Articles | Volume 14, issue 14
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea
Konkuk University, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Seoul, Korea
Konkuk University, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Seoul, Korea
R. S. Park
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju, Korea
C. H. Song
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju, Korea
Green-ECOS, Seoul, Korea
National Institute of Environmental Research, Air Quality Research Division, Incheon, Korea
National Institute of Environmental Research, Air Quality Research Division, Incheon, Korea
No articles found.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Tim Butler, Terry Keating, Rosa Wu, Jacek Kaminski, Jeroen Kuenen, Junichi Kurokawa, Satoru Chatani, Tazuko Morikawa, George Pouliot, Jacinthe Racine, Michael D. Moran, Zbigniew Klimont, Patrick M. Manseau, Rabab Mashayekhi, Barron H. Henderson, Steven J. Smith, Harrison Suchyta, Marilena Muntean, Efisio Solazzo, Manjola Banja, Edwin Schaaf, Federico Pagani, Jung-Hun Woo, Jinseok Kim, Fabio Monforti-Ferrario, Enrico Pisoni, Junhua Zhang, David Niemi, Mourad Sassi, Tabish Ansari, and Kristen Foley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This study responds to the need of the global and regional atmospheric modelling community of having a mosaic of air pollutant emissions with global coverage, long time series, spatially distributed data at high time resolution, and high sectoral resolution to enhance the understanding on transboundary air pollution. The mosaic approach of integrating official regional emission inventories with a global inventory based on a consistent methodology ensures policy relevant results.
Bok H. Baek, Rizzieri Pedruzzi, Minwoo Park, Chi-Tsan Wang, Younha Kim, Chul-Han Song, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4757–4781,Short summary
The Comprehensive Automobile Research System (CARS) is an open-source Python-based automobile emissions inventory model designed to efficiently estimate high-quality emissions. The CARS is designed to utilize the local vehicle activity database, such as vehicle travel distance, road-link-level network information, and vehicle-specific average speed by road type, to generate a temporally and spatially enhanced inventory for policymakers, stakeholders, and the air quality modeling community.
Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, Carolyn E. Jordan, Benjamin A. Nault, Hwajin Kim, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Shixian Zhai, Xuan Wang, Erin E. McDuffie, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Saewung Kim, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Limseok Chang, and Michelle J. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7933–7958,Short summary
The 2016 Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign provided a unique set of observations to improve our understanding of PM2.5 pollution in South Korea. Models typically have errors in simulating PM2.5 in this region, which is of concern for the development of control measures. We use KORUS-AQ observations to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving PM2.5 and the implications of model errors for determining PM2.5 that is attributable to local or foreign sources.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2773–2790,Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation and even superior to 3D-Var. The reduced MBs in 24 h predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving ICs and BCs, respectively.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin Raeder, Simone Tilmes, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Avelino F. Arellano Jr., Nellie Elguindi, Claire Granier, Wenfu Tang, Jérôme Barré, Helen M. Worden, Rebecca R. Buchholz, David P. Edwards, Philipp Franke, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Marielle Saunois, Jason Schroeder, Jung-Hun Woo, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Simone Meinardi, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Alex Teng, Michelle Kim, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sally E. Pusede, and Glenn S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14617–14647,Short summary
This study investigates carbon monoxide pollution in East Asia during spring using a numerical model, satellite remote sensing, and aircraft measurements. We found an underestimation of emission sources. Correcting the emission bias can improve air quality forecasting of carbon monoxide and other species including ozone. Results also suggest that controlling VOC and CO emissions, in addition to widespread NOx controls, can improve ozone pollution over East Asia.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Arman Pouyaei, Yunsoo Choi, Jia Jung, Bavand Sadeghi, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3489–3505,Short summary
This paper introduces a novel Lagrangian model (Concentration Trajectory of Air pollution with an Integrated Lagrangian model, C-TRAIL) for showing the source and receptor areas by following polluted air masses. To investigate the concentrations and trajectories of air masses simultaneously, we use the trajectory-grid (TG) Lagrangian advection model. The TG model follows the concentrations of representative air
packetsof species along trajectories determined by the wind field.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Sojin Lee, Chul Han Song, Kyung Man Han, Daven K. Henze, Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Jia Jung, Yunsoo Choi, Pablo E. Saide, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Sojin Lee, Mieun Park, Hun Hong, Soon Young Park, Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Younha Kim, Jung-Hun Woo, Sang-Woo Kim, and Chul H. Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1055–1073,Short summary
For the purpose of providing reliable and robust air quality predictions, an operational air quality prediction system was developed for the main air quality criteria species in South Korea (PM10, PM2.5, CO, O3 and SO2) by preparing the initial conditions for model simulations via data assimilation using satellite- and ground-based observations. The performance of the developed air quality prediction system was evaluated using ground in situ data during the KORUS-AQ campaign period.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Hyun S. Kim, Inyoung Park, Chul H. Song, Kyunghwa Lee, Jae W. Yun, Hong K. Kim, Moongu Jeon, Jiwon Lee, and Kyung M. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12935–12951,Short summary
