Articles | Volume 17, issue 22
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Diurnal and day-to-day characteristics of ambient particle mass size distributions from HR-ToF-AMS measurements at an urban site and a suburban site in Hong Kong
Berto Paul Lee
School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Division of Environment, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, Maosheng Yao, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13585–13595,Short summary
Incense burning is common in Asia, posing threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full-volatility organic species from incense-burning smoke are detected and quantified. Intermediate-volatility volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total emission factors (EFs) and 40.0 % of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Zhancong Liang, Liyuan Zhou, Xinyue Li, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, Yangxi Chu, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Incense burning is a common religious ritual, especially in Asian and African communities, with massive particles emitted. While previous research mainly focused on the chemical compositions and potential health impacts of fresh incense particles, our work reveals that nitrate, accompanied by SOA, can rapidly form in incense-burning particles upon photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. This finding could deepen our understanding of air pollution caused by religious activities.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3017–3044,Short summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. This paper comprehensively reviews the applications of such a technique in studying atmospheric particles, especially for their physicochemical processing.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Liyuan Zhou, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mattias Hallquist, Christian M. Salvador, Samuel M. Gaita, Åke Sjödin, Martin Jerksjö, Håkan Salberg, Ingvar Wängberg, Johan Mellqvist, Qianyun Liu, Berto P. Lee, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1701–1722,Short summary
The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Carly L. Reddington, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Ben J. Silver, Yong J. Li, Chak K. Chan, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11887–11910,Short summary
We use a high-resolution model over South and East Asia to explore air quality and human health benefits of eliminating emissions from six man-made pollution sources. We find that preventing emissions from either residential energy use, industry, or open biomass burning yields the largest reductions in ground-level particulate matter pollution and its associated disease burden over this region. We also summarize previous estimates of the source-specific disease burden in China and India.
Zhujie Li, Haobo Tan, Jun Zheng, Li Liu, Yiming Qin, Nan Wang, Fei Li, Yongjie Li, Mingfu Cai, Yan Ma, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11669–11685,Short summary
Comprehensive field measurements were conducted to investigate aerosol compositions, optical properties, source origins, and radiative forcing effects in Guangzhou. Particulate brown carbon (BrC) light absorption was differentiated from that of black carbon. BrC was mostly due to primary emissions, such as straw burning, rather than secondary formation. BrC may cause ∼2.3 W m−2 radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and contribute to ∼15.8 % of the aerosol warming effect.
Mingfu Cai, Haobo Tan, Chak K. Chan, Yiming Qin, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16419–16437,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play a critical role in cloud formation which affects solar radiation and climate. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition and used them to predict CCN activity. Our results found that the CCN activity was largely dependent on the hygroscopicity parameter and the surface tension of the particles. Our study highlights the need for evaluating the effects of organics in order to accurately predict CCN activity.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Zhu Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, Cheng Wu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16409–16418,Short summary
We developed the relationship between the chemical and optical characteristics of BrC in Guangzhou, China. We determined wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients of organic aerosol with different sources. The BrC absorption coefficient was associated with N-containing ion fragments and depended on their degrees of unsaturation/cyclization and oxygenation.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Yangxi Chu, Erin Evoy, Saeid Kamal, Young Chul Song, Jonathan P. Reid, Chak K. Chan, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4809–4822,Short summary
The viscosity of erythritol, a tetrol found in aerosol particles, is highly uncertain. To help resolve this uncertainty, we measured the viscosities of erythritol–water particles using rectangular-area fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and aerosol optical tweezers techniques. These results should help improve the understanding of the viscosity of secondary organic aerosol particles. In addition, we present an intercomparison of techniques for measuring the viscosity of particles.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Chunlei Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Chak K. Chan, Yangxi Chu, Mei Li, Tao Zhang, Yubo Ou, Duohong Chen, Peng Cheng, Lei Li, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Bo Huang, Zhong Fu, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9147–9159,Short summary
Particulate amines play an important role for the particle acidity and hygroscopicity. We found amines were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate at a rural site in the PRD, China, suggesting the formation of aminium sulfate and nitrate salts. The ammonium-poor state of amine particles in summer was associated with the low emission sources of ammonia and a possible contribution of ammonium–amine exchange reactions. Amines could be a buffer for the particle acidity of ammonium-poor particles.
