Rupakheti, M., Panday, A., Mahata, K. S., Rupakheti, D., Kathayat, B., and Lawrence, M. G.: Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3979–4003, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3979-2016, 2016. a, b, c, d
Sarkar, C., Sinha, V., Sinha, B., Panday, A. K., Rupakheti, M., and Lawrence, M. G.: Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8129–8156, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-8129-2017, 2017. a, b, c, d, e
Sindelarova, K., Granier, C., Bouarar, I., Guenther, A., Tilmes, S., Stavrakou, T., Müller, J.-F., Kuhn, U., Stefani, P., and Knorr, W.: Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9317–9341, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-9317-2014, 2014. a
Sinha, V., Williams, J., Diesch, J. M., Drewnick, F., Martinez, M., Harder, H., Regelin, E., Kubistin, D., Bozem, H., Hosaynali-Beygi, Z., Fischer, H., Andrés-Hernández, M. D., Kartal, D., Adame, J. A., and Lelieveld, J.: Constraints on instantaneous ozone production rates and regimes during DOMINO derived using in-situ OH reactivity measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7269–7283, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-7269-2012, 2012. a
Sinha, V., Kumar, V., and Sarkar, C.: Chemical composition of pre-monsoon air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new air quality facility and PTR-MS: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5921–5941, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-5921-2014, 2014. a, b, c, d, e
Srivastava, A.: Source apportionment of ambient VOCS in Mumbai city, Atmos. Environ., 38, 6829–6843, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.009, 2004. a, b, c
Srivastava, A., Sengupta, B., and Dutta, S.: Source apportionment of ambient VOCs in Delhi City, Sci. Total Environ., 343, 207–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.10.008, 2005. a, b, c
Stockwell, C. E., Christian, T. J., Goetz, J. D., Jayarathne, T., Bhave, P. V., Praveen, P. S., Adhikari, S., Maharjan, R., DeCarlo, P. F., Stone, E. A., Saikawa, E., Blake, D. R., Simpson, I. J., Yokelson, R. J., and Panday, A. K.: Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11043–11081, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11043-2016, 2016. a, b
Stohl, A., Aamaas, B., Amann, M., Baker, L. H., Bellouin, N., Berntsen, T. K., Boucher, O., Cherian, R., Collins, W., Daskalakis, N., Dusinska, M., Eckhardt, S., Fuglestvedt, J. S., Harju, M., Heyes, C., Hodnebrog, Ø., Hao, J., Im, U., Kanakidou, M., Klimont, Z., Kupiainen, K., Law, K. S., Lund, M. T., Maas, R., MacIntosh, C. R., Myhre, G., Myriokefalitakis, S., Olivié, D., Quaas, J., Quennehen, B., Raut, J.-C., Rumbold, S. T., Samset, B. H., Schulz, M., Seland, Ø., Shine, K. P., Skeie, R. B., Wang, S., Yttri, K. E., and Zhu, T.: Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-10529-2015, 2015. a
Wang, S., Wei, W., Du, L., Li, G., and Hao, J.: Characteristics of gaseous pollutants from biofuel-stoves in rural China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 4148–4154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.040, 2009. a
Wang, Z., Nicholls, S. J., Rodriguez, E. R., Kummu, O., Hörkkö, S., Barnard, J., Reynolds, W. F., Topol, E. J., DiDonato, J. A., and Hazen, S. L.: Protein carbamylation links inflammation, smoking, uremia and atherogenesis, Nat. Med., 13, 1176–1184, 2007. a
Warneke, C., De Gouw, J. A., Kuster, W. C., Goldan, P. D., and Fall, R.: Validation of atmospheric VOC measurements by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using a gas-chromatographic preseparation method, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 2494–2501, https://doi.org/10.1021/es026266i, 2003. a, b
Warneke, C., Kato, S., de Gouw, J. A., Goldan, P. D., Kuster, W. C., Shao, M., Lovejoy, E. R., Fall, R., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Online volatile organic compound measurements using a newly developed proton transfer ion trap mass spectrometry instrument during New England Air Quality Study Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2004: Performance, intercomparison, and compound identification, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 5390–5397, https://doi.org/10.1021/es050602o, 2005. a
Wiedinmyer, C., Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Emmons, L. K., Al-Saadi, J. A., Orlando, J. J., and Soja, A. J.: The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 625–641, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-625-2011, 2011. a
Xie, Y. and Berkowitz, C. M.: The use of positive matrix factorization with conditional probability functions in air quality studies: an application to hydrocarbon emissions in Houston, Texas, Atmos. Environ., 40, 3070–3091, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.065, 2006. a
Xu, J., Griffin, R. J., Liu, Y., Nakao, S., and Cocker III, D. R.: Simulated impact of NOx on SOA formation from oxidation of toluene and m-xylene, Atmos. Environ., 101, 217e225, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.008, 2015. a
Zhong, M., Saikawa, E., Avramov, A., Chen, C., Sun, B., Ye, W., Keene, W. C., Yokelson, R. J., Jayarathne, T., Stone, E. A., Rupakheti, M., and Panday, A. K.: Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide from vehicles and brick kilns and their impacts on air quality in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8209–8228, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-8209-2019, 2019. a
- Full-text XML
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in Mohali in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain. Combining in situ data and model analyses, we show that residential biofuel use and waste disposal emissions as well as the VOC burden associated with solvent use and industrial sources are overestimated by all emission inventories.
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major...