In this study, a deep recurrent neural network system based on a long short-term memory (LSTM) model was developed for daily PM10 and PM2.5 predictions in South Korea. In general, the accuracies of the LSTM-based predictions were superior to the 3-D CTM-based predictions. Based on this, we concluded that the LSTM-based system could be applied to daily operational PM forecasts in South Korea. We expect that similar AI systems can be applied to the predictions of other atmospheric pollutants.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Pablo E. Saide, Lok N. Lamsal, Benjamin de Foy, Zifeng Lu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jinseok Kim, Meng Gao, Gregory Carmichael, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1801–1818,Short summary
Using satellite data, we are able to estimate the emissions of NOx (NOx=NO+NO2), a toxic group of air pollutants, in the Seoul metropolitan area. We first develop an enhanced satellite product that better observes NO2 in urban regions. Using this new product, we derive NOx emissions to be twice as large as the emissions reported by the South Korean government. The implication is that the measures taken to reduce NOx emissions in South Korea have not been as effective as regulators have thought.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Wenfu Tang, Avelino F. Arellano, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Mark Parrington, Sebastien Massart, Benjamin Gaubert, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Jinsang Jung, Jinkyu Hong, Je-Woo Hong, Yugo Kanaya, Mindo Lee, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, James H. Flynn, and Jung-Hun Woo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11007–11030,
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Jaehwa Lee, Mijin Kim, Young-Je Park, Brent Holben, Thomas F. Eck, Zhengqiang Li, and Chul H. Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 385–408,Short summary
This study is a major version upgrade of the aerosol product from GOCI, the first and unique ocean color imager in geostationary earth orbit. It describes the improvement of version 2 of the GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm for near-real-time processing with improved accuracy from the modification of cloud masking, surface reflectance, etc. The product is validated against AERONET/SONET over East Asia with analyses of various errors features, and a pixel-level uncertainty is calculated.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Jaehwa Lee, Mijin Kim, Young-Je Park, Ukkyo Jeong, Woogyung Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Brent Holben, Thomas F. Eck, Chul H. Song, Jae-Hyun Lim, and Chang-Keun Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1377–1398,Short summary
The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first ocean color sensor in geostationary orbit. It enables hourly aerosol optical properties to be observed in high spatial resolution. This study presents improvements of the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and its validation results using ground-based and other satellite-based observation products during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 Campaign. Retrieval errors are also analyzed according to various factors through the validation studies.
S. Lee, C. H. Song, R. S. Park, M. E. Park, K. M. Han, J. Kim, M. Choi, Y. S. Ghim, and J.-H. Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 17–39,Short summary
We developed an integrated air quality modeling system using AOD data retrieved from a geostationary satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager), over Northeast Asia with an application of the spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method and conducted short-term hindcast runs using the developed system. It appears that the STK approach can greatly reduce not only the errors and biases of AOD and PM10 predictions but also the computational burden of a chemical weather forecast (CWF).
K. M. Han, S. Lee, L. S. Chang, and C. H. Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1913–1938,
S. Seo, J. Kim, H. Lee, U. Jeong, W. Kim, B. N. Holben, S.-W. Kim, C. H. Song, and J. H. Lim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 319–334,Short summary
The estimation of PM10 from optical measurement of AERONET and MODIS by various empirical models was evaluated for the DRAGON-Asia campaign. The results showed the importance of boundary layer height (BLH) and effective radius (Reff) in estimating PM10. The highest correlation between the estimated and measured values was found to be 0.81 in winter due to the stagnant air mass and low BLH, while the poorest values were 0.54 in spring due to the influence of long-range transport above BLH.
R. J. Park, S. K. Hong, H.-A. Kwon, S. Kim, A. Guenther, J.-H. Woo, and C. P. Loughner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7929–7940,
S. X. Wang, B. Zhao, S. Y. Cai, Z. Klimont, C. P. Nielsen, T. Morikawa, J. H. Woo, Y. Kim, X. Fu, J. Y. Xu, J. M. Hao, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6571–6603,
R. S. Park, S. Lee, S.-K. Shin, and C. H. Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2185–2201,
M. E. Park, C. H. Song, R. S. Park, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Lee, J.-H. Woo, G. R. Carmichael, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, S.-S. Lee, C. K. Song, and Y. D. Hong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 659–674,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Exploring the drivers of tropospheric hydroxyl radical trends in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory AM4.1 atmospheric chemistry–climate modelImpacts of land cover changes on biogenic emission and its contribution to ozone and secondary organic aerosol in ChinaHigh-resolution regional emission inventory contributes to the evaluation of policy effectiveness: a case study in Jiangsu Province, ChinaWhy is ozone in South Korea and the Seoul metropolitan area so high and increasing?Vehicular ammonia emissions: an underappreciated emission source in densely populated areasImproving ozone simulations in Asia via multisource data assimilation: results from an observing system simulation experiment with GEMS geostationary satellite observationsA three-dimensional simulation and process analysis of tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) during the springtime in the Arctic using CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System)A high-resolution satellite-based map of global methane emissions reveals missing wetland, fossil fuel, and monsoon sourcesGlobal impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on surface concentration and health risk of atmospheric benzeneVariable effects of spatial resolution on modeling of nitrogen oxidesTropospheric NO2 