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Masao Gen and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14025–14037,Short summary
We propose electrospray-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (ES-SERS) for measuring the surface chemical compositions of atmospherically relevant particles. The observations of surface aqueous sulfate and adsorbed water demonstrate a possible role of the water in facilitating the dissolution of sulfate from the bulk phase into its water layers. ES-SERS of submicron ambient aerosol particles collected in Hong Kong indicated an enrichment of sulfate and organic matter on the particle surface.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Chak K. Chan, Haijie Tong, Changhong Chen, Duohong Chen, Dui Wu, Lei Li, Cheng Wu, Peng Cheng, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Xue Li, Zhijuan Zhang, Zhong Fu, Yanru Bi, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9519–9533,Short summary
Oxalic acid is an abundant and ubiquitous constituent in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can be an effective tracer for the oxidative processes leading to the formation of SOA. In this work photochemical reactions have a significant contribution to oxalic acid formation in summer, while in winter the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.
James W. Grayson, Erin Evoy, Mijung Song, Yangxi Chu, Adrian Maclean, Allena Nguyen, Mary Alice Upshur, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Chak K. Chan, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8509–8524,Short summary
The viscosities of four polyols and three saccharides mixed with water were determined. The results from the polyol studies suggest viscosity increases by 1–2 orders of magnitude with the addition of an OH functional group to a carbon backbone. The results from the saccharide studies suggest that the viscosity of highly oxidized compounds is strongly dependent on molar mass and oligomerization of highly oxidized compounds in atmospheric SOM could lead to large increases in viscosity.
Tengyu Liu, Zijun Li, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7333–7344,Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. In these experiments, SOA was lightly oxidized.
Meike Sauerwein and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6323–6339,Short summary
Heterogeneous uptake is one of the mechanisms influencing the amounts of alkylamines and ammonia in atmospheric particles. The present study investigates the simultaneous uptake of dimethylamine and ammonia at different gas molar ratios into sulfuric and oxalic acid particles at low and high relative humidity. Results showed that the particulate dimethylaminium/ammonium molar ratios changed substantially during the uptake process, depending on the extent of neutralisation and phase state.
Yi Ming Qin, Yong Jie Li, Hao Wang, Berto Paul Yok Long Lee, Dan Dan Huang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14131–14145,Short summary
The source, formation, transformation mechanisms and mixing state of particulate matter (PM) in high episodic events under different meteorological conditions in Hong Kong remain unclear. With high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric measurement, we successfully demonstrated the dynamic and complex nature of PM transformation during high-PM episodes. This study revealed that not only regional transport but also local secondary formation is the culprit for high PM levels.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
C. Sun, B. P. Lee, D. Huang, Y. Jie Li, M. I. Schurman, P. K. K. Louie, C. Luk, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1713–1728,Short summary
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
Y. J. Li, B. P. Lee, L. Su, J. C. H. Fung, and C.K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 37–53,Short summary
(1) NR-PM1 at the HKUST Supersite was highly aged, with a high sulfate content and highly oxygenated organics. (2) Seasonal variation in NR-PM1 concentration was not obvious, but the relative fractions of different species showed strong seasonal dependence. (3) Both NR-PM1 concentrations and the relative fractions showed a strong dependence on air mass origin. (4) Both locally produced and regionally transported organic aerosols contribute to the organic content of PM at this site.
J. W. Meng, M. C. Yeung, Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10267–10282,
Y. J. Li, D. D. Huang, H. Y. Cheung, A. K. Y. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2871–2885,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
Related subject area
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Thomas Audoux, Benoit Laurent, Karine Desboeufs, Gael Noyalet, Franck Maisonneuve, Olivier Lauret, and Servanne Chevaillier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13485–13503,Short summary
In the Paris region, a campaign was conducted to study wet deposition of aerosol particles during rainfall events. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol and wet deposition allowed us to discuss their transfer from the atmosphere to rain. Chemical evolution within events revealed meteorology, atmospheric conditions and local vs. long range sources as key factors. This study highlights the variability of wet deposition and the need to consider event-specific factors to understand its mechanisms.
Ting Yang, Yu Xu, Qing Ye, Yi-Jia Ma, Yu-Chen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Yu-Sen Duan, Chen-Xi Li, Hong-Wei Xiao, Zi-Yue Li, Yue Zhao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13433–13450,Short summary
In this study, 130 OS species were quantified in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in urban and suburban Shanghai (East China) in the summer of 2021. The daytime OS formation was concretized based on the interactions among OSs, ultraviolet (UV), ozone (O3), and sulfate. Our finding provides field evidence for the influence of photochemical process and anthropogenic sulfate on OS formation and has important implications for the mitigation of organic particulate pollution.