vertical profiles over South Korea and their relation to oxidant chemistry: implications for geostationary satellite retrievals and the observation of NO2 diurnal variation from spacePotential impact of shipping on air pollution in the Mediterranean region – a multimodel evaluation: comparison of photooxidants NO2 and O3Summertime ozone pollution in China affected by stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillationDeclining, seasonal-varying emissions of sulfur hexafluoride from the United StatesNitrogen oxides in the free troposphere: implications for tropospheric oxidants and the interpretation of satellite NO2 measurementsClimate-driven deterioration of future ozone pollution in Asia predicted by machine learning with multi-source dataReconciling the bottom-up and top-down estimates of the methane chemical sink using multiple observationsArctic tropospheric ozone: assessment of current knowledge and model performanceEstimating Methane Emissions in the Arctic nations using surface observations from 2008 to 2019Chloride (HCl ∕ Cl−) dominates inorganic aerosol formation from ammonia in the Indo-Gangetic Plain during winter: modeling and comparison with observationsInferring and evaluating satellite-based constraints on NOx emissions estimates in air quality simulationsImpact of HO2 aerosol uptake on radical levels and O3 production during summertime in BeijingHow do Cl concentrations matter for the simulation of CH4 and δ13C(CH4) and estimation of the CH4 budget through atmospheric inversions?Cluster-based characterization of multi-dimensional tropospheric ozone variability in coastal regions: an analysis of lidar measurements and model resultsSource attribution of near-surface ozone trends in the United States during 1995–2019Examining the implications of photochemical indicators for O3–NOx–VOC sensitivity and control strategies: a case study in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), ChinaEvaluation of isoprene nitrate chemistry in detailed chemical mechanismsSixteen years of MOPITT satellite data strongly constrain Amazon CO fire emissionsLarge Simulated Future Changes in the Nitrate Radical Under the CMIP6 SSP Scenarios: Implications for Oxidation ChemistryComparison of model and ground observations finds snowpack and blowing snow aerosols both contribute to Arctic tropospheric reactive bromineContinuous weekly monitoring of methane emissions from the Permian Basin by inversion of TROPOMI satellite observationsBackground nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the United States and its implications for satellite observations and trends: effects of nitrate photolysis, aircraft, and open firesAssimilation of S5P/TROPOMI carbon monoxide data with the global CAMS near-real-time systemCOVID-19 lockdown emission reductions have the potential to explain over half of the coincident increase in global atmospheric methaneTransport patterns of global aviation NOx and their short-term O3 radiative forcing – a machine learning approachInverse modelling of Chinese NOx emissions using deep learning: integrating in situ observations with a satellite-based chemical reanalysisSources of surface O3 in the UK: tagging O3 within WRF-ChemGlobal tropospheric ozone trends, attributions, and radiative impacts in 1995–2017: an integrated analysis using aircraft (IAGOS) observations, ozonesonde, and multi-decadal chemical model simulationsOzone depletion events in the Arctic spring of 2019: a new modeling approach to bromine emissionsHigh-resolution inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions using the novel FLEXPART-COSMO TM5 4DVAR inverse modelling systemFour-dimensional variational assimilation for SO2 emission and its application around the COVID-19 lockdown in the spring 2020 over ChinaChanging ozone sensitivity in the South Coast Air Basin during the COVID-19 periodModelling the growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide using a global hierarchical inversionLong-term regional trends of nitrogen and sulfur deposition in the United States from 2002 to 2017Impact of urbanization on gas-phase pollutant concentrations: a regional-scale, model-based analysis of the contributing factorsCorrecting ozone biases in a global chemistry–climate model: implications for future ozoneEvaluating the contribution of the unexplored photochemistry of aldehydes on the tropospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2)The ozone–climate penalty over South America and Africa by 2100An improved representation of fire non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) in models: emissions to reactivityImpact of present and future aircraft NOx and aerosol emissions on atmospheric composition and associated direct radiative forcing of climate
Glen Chua, Vaishali Naik, and Larry Wayne Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4955–4975,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is an atmospheric
detergent, removing air pollutants and greenhouse gases like methane from the atmosphere. Thus, understanding how it is changing and responding to its various drivers is important for air quality and climate. We found that OH has increased by about 5 % globally from 1980 to 2014 in our model, mostly driven by increasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. This suggests potential climate tradeoffs from air quality policies solely targeting NOx emissions.
Jinlong Ma, Shengqiang Zhu, Siyu Wang, Peng Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4311–4325,Short summary
An updated version of the CMAQ model with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from MEGAN was applied to study the impacts of different land cover inputs on O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in China. The estimated BVOC emissions ranged from 25.42 to 37.39 Tg using different leaf area index (LAI) and land cover (LC) inputs. Those differences further induced differences of 4.8–6.9 ppb in O3 concentrations and differences of 5.3–8.4 µg m−3 in SOA concentrations in China.
Chen Gu, Lei Zhang, Zidie Xu, Sijia Xia, Yutong Wang, Li Li, Zeren Wang, Qiuyue Zhao, Hanying Wang, and Yu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4247–4269,Short summary
We demonstrated the development of a high-resolution emission inventory and its application to evaluate the effectiveness of emission control actions, by incorporating the improved methodology, the best available data, and air quality modeling. We show that substantial efforts for emission controls indeed played an important role in air quality improvement even with worsened meteorological conditions and that the contributions of individual measures to emission reduction were greatly changing.
Nadia K. Colombi, Daniel J. Jacob, Laura Hyesung Yang, Shixian Zhai, Viral Shah, Stuart K. Grange, Robert M. Yantosca, Soontae Kim, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4031–4044,Short summary
Surface ozone, detrimental to human and ecosystem health, is very high and increasing in South Korea. Using a global model of the atmosphere, we found that emissions from South Korea and China contribute equally to the high ozone observed. We found that in the absence of all anthropogenic emissions over East Asia, ozone is still very high, implying that the air quality standard in South Korea is not practically achievable unless this background external to East Asia can be decreased.
Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3819–3828,Short summary
This study established a high-resolution vehicular NH3 emission inventory for mainland China to quantify the absolute value and relative importance of on-road NH3 emissions for different regions, seasons and population densities. Our results indicate that the significant role of on-road NH3 emissions in populated urban areas may have been underappreciated, suggesting the control of vehicular NH3 emission can be a feasible and cost-effective way of mitigating haze pollution in urban areas.
Lei Shu, Lei Zhu, Juseon Bak, Peter Zoogman, Han Han, Song Liu, Xicheng Li, Shuai Sun, Juan Li, Yuyang Chen, Dongchuan Pu, Xiaoxing Zuo, Weitao Fu, Xin Yang, and Tzung-May Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3731–3748,Short summary
We quantify the benefit of multisource observations (GEMS, LEO satellite, and surface) on ozone simulations in Asia. Data assimilation improves the monitoring of exceedance, spatial pattern, and diurnal variation of surface ozone, with the regional mean bias reduced from −2.1 to −0.2 ppbv. Data assimilation also better represents ozone vertical distributions in the middle to upper troposphere at low latitudes. Our results offer a valuable reference for future ozone simulations.
Le Cao, Simeng Li, Yicheng Gu, and Yuhan Luo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3363–3382,Short summary
We performed a 3-D mesoscale model study on ozone depletion events (ODEs) occurring in the spring of 2019 at Barrow using an air quality model, CMAQ. Many ODEs observed at Barrow were captured by the model, and the contribution from each physical or chemical process to ozone and bromine species during ODEs was quantitatively evaluated. We found the ODEs at Barrow to be strongly influenced by horizontal transport. In contrast, over the sea, local chemistry significantly reduced the surface ozone.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Daven K. Henze, Alexander J. Turner, Alba Lorente Delgado, A. Anthony Bloom, and Jianxiong Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3325–3346,Short summary
We combine satellite measurements with a novel downscaling method to map global methane emissions at 0.1°×0.1° resolution. These fine-scale emission estimates reveal unreported emission hotspots and shed light on the roles of agriculture, wetlands, and fossil fuels for regional methane budgets. The satellite-derived emissions point in particular to missing fossil fuel emissions in the Middle East and to a large emission underestimate in South Asia that appears to be tied to monsoon rainfall.
Chaohao Ling, Lulu Cui, and Rui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3311–3324,Short summary
An ensemble machine-learning model coupled with chemical transport models (CTMs) was applied to assess the impact of COVID-19 on ambient benzene. The change ratio of the deweathered benzene concentration from the pre-lockdown to lockdown period was in the order of India (−23.6 %) > Europe (−21.9 %) > the United States (−16.2 %) > China (−15.6 %), which might be associated with local serious benzene pollution and substantial emission reduction in the industrial and transportation sectors.
Chi Li, Randall V. Martin, Ronald C. Cohen, Liam Bindle, Dandan Zhang, Deepangsu Chatterjee, Hongjian Weng, and Jintai Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3031–3049,Short summary
Models are essential to diagnose the significant effects of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on air pollution. We use an air quality model to illustrate the variability of NOx resolution-dependent simulation biases; how these biases depend on specific chemical environments, driving mechanisms, and vertical variabilities; and how these biases affect the interpretation of satellite observations. High-resolution simulations are thus critical to accurately interpret NOx and its relevance to air quality.
Laura Hyesung Yang, Daniel J. Jacob, Nadia K. Colombi, Shixian Zhai, Kelvin H. Bates, Viral Shah, Ellie Beaudry, Robert M. Yantosca, Haipeng Lin, Jared F. Brewer, Heesung Chong, Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Lok N. Lamsal, Ja-Ho Koo, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2465–2481,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can now provide hourly NO2 vertical columns, and obtaining the NO2 vertical columns from space relies on NO2 vertical distribution from the chemical transport model (CTM). In this work, we update the CTM to better represent the chemistry environment so that the CTM can accurately provide NO2 vertical distribution. We also find that the changes in NO2 vertical distribution driven by a change in mixing depth play an important role in the NO2 column's diurnal variation.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Jana Moldanova, Sara Jutterström, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Elisa Majamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1825–1862,Short summary
Potential ship impact on air pollution in the Mediterranean Sea was simulated with five chemistry transport models. An evaluation of the results for NO2 and O3 air concentrations and dry deposition is presented. Emission data, modeled year and domain were the same. Model run outputs were compared to measurements from background stations. We focused on comparing model outputs regarding the concentration of regulatory pollutants and the relative ship impact on total air pollution concentrations.