Miao Zhong, Jianzhong Xu, Huiqin Wang, Li Gao, Haixia Zhu, Lixiang Zhai, Xinghua Zhang, and Wenhui Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12609–12630,Short summary
This study focus on coal-combustion-dominated aerosol in urban areas in northwestern China and combines the results of optical measurement and chemical analysis to deduce the evolution of these characteristics in the atmosphere, which has previously been unknown. The results provide insights into the effects of atmospheric processes and emissions on brown carbon properties.
Li Wu, Hyo-Jin Eom, Hanjin Yoo, Dhrubajyoti Gupta, Hye-Rin Cho, Pingqing Fu, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12571–12588,Short summary
Hygroscopicity of ambient marine aerosols is of critical relevance to investigate their atmospheric impacts, which, however, remain uncertain due to their complex compositions and mixing states. Therefore, a study on the hygroscopic behavior of ambient marine aerosols for understanding the phase states when interacting with water vapor at different RH levels and their subsequent impacts on the heterogeneous chemical reactions, atmospheric environment, and human health is of vital importance.
Yutong Liang, Rebecca A. Wernis, Kasper Kristensen, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Philip L. Croteau, Scott C. Herndon, Arthur W. H. Chan, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12441–12454,Short summary
We measured the gas–particle partitioning behaviors of biomass burning markers and examined the effect of wildfire organic aerosol on the partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. Most compounds measured are less volatile than model predictions. Wildfire aerosol enhanced the condensation of polar compounds and caused some nonpolar (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) compounds to partition into the gas phase, thus affecting their lifetimes in the atmosphere and the mode of exposure.
Bojiang Su, Xinhui Bi, Zhou Zhang, Yue Liang, Congbo Song, Tao Wang, Yaohao Hu, Lei Li, Zhen Zhou, Jinpei Yan, Xinming Wang, and Guohua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10697–10711,Short summary
During the R/V Xuelong cruise observation over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the mass concentrations of water-soluble Ca2+ and the mass spectra of individual calcareous particles were measured. Our results indicated that lower temperature, lower wind speed, and the presence of sea ice may facilitate Ca2+ enrichment in sea spray aerosols and highlighted the potential contribution of organically complexed calcium to calcium enrichment, which is inaccurate based solely on water-soluble Ca2+ estimation.
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel Moreno R., Noemi Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, Radovan Krejci, Vladislav Chrastny, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10325–10347,Short summary
La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. The sources of particulate matter (PM) in this conurbation were not previously investigated. This study identified 11 main sources of PM, of which dust and vehicular emissions stand out as the main ones. The influence of regional biomass combustion and local waste combustion was also observed, with the latter being a major source of hazardous compounds.
Sayako Ueda, Yoko Iwamoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Mingxu Liu, and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10117–10135,Short summary
We examine iron in atmospheric fine aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during shipborne observations in November 2018. Transmission electron microscopy analysis with water dialysis shows that various types of iron (fly ash, iron oxide, and mineral dust) co-exist with ammonium sulfate and that their solubility differs depending on the iron type. Using PM2.5 bulk samples and global model simulations, we elucidate their origins, aging, and implications for present iron simulations.
Farhan R. Nursanto, Roy Meinen, Rupert Holzinger, Maarten C. Krol, Xinya Liu, Ulrike Dusek, Bas Henzing, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10015–10034,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) is a harmful air pollutant that depends on the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Thus, in different regions and seasons, the way that PM is formed and grows can differ. In this study, we use a combined statistical analysis of the chemical composition and particle size distribution to determine what drives particle formation and growth across seasons, using varying wind directions to elucidate the role of different sources.
Kohei Sakata, Aya Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Yamakawa, Chihiro Miyamoto, Minako Kurisu, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9815–9836,Short summary
Anthropogenic iron is the dominant source of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles, but its contribution to dissolved Fe in aerosol particles has not been quantitatively evaluated. We established the molar concentration ratio of dissolved Fe to dissolved Al as a new indicator to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic iron. As a result, about 10 % of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles was derived from anthropogenic iron when aerosol particles were transported from East Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Li Li, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9597–9612,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has a unique geographical location, but there is a lack of detailed research on the real-time characteristics of full aerosol composition. This study elaborates the changes in chemical characteristics between transport and local fine particles during the pre-monsoon, reveals the size distribution and the mixing states of different individual particles, and highlights the contributions of photooxidation and aqueous reaction to the formation of the secondary species.