Mengyun Li, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Huimin Li, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1533–1544,Short summary
Using the GEOS-Chem model, the impact of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on summertime tropospheric O3 in China is investigated. In the warm phases of sea surface temperature anomalies over the eastern tropical Pacific, the QBO has a significant positive correlation with near-surface O3 concentrations over central China. The QBO impacts on O3 pollution in China are mainly a result of changing vertical transport of O3.
Lei Hu, Deborah Ottinger, Stephanie Bogle, Stephen A. Montzka, Philip L. DeCola, Ed Dlugokencky, Arlyn Andrews, Kirk Thoning, Colm Sweeney, Geoff Dutton, Lauren Aepli, and Andrew Crotwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1437–1448,Short summary
Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relies on an accurate understanding of emissions. Here we demonstrate the added value of using inventory- and atmosphere-based approaches for estimating US emissions of SF6, the most potent GHG known. The results suggest a large decline in US SF6 emissions, shed light on the possible processes causing the differences between the independent estimates, and identify opportunities for substantial additional emission reductions.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Ruijun Dang, Lok N. Lamsal, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, K. Folkert Boersma, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Chelsea Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Ilana B. Pollack, Benjamin A. Nault, Ronald C. Cohen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Tomás Sherwen, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1227–1257,Short summary
NOx in the free troposphere (above 2 km) affects global tropospheric chemistry and the retrieval and interpretation of satellite NO2 measurements. We evaluate free tropospheric NOx in global atmospheric chemistry models and find that recycling NOx from its reservoirs over the oceans is faster than that simulated in the models, resulting in increases in simulated tropospheric ozone and OH. Over the U.S., free tropospheric NO2 contributes the majority of the tropospheric NO2 column in summer.
Huimin Li, Yang Yang, Jianbing Jin, Hailong Wang, Ke Li, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1131–1145,Short summary
Future climate change will aggravate ozone pollution in Asia, especially in high-forcing scenarios. Ozone pollution in China will expand from North China to South China and extend into the cold season in a warmer future. The emphasis of this work is to quantify the impacts of future climate change on O3 pollution in Asia, which is of great significance for future O3 pollution mitigation strategies.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 789–807,Short summary
The large uncertainties in OH simulated by atmospheric chemistry models hinder accurate estimates of CH4 chemical loss through the bottom-up method. This study presents a new approach based on OH precursor observations and a chemical box model to improve the tropospheric OH distributions simulated by atmospheric chemistry models. Through this approach, both the global OH burden and the corresponding methane chemical loss reach consistency with the top-down method based on MCF inversions.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Kathy S. Law, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Henrik Skov, Stephen R. Arnold, Joakim Langner, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Garance Bergeron, Ilann Bourgeois, Jesper H. Christensen, Rong-You Chien, Makoto Deushi, Xinyi Dong, Peter Effertz, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Greg Huey, Ulas Im, Rigel Kivi, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Jeff Peischl, David A. Plummer, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Tom Ryerson, Ragnhild Skeie, Sverre Solberg, Manu A. Thomas, Chelsea Thompson, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven T. Turnock, Knut von Salzen, and David W. Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 637–661,Short summary
This study summarizes recent research on ozone in the Arctic, a sensitive and rapidly warming region. We find that the seasonal cycles of near-surface atmospheric ozone are variable depending on whether they are near the coast, inland, or at high altitude. Several global model simulations were evaluated, and we found that because models lack some of the ozone chemistry that is important for the coastal Arctic locations, they do not accurately simulate ozone there.
Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Marielle Saunois, Joël Thanwerdas, Adrien Martinez, Jean-Daniel Paris, Tochinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Xin Lan, Rona L. Thompson, Espen Sollum, and Michael Arshinov
Here, an inverse modeling approach is applied to estimate CH4 sources and sinks in the Arctic from 2008 to 2019. We study the magnitude, seasonal patterns and trends from different sources during recent years. We also assess how the current observation network helps constraining fluxes. We find that constraints are only significant for North America and in a lesser extent West Siberia, where the observation network is relatively dense. We find not clear trend over the period of inversion.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Gaurav Govardhan, Prodip Acharja, Rachana Kulkarni, Rajesh Kumar, Baerbel Sinha, Vinayak Sinha, Chinmay Jena, Preeti Gunwani, Tapan Kumar Adhya, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 41–59,Short summary
In this study, for the first time in South Asia we compare simulated ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia using the WRF-Chem model and MARGA measurements during winter in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. Since observations show HCl promotes the fraction of high chlorides in Delhi, we added HCl / Cl emissions to the model. We conducted three sensitivity experiments with changes in HCl emissions, and improvements are reported in accurately simulating ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia.
James D. East, Barron H. Henderson, Sergey L. Napelenok, Shannon N. Koplitz, Golam Sarwar, Robert Gilliam, Allen Lenzen, Daniel Q. Tong, R. Bradley Pierce, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15981–16001,Short summary
We present a framework that uses a computer model of air quality, along with air pollution data from satellite instruments, to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) across the Northern Hemisphere. The framework, which advances current methods to infer emissions from satellite observations, provides observationally constrained NOx estimates, including in regions of the world where emissions are highly uncertain, and can improve simulations of air pollutants relevant for health and policy.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and ozone production regime in Beijing Summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Antoine Berchet, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15489–15508,Short summary
Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have been rising since 2007, resulting from an imbalance between CH4 sources and sinks. The CH4 budget is generally estimated through top-down approaches using CH4 and δ13C(CH4) observations as constraints. The oxidation by chlorine (Cl) contributes little to the total oxidation of CH4 but strongly influences δ13C(CH4). Here, we compare multiple recent Cl fields and quantify the influence of Cl concentrations on CH4, δ13C(CH4), and CH4 budget estimates.
Claudia Bernier, Yuxuan Wang, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, K. Emma Knowland, John T. Sullivan, Ruben Delgado, Vanessa Caicedo, and Brian Carroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15313–15331,Short summary
Coastal regions are susceptible to variable and high ozone which is difficult to simulate. We developed a method to characterize large datasets of multi-dimensional measurements from lidar instruments taken in coastal regions. Using the clustered ozone groups, we evaluated model performance in simulating the coastal ozone variability vertically and diurnally. The approach allowed us to pinpoint areas where the models succeed in simulating coastal ozone and areas where there are still gaps.
Pengwei Li, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Su Li, Ke Li, Pinya Wang, Baojie Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use a novel technique that can attribute O3 to precursors to investigate O3 changes in the United States during 1995–2019. We found that the U.S. domestic energy and surface transportation emission reductions are primarily responsible for the O3 decrease in summer. In winter, factors such as nitrogen oxides emissions reduction in the context of its inhibition of ozone production, increased aviation and shipping activities, and large-scale circulation changes contribute to the O3 increases.
Xun Li, Momei Qin, Lin Li, Kangjia Gong, Huizhong Shen, Jingyi Li, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14799–14811,Short summary
Photochemical indicators have been widely used to predict O3–NOx–VOC sensitivity with given thresholds. Here we assessed the effectiveness of four indicators with a case study in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The overall performance was good, while some indicators showed inconsistencies with the O3 isopleths. The methodology used to determine the thresholds may produce uncertainties. These results would improve our understanding of the use of photochemical indicators in policy implications.
Alfred W. Mayhew, Ben H. Lee, Joel A. Thornton, Thomas J. Bannan, James Brean, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Beth S. Nelson, Carl Percival, Andrew R. Rickard, Marvin D. Shaw, Peter M. Edwards, and Jaqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14783–14798,Short summary
Isoprene nitrates are chemical species commonly found in the atmosphere that are important for their impacts on air quality and climate. This paper compares 3 different representations of the chemistry of isoprene nitrates in computational models highlighting cases where the choice of chemistry included has significant impacts on the concentration and composition of the modelled nitrates. Calibration of mass spectrometers is also shown to be an important factor when analysing isoprene nitrates.
Stijn Naus, Lucas G. Domingues, Maarten Krol, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Emanuel Gloor, Sourish Basu, Caio Correia, Gerbrand Koren, Helen M. Worden, Johannes Flemming, Gabrielle Pétron, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14735–14750,Short summary
We assimilate MOPITT CO satellite data in the TM5-4D-Var inverse modelling framework to estimate Amazon fire CO emissions for 2003–2018. We show that fire emissions have decreased over the analysis period, coincident with a decrease in deforestation rates. However, interannual variations in fire emissions are large, and they correlate strongly with soil moisture. Our results reveal an important role for robust, top-down fire CO emissions in quantifying and attributing Amazon fire intensity.
Scott Archer-Nicholls, Rachel Allen, Nathan Luke Abraham, Paul Thomas Griffiths, and Alexander Thomas Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The nitrate radical is the major oxidant at nighttime but much less is known about it than the other oxidants ozone and OH. Here we use Earth System model calculations to show how the nitrate radical has changed in abundance from 1850–2014 and through to 2100 under a range of different climate and emission scenarios. We show that depending on the emissions and climate scenario significant increases are projected with implications for the oxidation of VOCs and the formation fine aerosol.
William F. Swanson, Chris D. Holmes, William R. Simpson, Kaitlyn Confer, Louis Marelle, Jennie L. Thomas, Lyatt Jaeglé, Becky Alexander, Shuting Zhai, Qianjie Chen, Xuan Wang, and Tomás Sherwen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14467–14488,Short summary
Radical bromine molecules are seen at higher concentrations during the Arctic spring. We use the global model GEOS-Chem to test whether snowpack and wind-blown snow sources can explain high bromine concentrations. We run this model for the entire year of 2015 and compare results to observations of bromine from floating platforms on the Arctic Ocean and at Utqiaġvik. We find that the model performs best when both sources are enabled but may overestimate bromine production in summer and fall.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, David R. Lyon, Mark Omara, Melissa Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Drew Pendergrass, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Zachary R. Barkley, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Kenneth J. Davis, Sudhanshu Pandey, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,Short summary
Over 100 countries plan to cut their methane emissions by 30 % this decade under the 2021 Global Methane Pledge. The oil and gas industry is a high priority for emission reductions, but the temporal variability of oil/gas methane emissions is poorly understood. We used satellite observations to quantify weekly oil/gas methane emissions from the U.S. Permian Basin. We find that Permian emissions are highly variable and stronger than previously known, with diverse economic and activity drivers.
Ruijun Dang, Daniel J. Jacob, Viral Shah, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Loretta J. Mickley, Tianjia Liu, Yi Wang, and Jun Wang
Model underestimate of the background NO2 is largely corrected by considering aerosol nitrate photolysis. Increase in aircraft emissions not only increases the background NO2, but also affects the satellite retrieval by altering the NO2 vertical profile. Increase in wildfire emissions contributes to the flattening of post-2009 OMI NO2 trends in the western US. Our work shows the importance of properly accounting for the free tropospheric background in interpreting satellite NO2 observations.
Antje Inness, Ilse Aben, Melanie Ades, Tobias Borsdorff, Johannes Flemming, Luke Jones, Jochen Landgraf, Bavo Langerock, Philippe Nedelec, Mark Parrington, and Roberto Ribas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14355–14376,Short summary
The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides daily global air quality forecasts to users worldwide. One of the species of interest is carbon monoxide (CO), an important trace gas in the atmosphere with anthropogenic and natural sources, produced by incomplete combustion, for example, by wildfires. This paper looks at how well CAMS can model CO in the atmosphere and shows that the fields can be improved when blending CO data from the TROPOMI instrument with the CAMS model.
David S. Stevenson, Richard G. Derwent, Oliver Wild, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14243–14252,Short summary
Atmospheric methane’s growth rate rose by 50 % in 2020 relative to 2019. Lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions tend to increase methane’s atmospheric residence time; lower carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions decrease its lifetime. Combining model sensitivities with emission changes, we find that COVID-19 lockdown emission reductions can explain over half the observed increases in methane in 2020.
Jin Maruhashi, Volker Grewe, Christine Frömming, Patrick Jöckel, and Irene C. Dedoussi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14253–14282,Short summary
Aviation NOx emissions lead to the formation of ozone in the atmosphere in the short term, which has a climate warming effect. This study uses global-scale simulations to characterize the transport patterns between NOx emissions at an altitude of ~ 10.4 km and the resulting ozone. Results show a strong spatial and temporal dependence of NOx in disturbing atmospheric O3 concentrations, with the location that is most impacted in terms of warming not necessarily coinciding with the emission region.
Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, Zhe Jiang, Xiaokang Chen, Rui Li, Yuxiang Zhang, and Kunna Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14059–14074,Short summary
We use a deep-learning (DL) model to estimate Chinese NOx emissions by combining satellite analysis and in situ measurements. Our results are consistent with conventional analyses of Chinese NOx emissions. Comparison with mobility data shows that the DL model has a better capability to capture changes in NOx. We analyse Chinese NOx emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period. Our results illustrate the potential use of DL as a complementary tool for conventional air quality studies.
Johana Romero-Alvarez, Aurelia Lupaşcu, Douglas Lowe, Alba Badia, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Steve Dorling, Claire E. Reeves, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13797–13815,Short summary
As ozone can be transported across countries, efficient air quality management and regulatory policies rely on the assessment of local ozone production vs. transport. In our study, we investigate the origin of surface ozone in the UK and the contribution of the different source regions to regulatory ozone metrics. It is shown that emission controls would be necessary over western Europe to improve health-related metrics and over larger areas to reduce impacts on ecosystems.
Haolin Wang, Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Owen R. Cooper, Kai-Lan Chang, Ke Li, Meng Gao, Yiming Liu, Bosi Sheng, Kai Wu, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Bastien Sauvage, Philippe Nédélec, Romain Blot, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13753–13782,Short summary
We report significant global tropospheric ozone increases in 1995–2017 based on extensive aircraft and ozonesonde observations. Using GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry model) multi-decadal global simulations, we find that changes in global anthropogenic emissions, in particular the rapid increases in aircraft emissions, contribute significantly to the increases in tropospheric ozone and resulting radiative impact.
Maximilian Herrmann, Moritz Schöne, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13495–13526,Short summary
Ozone depletion events (ODEs) are a common occurrence in the boundary layer during Arctic spring. Ozone is depleted by bromine species in an autocatalytic reaction cycle. Previous modeling studies assumed an infinite bromine source at the ground. An alternative emission scheme is presented in which a finite amount of bromide in the snow is tracked over time. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to study ODEs in the Arctic from February to May 2019.
Peter Bergamaschi, Arjo Segers, Dominik Brunner, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Michel Ramonet, Tim Arnold, Tobias Biermann, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Grant Forster, Arnoud Frumau, Dagmar Kubistin, Xin Lan, Markus Leuenberger, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Giovanni Manca, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Simon O'Doherty, Bert Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, Pamela Trisolino, Gabriela Vítková, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13243–13268,Short summary
We present a novel high-resolution inverse modelling system, "FLEXVAR", and its application for the inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions in 2018. The new system combines a high spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km with a variational data assimilation technique, which allows CH4 emissions to be optimized from individual model grid cells. The high resolution allows the observations to be better reproduced, while the derived emissions show overall good consistency with two existing models.
Yiwen Hu, Zengliang Zang, Xiaoyan Ma, Yi Li, Yanfei Liang, Wei You, Xiaobin Pan, and Zhijin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13183–13200,Short summary
This study developed a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on WRF–Chem to optimise SO2 emissions. The 4DVAR system was applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic over China. The results showed that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.
Jason R. Schroeder, Chenxia Cai, Jin Xu, David Ridley, Jin Lu, Nancy Bui, Fang Yan, and Jeremy Avise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12985–13000,Short summary
Ozone, a key component of smog, has plagued the Los Angeles (LA) region for decades. Ozone is created by complex chemical reactions that can be greatly impacted by anthropogenic emissions. This study makes use of the COVID-19 period to study the sensitivity of ozone chemistry in LA to certain anthropogenic emissions, notably from vehicles. We find that vehicular emissions of key pollutants dropped by up to 25 % during COVID-19, which caused a fundamental shift in ozone chemistry in the region.
Angharad C. Stell, Michael Bertolacci, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Matthew Rigby, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Xin Lan, Manfredi Manizza, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, and Anita L. Ganesan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12945–12960,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance, whose atmospheric abundance has risen throughout the contemporary record. In this work, we carry out the first global hierarchical Bayesian inversion to solve for nitrous oxide emissions. We derive increasing global nitrous oxide emissions over 2011–2020, which are mainly driven by emissions between 0° and 30°N, with the highest emissions recorded in 2020.
Sarah E. Benish, Jesse O. Bash, Kristen M. Foley, K. Wyat Appel, Christian Hogrefe, Robert Gilliam, and George Pouliot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12749–12767,Short summary
We assess Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of nitrogen and sulfur deposition over US climate regions to evaluate the model ability to reproduce long-term deposition trends and total deposition budgets. A measurement–model fusion technique is found to improve estimates of wet deposition. Emission controls set by the Clean Air Act successfully decreased oxidized nitrogen deposition across the US; we find increasing amounts of reduced nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Lukáš Bartík, Marina Liaskoni, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, and Kateřina Šindelářová
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12647–12674,Short summary
Urbanization turns rural land cover into artificial land cover, while due to human activities, it introduces a great quantity of emissions. We attempt to quantify the impact of urbanization on the final air pollutant levels by looking not only at these emissions, but also the way urban land cover influences meteorological conditions, how the removal of pollutants changes due to urban land cover, and how biogenic emissions from vegetation change due to less vegetation in urban areas.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12543–12557,Short summary
Weaknesses in process representation in chemistry–climate models lead to biases in simulating surface ozone and to uncertainty in projections of future ozone change. We develop a deep learning model to demonstrate the feasibility of ozone bias correction and show its capability in providing improved assessments of the impacts of climate and emission changes on future air quality, along with valuable information to guide future model development.
Maria Paula Pérez-Peña, Jenny A. Fisher, Dylan B. Millet, Hisashi Yashiro, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, and Scott H. Kable
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12367–12386,Short summary
We used two atmospheric models to test the implications of previously unexplored aldehyde photochemistry on the atmospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2). We showed that the new photochemistry from aldehydes produces more H2 over densely forested areas. Compared to the rest of the world, it is over these forested regions where the produced H2 is more likely to be removed. The results highlight that other processes that contribute to atmospheric H2 levels should be studied further.
Flossie Brown, Gerd A. Folberth, Stephen Sitch, Susanne Bauer, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Alexander W. Cheesman, Makoto Deushi, Inês Dos Santos Vieira, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, James Haywood, James Keeble, Lina M. Mercado, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Hans Verbeeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12331–12352,Short summary
Surface ozone can decrease plant productivity and impair human health. In this study, we evaluate the change in surface ozone due to climate change over South America and Africa using Earth system models. We find that if the climate were to change according to the worst-case scenario used here, models predict that forested areas in biomass burning locations and urban populations will be at increasing risk of ozone exposure, but other areas will experience a climate benefit.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Eric C. Apel, Donald Blake, Matthew Coggon, Achim Edtbauer, Georgios Gkatzelis, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jeff Peischl, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Felix Piel, Nina G. Reijrink, Akima Ringsdorf, Carsten Warneke, Jonathan Williams, Armin Wisthaler, and Lu Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12093–12111,Short summary
Fires emit many gases which can contribute to smog and air pollution. However, the amount and properties of these chemicals are not well understood, so this work updates and expands their representation in a global atmospheric model, including by adding new chemicals. We confirm that this updated representation generally matches measurements taken in several fire regions. We then show that fires provide ~15 % of atmospheric reactivity globally and more than 75 % over fire source regions.
Etienne Terrenoire, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Yann Cohen, Anne Cozic, Richard Valorso, Franck Lefèvre, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11987–12023,Short summary
Aviation NOx emissions not only have an impact on global climate by changing ozone and methane levels in the atmosphere, but also contribute to the deterioration of local air quality. The LMDZ-INCA global model is applied to re-evaluate the impact of aircraft NOx and aerosol emissions on climate. We investigate the impact of present-day and future (2050) aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition and the associated radiative forcings of climate for ozone, methane and aerosol direct forcings.
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