Erin K. Boedicker, Elisabeth Andrews, Patrick J. Sheridan, and Patricia K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9525–9547,Short summary
We present 15 years of measurements from a marine site on the northern California coast and characterize the seasonal trends of aerosol ion composition and optical properties at the site. We investigate the relationship between the chemical and optical properties and show that they both support similar seasonal variations in aerosol sources at the site. Additionally, we show through comparisons to other marine aerosol observations that the site is representative of a clean marine environment.
Qian Li, Dantong Liu, Xiaotong Jiang, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Siyuan Li, Kang Hu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Ruijie Li, Kai Bi, Shaofei Kong, Deping Ding, and Chenjie Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9439–9453,Short summary
By attributing the shortwave absorption from black carbon, primary organic aerosol and secondary organic aerosol in a suburban environment, we firstly observed that the photochemically produced nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosol may contribute to the enhancement of brown carbon absorption, partly compensating for some bleaching effect on the absorption of primary organic aerosol, hereby exerting radiative impacts.
Yong Zhang, Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Lu Qi, Manousos Ioannis Manousakas, Yuemei Han, Weikang Ran, Yele Sun, Huikun Liu, Renjian Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Tianqu Cui, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Jay Gates Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9455–9471,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution still frequently occurs in northern China during winter, and it is necessary to figure out the causes of air pollution based on intensive real-time measurement. The findings elaborate the chemical characteristics and source contributions of PM2.5 in three pilot cities, reveal potential formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlling biomass burning and inhibiting generation of secondary aerosol for air quality improvement.
Qi Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Chen, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Wei Hu, Dantong Liu, Pingqing Fu, Huiwang Gao, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9385–9399,Short summary
This study for the first time found large amounts of liquid–liquid phase separation particles with soot redistributing in organic coatings instead of sulfate cores in the eastern Tibetan Plateau atmosphere. The particle size and the ratio of the organic matter coating thickness to soot size are two of the major possible factors that likely affect the soot redistribution process. The soot redistribution process promoted the morphological compaction of soot particles.
Ryan N. Farley, Sonya Collier, Christopher D. Cappa, Leah R. Williams, Timothy B. Onasch, Lynn M. Russell, Hwajin Kim, and Qi Zhang
Soot particles, also known as black carbon (BC), have important implication on global climate and regional air quality. After the particles are emitted, BC can be coated with other material, impacting the aerosol properties. We selectively measured the composition of particles containing BC to explore their sources and chemical transformations in the atmosphere. We focus on a persistent, multiday fog event in order to study the effects of chemical reactions occurring within liquid droplets.
Yuting Lyu, Yin Hau Lam, Yitao Li, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, and Theodora Nah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9245–9263,Short summary
We measured singlet oxygen (1O2*) and triplet excited states of organic matter (3C*) in illuminated aqueous extracts of PM2.5 collected in different seasons at different sites in Hong Kong SAR, South China. In contrast to the locations, seasonality had significant effects on 3C* and 1O2* production due to seasonal variations in long-range air mass transport. The steady-state concentrations of 3C* and 1O2* correlated with the concentration and absorbance of water-soluble organic carbon.
Sophie L. Haslett, David M. Bell, Varun Kumar, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu S. Wang, Suneeti Mishra, Neeraj Rastogi, Atinderpal Singh, Dilip Ganguly, Joel Thornton, Feixue Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, David Hadden, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9023–9036,Short summary
In Delhi, some aspects of daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry are inverted, and parodoxically, vehicle emissions may be limiting other forms of particle production. This is because the nighttime emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) by traffic and biomass burning prevent some chemical processes that would otherwise create even more particles and worsen the urban haze.
Rose Marie Miller, Robert M. Rauber, Larry Di Girolamo, Matthew Rilloraza, Dongwei Fu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Luke D. Ziemba, Sarah Woods, and Kenneth Lee Thornhill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8959–8977,Short summary
The influence of human-produced aerosols on clouds remains one of the uncertainties in radiative forcing of Earth’s climate. Measurements of aerosol chemistry from sources around the Philippines illustrate the linkage between aerosol chemical composition and cloud droplet characteristics. Differences in aerosol chemical composition in the marine layer from biomass burning, industrial, ship-produced, and marine aerosols are shown to impact cloud microphysical structure just above cloud base.
Yiyu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Song, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Chaomin Wang, Caihong Wu, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Sasho Gligorovski, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8855–8877,Short summary
We studied the variability and molecular composition of ambient oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in both gas and particle phases using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Biomass burning and secondary formation were found to be the two major sources of OON. Daytime nitrate radical chemistry for OON formation was more important than previously thought. Our results improved the understanding of the sources and molecular composition of OON in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Frédéric Ledoux, Cloé Roche, Gilles Delmaire, Gilles Roussel, Olivier Favez, Marc Fadel, and Dominique Courcot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8607–8622,Short summary
We quantify the emissions from the marine sector in northern France, whether from natural or human-made sources. Therefore, a 1-year PM10 sampling campaign was conducted at a French coastal site. Results showed that sea salts contributed 37 %, while secondary nitrate and sulfate contributed 42 %, biomass burning 8 %, and heavy-fuel-oil combustion from shipping emissions 5 %. Sources contributing more than 80 % of PM10 are of regional and/or long-range origin.
Shuhui Zhu, Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Dan Dan Huang, Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Changhong Chen, Cheng Huang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7551–7568,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is increasingly important in urban PM2.5 pollution as inorganic ions are becoming lower. We investigated the chemical characteristics of OA during nine episodes in Shanghai. The availability of bi-hourly measured molecular markers revealed that the control of local urban sources such as vehicular and cooking emissions lessened the severity of local episodes. Regional control of precursors and biomass burning would reduce PM2.5 episodes influenced by regional transport.
Karolina Siegel, Yvette Gramlich, Sophie L. Haslett, Gabriel Freitas, Radovan Krejci, Paul Zieger, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7569–7587,Short summary
Hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF) is a recently discovered oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). We present a full year of concurrent gas- and particle-phase observations of HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products from the Arctic. We did not observe significant amounts of HPMTF in the particle phase but a good agreement between gas-phase HMPTF and methanesulfonic acid in the summer. Our study provides information about the relationship between HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products.
Jiaqi Wang, Jian Gao, Fei Che, Xin Yang, Yuanqin Yang, Lei Liu, and Yan Xiang
Regional-scale observations of surface O3, PM2.5 and its major chemical species, mixing layer height (MLH), and other meteorological parameters were made in the North China Plain during summertime. Unlike cold seasons, synchronized increases in MDA8 O3 and PM2.5 under medium MLH condition have been witnessed. The increasing trend of PM2.5 was associated with enhanced secondary chemical formation. The correlation between MLH and secondary air pollutants should be treated with care in hot seasons.
Takuma Miyakawa, Akinori Ito, Chunmao Zhu, Atsushi Shimizu, Erika Matsumoto, Yusuke Mizuno, and Yugo Kanaya
This study conducted semi-continuous measurements of PM2.5 aerosols and their elemental composition in western Japan, during spring 2018. It analyzed the emissions, transport, and wet removal of elements such as Pb, Cu, Fe, and Mn. It also assessed the accuracy of modeled concentrations and found overestimations of BC and underestimations of Cu and anthropogenic Fe in East Asia. Insights into emissions, removals, and source apportionment of trace metals in the East Asian outflow were provided.
Máté Vörösmarty, Gaëlle Uzu, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Pamela Dominutti, Zsófia Kertész, Enikő Papp, and Imre Salma
Poor air quality caused by high concentrations of particulate matter is one of the most severe public health concerns for humans worldwide. One of the most important biological mechanisms inducing adverse health effects is the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. We showed that the oxidative stress changed substantially and in a complex manner with location and season. Biomass burning exhibited the dominant influence, while motor vehicles played an important role in the nonheating period.
Samira Atabakhsh, Laurent Poulain, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Mira Pöhlker, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6963–6988,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol chemical variations found in the rural-background station of Melpitz based on ACSM and MAAP measurements. Source apportionment on both organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (eBC) was performed, and source seasonality was also linked to air mass trajectories. Overall, three anthropogenic sources were identified in OA and eBC plus two additional aged OA. Our results demonstrate the influence of transported coal-combustion-related OA even during summer time.
Yanqin Ren, Gehui Wang, Jie Wei, Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, and Hong Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6835–6848,Short summary
Nine quantified nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 were examined at the peak of Mt. Wuyi. They manifested a significant rise in overall abundance in the winter and autumn. The transport of contaminants had a significant impact on NACs. Under low-NOx conditions, the formation of NACs was comparatively sensitive to NO2, suggesting that NACs would become significant in the aerosol characteristics when nitrate concentrations decreased as a result of emission reduction measures.
Yu Xu, Xin-Ni Dong, Chen He, Dai-She Wu, Hong-Wei Xiao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6775–6788,Short summary
The air pollution associated with fine particles and secondary organic aerosol is not weakened by the application of mist cannon trucks but rather is aggravated. Our results provide not only new insights into the formation processes of aerosol water-soluble organic compounds associated with the water mist sprayed by mist cannon trucks in the road atmospheric environment but also crucial information for the decision makers to regulate the operation of mist cannon trucks in many cities in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Sanja Frka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6571–6590,Short summary
Important marine organic carbon compounds were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and marine aerosol particles. These compounds were strongly enriched in the atmosphere. Their enrichment was, however, not solely explained via sea-to-air transfer but also via atmospheric in situ formation. The identified compounds constituted about 50 % of the organic carbon on the aerosol particles, and a pronounced coupling between ocean and atmosphere for this oligotrophic region could be concluded.
Aliki Christodoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maximillien Desservettaz, Michael Pikridas, Elie Bimenyimana, Jonilda Kushta, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Philippe Goloub, Konstantina Oikonomou, Roland Sarda-Estève, Chrysanthos Savvides, Charbel Afif, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stéphane Sauvage, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6431–6456,Short summary
Our study presents, for the first time, a detailed source identification of aerosols at an urban background site in Cyprus (eastern Mediterranean), a region strongly impacted by climate change and air pollution. Here, we identify an unexpected high contribution of long-range transported pollution from fossil fuel sources in the Middle East, highlighting an urgent need to further characterize these fast-growing emissions and their impacts on regional atmospheric composition, climate, and health.
Tingting Li, Jun Li, Zeyu Sun, Hongxing Jiang, Chongguo Tian, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6395–6407,Short summary
N-NH4+ and N-NO3- were vital components in nitrogenous aerosols and contributed 69 % to total nitrogen in PM2.5. Coal combustion was still the most important source of urban atmospheric NO3-. However, the non-agriculture sources play an increasingly important role in NH4+ emissions.
Yuan Cheng, Xu-bing Cao, Jiu-meng Liu, Ying-jie Zhong, Qin-qin Yu, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6241–6253,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols were explored in the northernmost megacity in China during a frigid winter and an agricultural-fire-impacted spring. BrC was more light absorbing at night for both seasons, with more pronounced diurnal variations in spring, and the dominant drivers were identified as regulations on heavy-duty diesel trucks and open burning, respectively. Agricultural fires resulted in unique absorption spectra of BrC, which were characterized by a distinct peak at ∼365 nm.
Nansi Fakhri, Robin Stevens, Arnold Downey, Konstantina Oikonomou, Jean Sciare, Charbel Afif, and Patrick L. Hayes
The chemical composition of PM2.5 and emission sources as well as potential human health risk associated with trace elements are investigated for an urban site in Montréal over a 3-month period (August–November). To our knowledge, this study represents the first time that such extensive composition measurements were included in an urban source apportionment study in Canada and provides greater resolution of PM2.5 sources than has been previously achieved using PMF in similar Canadian studies.
Lisa Azzarello, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Michael A. Robinson, Alessandro Franchin, Caroline C. Womack, Christopher D. Holmes, Steven S. Brown, Ann Middlebrook, Tim Newberger, Colm Sweeney, and Cora J. Young
We present a molecular size-resolved offline analysis of water-soluble brown carbon collected on an aircraft during FIREX-AQ. The smoke plumes were aged 0 to 5 h where absorption was dominated by small molecular weight molecules, brown carbon absorption downwind did not consistently decrease, and the measurements differed from online absorption measurements of the same samples. We show how differences between online and offline absorption could be related to different measurement conditions.
Christopher J. Hennigan, Michael McKee, Vikram Pratap, Bryanna Boegner, Jasper Reno, Lucia Garcia, Madison McLaren, and Sara M. Lance
This study characterized the optical properties of light-absorbing organic compounds, called brown carbon (BrC), in atmospheric cloud water samples. In all samples, light absorption by BrC increased linearly with increasing pH. There was variability in the sensitivity of the absorption-pH relationship, depending on the degree of influence from fire emissions. Overall, these results show that the climate forcing of BrC is quite strongly affected by its pH-dependent absorption.
Eka Dian Pusfitasari, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Aleksi Tiusanen, Markus Suuronen, Jesse Haataja, Yusheng Wu, Juha Kangasluoma, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Jussila, Kari Hartonen, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5885–5904,Short summary
A miniaturized air-sampling drone system was successfully applied for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and for the measurement of black carbon (BC) and total particle number concentrations in atmospheric air. Here we report, for the first time, the vertical profiles of BC and aerosol number concentrations above the boreal forest in Hyytiälä (Finland) at high altitudes close to the boundary layer in autumn 2021. VOC composition with its distribution was studied as well.
Yifang Gu, Ru-Jin Huang, Jing Duan, Wei Xu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Ying Wang, Haiyan Ni, Quan Liu, Ruiguang Xu, Litao Wang, and Yong Jie Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5419–5433,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be produced by various pathways, but its formation mechanisms are unclear. Observations were conducted in the North China Plain during a highly oxidizing atmosphere in summer. We found that fast photochemistry dominated SOA formation during daytime. Two types of aqueous-phase chemistry (nocturnal and daytime processing) take place at high relative humidity. The potential transformation from primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA was also an important pathway.
Xiaoxiao Li, Yijing Chen, Yuyang Li, Runlong Cai, Yiran Li, Chenjuan Deng, Chao Yan, Hairong Cheng, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Jiming Hao, James N. Smith, and Jingkun Jiang
The near-continuous measurements reveal the composition, sources, and seasonal variations of UFPs in urban Beijing. Vehicle, cooking emissions, and new particle formation are the main sources of UFP numbers and aqueous/heterogeneous processes increase UFP mode diameters in urban Beijing. UFP numbers are the highest in winter due to the highest primary particle emission rates and new particle formation rates, and CHO fractions are the highest in summer due to the strongest photooxidation.
Miaomiao Zhai, Ye Kuang, Li Liu, Yao He, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Yu Zou, Fei Li, Changqin Yin, Chunhui Li, Hanbing Xu, and Xuejiao Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5119–5133,Short summary
Using year-long aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, roles of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) during haze formations in an urban area of southern China were systematically analyzed. Almost all severe haze events were accompanied by continuous daytime and nighttime SOA formations, whereas coordinated gas-phase photochemistry and aqueous-phase reactions likely played significant roles in quick daytime SOA formations, and nitrate radicals played significant roles in nighttime SOA formations.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven G. Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4775–4799,Short summary
Southern Africa produces approximately one-third of the world’s carbon from fires. The thick smoke layer can flow westward, interacting with the southeastern Atlantic cloud deck. The net radiative impact can alter regional circulation patterns, impacting rainfall over Africa. We find that the smoke is highly absorbing of sunlight, mostly because it contains more black carbon than smoke over the Northern Hemisphere.
Rui Li, Yining Gao, Yubao Chen, Meng Peng, Weidong Zhao, Gehui Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4709–4726,Short summary
A random forest model was used to isolate the effects of emission and meteorology to trace elements in PM2.5 in Tangshan. The results suggested that control measures facilitated decreases of Ga, Co, Pb, Zn, and As, due to the strict implementation of coal-to-gas strategies and optimisation of industrial structure and layout. However, the deweathered levels of Ca, Cr, and Fe only displayed minor decreases, indicating that ferrous metal smelting and vehicle emission controls should be enhanced.
Jinyoung Jung, Yuzo Miyazaki, Jin Hur, Yun Kyung Lee, Mi Hae Jeon, Youngju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Cho, Hyun Young Chung, Kitae Kim, Jung-Ok Choi, Catherine Lalande, Joo-Hong Kim, Taejin Choi, Young Jun Yoon, Eun Jin Yang, and Sung-Ho Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4663–4684,Short summary
This study examined the summertime fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols over the western Arctic Ocean. We found that the WSOC in fine-mode aerosols in coastal areas showed a higher polycondensation degree and aromaticity than in sea-ice-covered areas. The fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC in the summertime marine Arctic boundary can improve our understanding of the WSOC chemical and biological linkages at the ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interface.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Jianjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4343–4359,Short summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequency of new particle formation (NPF) events at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau: 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher frequency of southerly air masses, which brought the organic precursors to participate in the NPF process. It increased the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect earth's radiation balance.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3955–3983,Short summary
We measured the chemical composition of ambient ions at a coastal New Zealand site and connected these data with aerosol size distribution data to study the chemical precursors of new particle formation at the site. Our results showed that iodine oxides and sulfur species were important for particle formation in marine air, while in land-influenced air sulfuric acid and organics were connected to new particle formation events.
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andres Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo González-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3861–3885,Short summary
Desert dust is a major aerosol component of the Earth system and affects the climate. Dust properties are influenced by particle size, mineralogy, shape, and mixing state. This work characterizes freshly emitted individual mineral dust particles from a major source region using electron microscopy. Our new insights into critical particle-specific information will contribute to better constraining climate models that consider mineralogical variations in their representation of the dust cycle.
Xing Wei, Yanjie Shen, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, Ming Chu, Yujiao Zhu, and Xiaohong Yao
To investigate the contribution of grown new particles to Nccn at a rural mountain site in North China Plain. The total particle number concentrations (Ncn) observed on eight NPF days were higher compared to non-NPF days. The Nccn at 0.2 %SS and 0.4 %SS on the NPF days were, however, significantly lower than those observed on non-NPF days. We concluded that grown new particles generally had no detectable contribution to Nccn, but incidentally did.
Huanhuan Zhang, Rui Li, Chengpeng Huang, Xiaofei Li, Shuwei Dong, Fu Wang, Tingting Li, Yizhu Chen, Guohua Zhang, Yan Ren, Qingcai Chen, Ru-jin Huang, Siyu Chen, Tao Xue, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3543–3559,Short summary
This work investigated the seasonal variation of aerosol Fe solubility for coarse and fine particles in Xi’an, a megacity in northwestern China severely affected by anthropogenic emission and desert dust aerosol. In addition, we discussed in depth what controlled aerosol Fe solubility at different seasons for coarse and fine particles.
Yiqun Lu, Yingge Ma, Dan Dan Huang, Shengrong Lou, Sheng'ao Jing, Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Hui Chen, Yunhua Chang, Naiqiang Yan, Jianmin Chen, Christian George, Matthieu Riva, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3233–3245,Short summary
N-containing oxygenated organic molecules have been identified as important precursors of aerosol particles. We used an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with an online sample inlet to accurately measure their molecular composition, concentration level and variation patterns. We show their formation process and influencing factors in a Chinese megacity involving various volatile organic compound precursors and atmospheric oxidants, and we highlight the influence of PM2.5 episodes.
Boming Liu, Xin Ma, Jianping Guo, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yingying Ma, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3181–3193,Short summary
Wind energy is one of the most essential clean and renewable forms of energy in today’s world. However, the traditional power law method generally estimates the hub-height wind speed by assuming a constant exponent between surface and hub-height wind speeds. This inevitably leads to significant uncertainties in estimating the wind speed profile. To minimize the uncertainties, we here use a machine learning algorithm known as random forest to estimate the wind speed at hub height.
Abbatt, J. P. D., Broekhuizen, K., and Kumal, P. P.: Cloud condensation nucleus activity of internally mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid aerosol particles, Atmos. Environ., 39, 4767–4778, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.029, 2005.
Ahlquist, N. C. and Charlson, R. J.: A New Instrument for Evaluating the Visual Quality of Air, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 17, 467–469, https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1967.10469006, 1967.
Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Gaffney, J., Marley, N. A., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) – Part 1: Fine particle composition and organic source apportionment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6633–6653, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-6633-2009, 2009.
Bahreini, R., Dunlea, E. J., Matthew, B. M., Simons, C., Docherty, K. S., DeCarlo, P. F., Jimenez, J. L., Brock, C. A., and Middlebrook, A. M.: Design and operation of a pressure-controlled inlet for airborne sampling with an aerodynamic aerosol lens, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 42, 465–471, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820802178514, 2008.
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Cheung, K., Ling, Z. H., Wang, D. W., Wang, Y., Guo, H., Lee, B., Li, Y. J., and Chan, C. K.: Characterization and source identification of sub-micron particles at the HKUST Supersite in Hong Kong, Sci. Total Environ., 527–528, 287–296, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.087, 2015.
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The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines...