Articles | Volume 22, issue 10
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
An ensemble-variational inversion system for the estimation of ammonia emissions using CrIS satellite ammonia retrievals
Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Mark W. Shephard
Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA, USA
TNO, Climate Air and Sustainability, Utrecht, the Netherlands
No articles found.
Tobias Christoph Valentin Werner Riess, Klaas Folkert Boersma, Ward Van Roy, Jos de Laat, Enrico Dammers, and Jasper van Vliet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5287–5304,Short summary
Satellite retrievals of trace gases require prior knowledge of the vertical distribution of the pollutant, which is usually obtained from models. Using aircraft-measured vertical NO2 profiles over the North Sea in summer 2021, we evaluate the Transport Model 5 profiles used in the TROPOMI NO2 retrieval. We conclude that driven by the low horizontal resolution and the overestimated vertical mixing, resulting NO2 columns are 20 % too low. This has important implications for emission estimates.
Zhipeng Qu, David P. Donovan, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, Mark W. Shephard, and Vincent Huijnen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4927–4946,Short summary
The EarthCARE satellite mission Level 2 algorithm development requires realistic 3D cloud and aerosol scenes along the satellite orbits. One of the best ways to produce these scenes is to use a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model to simulate atmospheric conditions at 250 m horizontal resolution. This paper describes the production and validation of three EarthCARE test scenes.
Jason N. S. Cole, Howard W. Barker, Zhipeng Qu, Najda Villefranque, and Mark W. Shephard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4271–4288,Short summary
Measurements from the EarthCARE satellite mission will be used to retrieve profiles of cloud and aerosol properties. These retrievals are combined with auxiliary information about surface properties and atmospheric state, e.g., temperature and water vapor. This information allows computation of 1D and 3D solar and thermal radiative transfer for small domains, which are compared with coincident radiometer observations to continually assess EarthCARE retrievals.
Debora Griffin, Jack Chen, Kerry Anderson, Paul Makar, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, and Andre Fogal
Satellite-derived CO emissions provide new insights into the understanding of global CO emission rates from wildfires. We use TROPOMI satellite data to create a global inventory database of wildfire CO emissions. These satellite-derived wildfire emissions are used for the evaluation and improvement of existing fire emission inventories, and to examine how the wildfire CO emissions changed over the past two decades.
Zhipeng Qu, Howard W. Barker, Jason N. S. Cole, and Mark W. Shephard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2319–2331,Short summary
This paper describes EarthCARE’s L2 product ACM-3D. It includes the scene construction algorithm (SCA) used to produce the indexes for reconstructing 3D atmospheric scene based on satellite nadir retrievals. It also provides the information about the buffer zone sizes of 3D assessment domains and the ranking scores for selecting the best 3D assessment domains. These output variables are needed to run 3D radiative transfer models for the radiative closure assessment of EarthCARE’s L2 retrievals.
Karen Elena Cady-Pereira, Xuehui Guo, Rui Wang, April Leytem, Chase Calkins, Elizabeth Berry, Kang Sun, Markus Müller, Armin Wisthaler, Vivienne H. Payne, Mark W. Shephard, Mark A. Zondlo, and Valentin H. Kantchev
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Ammonia is a significant precursor of PM2.5 particles and thus contributes to poor air quality in many regions. Furthermore, ammonia concentrations are rising due to the increase of large scale, intensive agricultural activities. Here we evaluate satellite measurements of ammonia against aircraft and surface network data, and show that there are significant differences, which can be explained mainly by different vertical and horizontal sampling scales.
Enrico Dammers, Janot Tokaya, Christian Mielke, Kevin Hausmann, Debora Griffin, Chris McLinden, Henk Eskes, and Renske Timmermans
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NOx) is produced by sources such as industry, and traffic, and directly linked to negative impacts on health and the environment. The current construction of emission inventories to keep track of NOx emissions is slow and time consuming. Satellite measurements provide a way to quickly and independently estimate emissions. In this study we apply a consistent methodology to derive NOx emissions over Germany, and illustrate the value of having such a method for fast projections.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Augustinus J. C. Berkhout, Nicholas Cowan, Sabine Crunaire, Enrico Dammers, Volker Ebert, Vincent Gaudion, Marty Haaima, Christoph Häni, Lewis John, Matthew R. Jones, Bjorn Kamps, John Kentisbeer, Thomas Kupper, Sarah R. Leeson, Daiana Leuenberger, Nils O. B. Lüttschwager, Ulla Makkonen, Nicholas A. Martin, David Missler, Duncan Mounsor, Albrecht Neftel, Chad Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Rutger Oudwater, Celine Pascale, Jean-Eudes Petit, Andrea Pogany, Nathalie Redon, Jörg Sintermann, Amy Stephens, Mark A. Sutton, Yuk S. Tang, Rens Zijlmans, Christine F. Braban, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6755–6787,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas in the atmosphere impacts the environment, human health, and, indirectly, climate. Historic NH3 monitoring was labour intensive, and the instruments were complicated. Over the last decade, there has been a rapid technology development, including “plug-and-play” instruments. This study is an extensive field comparison of the currently available technologies and provides evidence that for routine monitoring, standard operating protocols are required for datasets to be comparable.
Beatriz Herrera, Alejandro Bezanilla, Thomas Blumenstock, Enrico Dammers, Frank Hase, Lieven Clarisse, Adolfo Magaldi, Claudia Rivera, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Camille Viatte, Martin Van Damme, and Michel Grutter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14119–14132,Short summary
This work investigates atmospheric ammonia (NH3), a key trace gas with consequences for the environment and human health, in Mexico City. The results from the ground-based and satellite instruments show the variability and spatial distribution of NH3 over this region. NH3 in Mexico City has been increasing for the past 10 years and most of its sources are urban. This work contributes to a better understanding of NH3 sources and variability in urban and remote areas.
Helen M. Worden, Gene L. Francis, Susan S. Kulawik, Kevin W. Bowman, Karen Cady-Pereira, Dejian Fu, Jennifer D. Hegarty, Valentin Kantchev, Ming Luo, Vivienne H. Payne, John R. Worden, Róisín Commane, and Kathryn McKain
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5383–5398,Short summary
Satellite observations of global carbon monoxide (CO) are essential for understanding atmospheric chemistry and pollution sources. This paper describes a new data product using radiance measurements from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that provides vertical profiles of CO from single-field-of-view observations. We show how these satellite CO profiles compare to aircraft observations and evaluate their biases.
Shelley van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Martijn Schaap, Mark W. Shephard, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 951–972,Short summary
CrIS NH3 satellite observations are assimilated into the LOTOS-EUROS model using two different methods. In the first method the data are used to fit spatially varying NH3 emission time factors. In the second method a local ensemble transform Kalman filter is used. Compared to in situ observations, combining both methods led to the most significant improvements in the modeled concentrations and deposition, illustrating the usefulness of CrIS NH3 to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of NH3.
Jennifer D. Hegarty, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Valentin Kantchev, Helen M. Worden, Kathryn McKain, Jasna V. Pittman, Róisín Commane, Bruce C. Daube Jr., and Eric A. Kort
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 205–223,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by combustion of substances such as fossil fuels and plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and climate. We evaluated estimates of atmospheric CO derived from outgoing radiation measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on a satellite orbiting the Earth against CO measurements from aircraft to show that these satellite measurements are reliable for continuous global monitoring of atmospheric CO concentrations.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Jonathan E. Hickman, Niels Andela, Enrico Dammers, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Courtney A. Di Vittorio, Money Ossohou, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Susanne E. Bauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16277–16291,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas emitted from soils and biomass burning contributes to particulate air pollution. We used satellite observations of the atmosphere over Africa to show that declines in NH3 concentrations over South Sudan's Sudd wetland in 2008–2017 are related to variation in wetland extent. We also find NH3 concentrations increased in West Africa as a result of biomass burning and increased in the Lake Victoria region, likely due to agricultural expansion and intensification.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Sabine Eckhardt, Anne Cozic, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Didier Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4431–4451,Short summary
Ammonia, a substance that has played a key role in sustaining life, has been increasing in the atmosphere, affecting climate and humans. Understanding the reasons for this increase is important for the beneficial use of ammonia. The evolution of satellite products gives us the opportunity to calculate ammonia emissions easier. We calculated global ammonia emissions over the last 10 years, incorporated them into a chemistry model and recorded notable improvement in reproducing observations.
Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Vivienne H. Payne, Dejian Fu, Steven C. Wofsy, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Bruce C. Daube Jr., Alan Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Daniel J. Jacob, and Yi Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 335–354,Short summary
This paper shows comparisons of a new single-footprint methane product from the AIRS satellite to aircraft-based observations. We show that this AIRS methane product provides useful information to study seasonal and global methane trends of this important greenhouse gas.
Robert L. Herman, John Worden, David Noone, Dean Henze, Kevin Bowman, Karen Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Susan S. Kulawik, and Dejian Fu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1825–1834,Short summary
This study is the first assessment and validation of AIRS HDO / H2O retrieved by optimal estimation. Initial comparisons with in situ measurements from NASA ORACLES are promising: the small bias and consistent rms of AIRS suggest that AIRS has well-characterized HDO / H2O. This analysis opens the possibility of a new 17-year long-term data record of global tropospheric HDO / H2O measured from space.
Mark W. Shephard, Enrico Dammers, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Shailesh K. Kharol, Jesse Thompson, Yonatan Gainariu-Matz, Junhua Zhang, Chris A. McLinden, Andrew Kovachik, Michael Moran, Shabtai Bittman, Christopher E. Sioris, Debora Griffin, Matthew J. Alvarado, Chantelle Lonsdale, Verica Savic-Jovcic, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2277–2302,Short summary
Presented is a description and survey demonstrating the capabilities of the CrIS ammonia product for monitoring, air quality forecast model evaluation, dry deposition estimates, and emission estimates of an agricultural hotspot.
Camille Viatte, Tianze Wang, Martin Van Damme, Enrico Dammers, Frederik Meleux, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Simon Whitburn, Pierre François Coheur, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 577–596,Short summary
We study concentrations and spatiotemporal variabilities of atmospheric NH3 from the agricultural sector to gain insights on its effects on the Paris megacity air quality using satellite data from IASI and CrIS. We evaluate the regional CHIMERE model capacity to reproduce NH3 and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and variabilities in the domain of study. We quantify the main meteorological parameters driving the optimal conditions involved in the PM2.5 formation from NH3 in Paris.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
John R. Worden, Susan S. Kulawik, Dejian Fu, Vivienne H. Payne, Alan E. Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen Cady-Pereira, Jean-Luc Moncet, Robert L. Herman, Fredrick W. Irion, and Kevin W. Bowman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2331–2339,Short summary
In this paper we take the first steps towards generating a multi-decadal record of the deuterium content of water vapor, useful for evaluating the moisture sources and processes affecting water vapor, by estimating the deuterium content from thermal IR radiances from the AIRS instrument. We find the AIRS-based measurements are sensitive to the deuterium content of water vapor in the middle and lower troposphere with a single measurement uncertainty of ~ 3 % and an accuracy of ~ 0.7 %.
Cristen Adams, Chris A. McLinden, Mark W. Shephard, Nolan Dickson, Enrico Dammers, Jack Chen, Paul Makar, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Naomi Tam, Shailesh K. Kharol, Lok N. Lamsal, and Nickolay A. Krotkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2577–2599,Short summary
We estimated how much carbon monoxide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides were emitted in the smoke from the Fort McMurray Horse River wildfire using satellite data and air quality models. The fire emitted amounts of carbon monoxide that were similar to anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions for all of Alberta over a full year. We also estimated large amounts of ammonia and nitrogen oxides emitted from the fire. These results can be used to evaluate the performance of air quality forecasting models.
Kang Sun, Lei Zhu, Karen Cady-Pereira, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Gonzalo González Abad, Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Martin Van Damme, Kai Yang, and Mark Zondlo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6679–6701,Short summary
An agile, physics-based approach is developed to oversample irregular satellite observations to a high-resolution common grid. Instead of assuming each sounding as a point or a polygon as in previous methods, the proposed physical oversampling represents soundings as distributions of sensitivity on the ground. This sensitivity distribution can be determined by the spatial response function of each satellite sensor, parameterized as generalized 2-D super Gaussian functions.
Jonathan E. Hickman, Enrico Dammers, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16713–16727,Short summary
Ammonia gas, which contributes to air pollution, is emitted from soils and combustion. In regions with distinct dry and rainy seasons, the first rainfall events each year trigger biogeochemical activity in soils. We used satellite observations of the atmosphere over the African Sahel savanna ecosystem to show that increases in soil moisture at the onset of the rainy season are responsible for large pulsed emissions of ammonia equal to roughly a fifth of annual ammonia emissions from the region
Shelley C. van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Martijn Schaap, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13173–13196,Short summary
A combination of NH3 satellite observations from IASI and the LOTOS-EUROS model is used to derive NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes over Europe. The results were evaluated using surface measurements (EMEP, LML, MAN) and a sensitivity study. This is a first step in further integration of surface measurements, satellite observations and an atmospheric transport model to derive accurate NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes on a large scale.
Emily V. Fischer, Liye Zhu, Vivienne H. Payne, John R. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Susan S. Kulawik, Steven Brey, Arsineh Hecobian, Daniel Gombos, Karen Cady-Pereira, and Frank Flocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5639–5653,Short summary
PAN is an atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and it plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America during July 2006 to 2009. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations overlap with smoke plumes.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Paul A. Makar, Mark W. Shephard, Leiming Zhang, Junhua Zhang, Qiong Zheng, Ayodeji Akingunola, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Shailesh K. Kharol, and Karen E. Cady-Pereira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2011–2034,Short summary
Using a modified air quality forecasting model, we have found that a significant fraction (> 50 %) of ambient ammonia comes from re-emission from plants and soils in the broader Athabasca Oil Sands region and much of Alberta and Saskatchewan. We also found that about 20 % of ambient ammonia in Alberta and Saskatchewan came from forest fires in the summer of 2013. The addition of these two processes improved modelled ammonia, which was a motivating factor in undertaking this research.
Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Vivienne H. Payne, Jessica L. Neu, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Eloise A. Marais, Susan Kulawik, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, and Jennifer D. Hegarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9379–9398,Short summary
Air quality is a major issue for megacities. Our paper looks at satellite measurements over Mexico City and Lagos of several trace gases gases related to air quality to determine the temporal and spatial variability of these gases, and it relates this variability to local conditions, such as topography, winds and biomass burning events. We find that, while Mexico City is known for severe pollution events, the levels of of pollution in Lagos are much higher and more persistent.
Enrico Dammers, Mark W. Shephard, Mathias Palm, Karen Cady-Pereira, Shannon Capps, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Ivan Ortega, Geoffrey C. Toon, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Nicholas Jones, Dan Smale, Jacob Siemons, Kevin Hrpcek, Denis Tremblay, Martijn Schaap, Justus Notholt, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2645–2667,Short summary
Presented here is the validation of the CrIS fast physical retrieval (CFPR) NH3 column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. The overall FTIR and CrIS total columns have a positive correlation of r = 0.77 (N = 218) with very little bias (a slope of 1.02). Furthermore, we find that CrIS and FTIR profile comparison differences are mostly within the range of the estimated retrieval uncertainties, with differences in the range of ~ 20 to 40 %.
Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Jennifer D. Hegarty, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Matthew J. Alvarado, Daven K. Henze, Matthew D. Turner, Shannon L. Capps, John B. Nowak, J. Andy Neuman, Ann M. Middlebrook, Roya Bahreini, Jennifer G. Murphy, Milos Z. Markovic, Trevor C. VandenBoer, Lynn M. Russell, and Amy Jo Scarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2721–2739,Short summary
This study takes advantage of the high-resolution observations of NH3(g) made by the TES satellite instrument over Bakersfield during the CalNex campaign, along with campaign measurements, to compare CMAQ model results in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Additionally we evaluate the CMAQ bi-directional ammonia flux results using the CARB emissions inventory against these satellite and campaign measurements, not previously explored in combination.
Enrico Dammers, Mathias Palm, Martin Van Damme, Corinne Vigouroux, Dan Smale, Stephanie Conway, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas Jones, Eric Nussbaumer, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Christian Hermans, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Hideaki Nakajima, Isamu Morino, Beatriz Herrera, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Martijn Schaap, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Justus Notholt, Pierre-F. Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10351–10368,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured by the IASI satellite instrument is compared to observations from ground-based FTIR instruments. The seasonal cycles of NH3 in both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. The study's results further indicate that the IASI-NH3 product performs better than earlier estimates.
M. W. Shephard, C. A. McLinden, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. Luo, S. G. Moussa, A. Leithead, J. Liggio, R. M. Staebler, A. Akingunola, P. Makar, P. Lehr, J. Zhang, D. K. Henze, D. B. Millet, J. O. Bash, L. Zhu, K. C. Wells, S. L. Capps, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. Gordon, K. Hayden, J. R. Brook, M. Wolde, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5189–5211,Short summary
This study provides direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles against coincident aircraft profiles of carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, and formic acid, all of which are of interest for air quality. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during an intensive field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). Initial model evaluations are also provided.
L. Zhu, D. Henze, J. Bash, G.-R. Jeong, K. Cady-Pereira, M. Shephard, M. Luo, F. Paulot, and S. Capps
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12823–12843,Short summary
We implement new diurnal variation scheme for ammonia livestock emissions and bidirectional exchange scheme and its adjoint in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Updated diurnal variability improves modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements comparison. The ammonium soil pool in the bidirectional exchange model largely extends the ammonia lifetime in the atmosphere. Large model biases remain as livestock emissions are still underestimated.
E. Dammers, C. Vigouroux, M. Palm, E. Mahieu, T. Warneke, D. Smale, B. Langerock, B. Franco, M. Van Damme, M. Schaap, J. Notholt, and J. W. Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12789–12803,Short summary
We present a new retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) concentrations and total columns from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen, Lauder, Réunion and Jungfraujoch are used to show the capabilities of the new retrieval. The developed retrieval provides a new way of obtaining time-resolved measurements and will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation.
M. Van Damme, L. Clarisse, E. Dammers, X. Liu, J. B. Nowak, C. Clerbaux, C. R. Flechard, C. Galy-Lacaux, W. Xu, J. A. Neuman, Y. S. Tang, M. A. Sutton, J. W. Erisman, and P. F. Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1575–1591,Short summary
In this study, comprehensive ground-based data sets (Europe, China, Africa and United States) are used to evaluate NH3 measurements from IASI. Global yearly and regional monthly comparisons show fair agreement, while hourly measurements are used to investigate the limitations of direct comparisons. In addition, dense airborne measurements are explored and show the highest correlation coefficients in this study. Finally, the urgent need for independent NH3 column measurements is discussed.
M. W. Shephard and K. E. Cady-Pereira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1323–1336,Short summary
Presented is a robust retrieval algorithm that demonstrates the capabilities of utilizing Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) satellite observations to globally retrieval ammonia (NH3) concentrations. Initial NH3 retrieval results show that CrIS is (i) sensitive to NH3 in the boundary layer, with peak vertical sensitivity typically around 850–750hPa (~2km), (ii) has a minimum detection limit of ~1ppbv (peak profile value typically at the surface), and (iii) typically has up to ~1 DOFS.
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. D. Hegarty, S. S. Kulawik, K. J. Wecht, J. R. Worden, J. V. Pittman, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 965–985,
V. H. Payne, M. J. Alvarado, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. R. Worden, S. S. Kulawik, and E. V. Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3737–3749,Short summary
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) plays an important role in the distribution of lower-atmospheric ozone. PAN can be transported far from the original pollution source, leading to ozone formation and degraded air quality in remote areas. Satellite observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are sensitive to PAN at lower altitude than previous global data sets. We describe characteristics of the data and show elevated PAN associated with boreal fires and outflow of Asian pollution.
K. E. Cady-Pereira, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. W. Shephard, D. B. Millet, M. Luo, and K. C. Wells
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2297–2311,
C. L. Heald, D. A. Ridley, J. H. Kroll, S. R. H. Barrett, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. J. Alvarado, and C. D. Holmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5513–5527,
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. K. Henze, N. Bousserez, E. C. Apel, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and H. B. Singh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2555–2570,
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, E. J. Mlawer, G. Uymin, M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. S. Delamere, and J.-L. Moncet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6687–6711,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Benefits of net-zero policies for future ozone pollution in ChinaSimulating impacts on UK air quality from net-zero forest planting scenariosUnderstanding offshore high-ozone events during TRACER-AQ 2021 in Houston: insights from WRF–CAMx photochemical modelingOpinion: Establishing a science-into-policy process for tropospheric ozone assessmentAtmospheric composition and climate impacts of a future hydrogen economyAssessment of isoprene and near-surface ozone sensitivities to water stress over the Euro-Mediterranean regionNighttime ozone in the lower boundary layer: insights from 3-year tower-based measurements in South China and regional air quality modelingWhat controls ozone sensitivity in the upper tropical troposphere?Modelling the impacts of emission changes on O3 sensitivity, atmospheric oxidation capacity, and pollution transport over the Catalonia regionA regional modelling study of halogen chemistry within a volcanic plume of Mt Etna's Christmas 2018 eruptionConstraining the budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide using a 3-D chemical transport modelAtmospheric CO2 inversion reveals the Amazon as a minor carbon source caused by fire emissions, with forest uptake offsetting about half of these emissionsRapid O3 assimilations – Part 2: Tropospheric O3 changes accompanied by declining NOx emissions in the USA and Europe in 2005–2020High-resolution air quality simulations of ozone exceedance events during the Lake Michigan Ozone StudySimulations of winter ozone in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming, using WRF-ChemMeasurement report: Assessment of Asian emissions of ethane and propane with a chemistry transport model based on observations from the island of HaterumaSensitivity of northeastern US surface ozone predictions to the representation of atmospheric chemistry in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMMv1.0)Daytime isoprene nitrates under changing NOx and O3Atmospheric data support a multi-decadal shift in the global methane budget towards natural tropical emissionsAir quality and related health impact in the UNECE region: source attribution and scenario analysisFuture tropospheric ozone budget and distribution over East Asia under a Net Zero scenarioEast Asian methane emissions inferred from high-resolution inversions of GOSAT and TROPOMI observations: a comparative and evaluative analysisTowards near-real-time air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions: lessons learned from multiple estimates during the COVID-19 pandemicSpatiotemporal variation of radionuclide dispersion from nuclear power plant accidents using FLEXPART mini-ensemble modelingContinuous weekly monitoring of methane emissions from the Permian Basin by inversion of TROPOMI satellite observationsWestern European emission estimates of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CCl4 derived from atmospheric measurements from 2008 to 2021Utility of Geostationary Lightning Mapper Derived Lightning NOx Emission Estimates in Air Quality Modeling StudiesEstimating methane emissions in the Arctic nations using surface observations from 2008 to 2019Background nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the United States and its implications for satellite observations and trends: effects of nitrate photolysis, aircraft, and open firesSeasonal, interannual and decadal variability of tropospheric ozone in the North Atlantic: comparison of UM-UKCA and remote sensing observations for 2005–2018Quantification of oil and gas methane emissions in the Delaware and Marcellus basins using a network of continuous tower-based measurementsInsights into Soil NO Emissions and the Contribution to Surface Ozone Formation in ChinaGlobal sensitivities of reactive N and S gas and particle concentrations and deposition to precursor emissions reductionsA high-resolution Global Aviation emissions Inventory based on ADS-B (GAIA) for 2019–2021Large simulated future changes in the nitrate radical under the CMIP6 SSP scenarios: implications for oxidation chemistryImpact of HO2 aerosol uptake on radical levels and O3 production during summertime in BeijingSource attribution of near-surface ozone trends in the United States during 1995–2019The Atmospheric Oxidizing Capacity in China: Part 1. Roles of different photochemical processesExploring the drivers of tropospheric hydroxyl radical trends in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory AM4.1 atmospheric chemistry–climate modelComprehensive multiphase chlorine chemistry in the box model CAABA/MECCA: Implications to atmospheric oxidative capacityImpacts of land cover changes on biogenic emission and its contribution to ozone and secondary organic aerosol in ChinaHigh-resolution regional emission inventory contributes to the evaluation of policy effectiveness: a case study in Jiangsu Province, ChinaWhy is ozone in South Korea and the Seoul metropolitan area so high and increasing?Vehicular ammonia emissions: an underappreciated emission source in densely populated areasImproving ozone simulations in Asia via multisource data assimilation: results from an observing system simulation experiment with GEMS geostationary satellite observationsA three-dimensional simulation and process analysis of tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs) during the springtime in the Arctic using CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System)A high-resolution satellite-based map of global methane emissions reveals missing wetland, fossil fuel, and monsoon sourcesGlobal impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on surface concentration and health risk of atmospheric benzeneVariable effects of spatial resolution on modeling of nitrogen oxidesTropospheric NO2 vertical profiles over South Korea and their relation to oxidant chemistry: implications for geostationary satellite retrievals and the observation of NO2 diurnal variation from space
Zhenze Liu, Oliver Wild, Ruth M. Doherty, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13755–13768,Short summary
We investigate the impact of net-zero policies on surface ozone pollution in China. A chemistry–climate model is used to simulate ozone changes driven by local and external emissions, methane, and warmer climates. A deep learning model is applied to generate more robust ozone projection, and we find that the benefits of net-zero policies may be overestimated with the chemistry–climate model. Nevertheless, it is clear that the policies can still substantially reduce ozone pollution in future.
Gemma Purser, Mathew R. Heal, Edward J. Carnell, Stephen Bathgate, Julia Drewer, James I. L. Morison, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13713–13733,Short summary
Forest expansion is a ″net-zero“ pathway, but change in land cover alters air quality in many ways. This study combines tree planting suitability data with UK measured emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to simulate spatial and temporal changes in atmospheric composition for planting scenarios of four species. Decreases in fine particulate matter are relatively larger than increases in ozone, which may indicate a net benefit of tree planting on human health aspects of air quality.
Wei Li, Yuxuan Wang, Xueying Liu, Ehsan Soleimanian, Travis Griggs, James Flynn, and Paul Walter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13685–13699,Short summary
This study examined high offshore ozone events in Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, using boat data and WRF–CAMx modeling during the TRACER-AQ 2021 field campaign. On average, high ozone is caused by chemistry due to the regional transport of volatile organic compounds and downwind advection of NOx from the ship channel. Two case studies show advection of ozone can be another process leading to high ozone, and accurate wind prediction is crucial for air quality forecasting in coastal areas.
Richard G. Derwent, David D. Parrish, and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13613–13623,Short summary
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations driven by anthropogenic precursor emissions are a world-wide health and environmental concern; however, this issue lacks a generally accepted understanding of the scientific issues. Here, we briefly outline the elements required to conduct an international assessment process to establish a conceptual model of the underpinning science and motivate international policy forums for regulating ozone production over hemispheric and global scales.
Nicola J. Warwick, Alex T. Archibald, Paul T. Griffiths, James Keeble, Fiona M. O'Connor, John A. Pyle, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13451–13467,Short summary
A chemistry–climate model has been used to explore the atmospheric response to changes in emissions of hydrogen and other species associated with a shift from fossil fuel to hydrogen use. Leakage of hydrogen results in indirect global warming, offsetting greenhouse gas emission reductions from reduced fossil fuel use. To maximise the benefit of hydrogen as an energy source, hydrogen leakage and emissions of methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides should be minimised.
Susanna Strada, Andrea Pozzer, Graziano Giuliani, Erika Coppola, Fabien Solmon, Xiaoyan Jiang, Alex Guenther, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Dominique Serça, Jonathan Williams, and Filippo Giorgi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13301–13327,Short summary
Water deficit modifies emissions of isoprene, an aromatic compound released by plants that influences the production of an air pollutant such as ozone. Numerical modelling shows that, during the warmest and driest summers, isoprene decreases between −20 and −60 % over the Euro-Mediterranean region, while near-surface ozone only diminishes by a few percent. Decreases in isoprene emissions not only happen under dry conditions, but also could occur after prolonged or repeated water deficits.
Guowen He, Cheng He, Haofan Wang, Xiao Lu, Chenglei Pei, Xiaonuan Qiu, Chenxi Liu, Yiming Wang, Nanxi Liu, Jinpu Zhang, Lei Lei, Yiming Liu, Haichao Wang, Tao Deng, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13107–13124,Short summary
We analyze nighttime ozone in the lower boundary layer (up to 500 m) from the 2017–2019 measurements at the Canton Tower and the WRF-CMAQ model. We identify a strong ability of the residual layer to store daytime ozone in the convective mixing layer, investigate the chemical and meteorological factors controlling nighttime ozone in the residual layer, and quantify the contribution of nighttime ozone in the residual layer to both the nighttime and the following day’s surface ozone air quality.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12651–12669,Short summary
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and contributes to the earth’s radiative energy budget and therefore to global warming. This effect is the largest in the upper troposphere. In this study, we investigate the processes controlling ozone formation and the sensitivity to its precursors in the upper tropical troposphere based on model simulations by the ECHAM5/MESSy2 Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. We find that NO𝑥 emissions from lightning most importantly affect ozone chemistry at these altitudes.
Alba Badia, Veronica Vidal, Sergi Ventura, Roger Curcoll, Ricard Segura, and Gara Villalba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10751–10774,Short summary
Improving air quality is a top priority in urban areas. In this study, we used an air quality model to analyse the air quality changes occurring over the metropolitan area of Barcelona and other rural areas affected by transport of the atmospheric plume from the city during mobility restrictions. Our results show that mitigation strategies intended to reduce O3 should be designed according to the local meteorology, air transport, and particular ozone chemistry of the urban area.
Herizo Narivelo, Paul David Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Luke Surl, Tjarda Roberts, Sophie Pelletier, Béatrice Josse, Jonathan Guth, Mickaël Bacles, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Stefano Corradini, Giuseppe Salerno, and Lorenzo Guerrieri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10533–10561,Short summary
Volcanic emissions emit large quantities of gases and primary aerosols that can play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of the fate of volcanic bromine emissions from the eruption of Mount Etna around Christmas 2018. Using a numerical model and satellite observations, we analyse the impact of the volcanic plume and how it modifies the composition of the air over the whole Mediterranean basin, in particular on tropospheric ozone through the bromine-explosion cycle.
Michael P. Cartwright, Richard J. Pope, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, David P. Moore, and Parvadha Suntharalingam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10035–10056,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT, is used to simulate global atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) distribution. Modelled OCS compares well with satellite observations of OCS from limb-sounding satellite observations. Model simulations also compare adequately with surface and atmospheric observations and suitably capture the seasonality of OCS and background concentrations.
Luana S. Basso, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Graciela Tejada, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Egídio Arai, Mathew Williams, T. Luke Smallman, Wouter Peters, Stijn Naus, John B. Miller, and Manuel Gloor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9685–9723,Short summary
The Amazon’s carbon balance may have changed due to forest degradation, deforestation and warmer climate. We used an atmospheric model and atmospheric CO2 observations to quantify Amazonian carbon emissions (2010–2018). The region was a small carbon source to the atmosphere, mostly due to fire emissions. Forest uptake compensated for ~ 50 % of the fire emissions, meaning that the remaining forest is still a small carbon sink. We found no clear evidence of weakening carbon uptake over the period.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9745–9763,Short summary
Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and surface O3 observations are used to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in the USA and Europe in 2005–2020. The surface-based assimilations show limited changes in surface and tropospheric column O3. The OMI-based assimilations show larger decreases in tropospheric O3 columns in 2010–2014, related to a decline in free-tropospheric NO2. Analysis suggests limited impacts of local emissions decline on tropospheric O3 over the USA and Europe in 2005–2020.
R. Bradley Pierce, Monica Harkey, Allen Lenzen, Lee M. Cronce, Jason A. Otkin, Jonathan L. Case, David S. Henderson, Zac Adelman, Tsengel Nergui, and Christopher R. Hain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9613–9635,Short summary
We evaluate two high-resolution model simulations with different meteorological inputs but identical chemistry and anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of identifying a model configuration best suited for characterizing air quality in locations where lake breezes commonly affect local air quality along the Lake Michigan shoreline. This analysis complements other studies in evaluating the impact of meteorological inputs and parameterizations on air quality in a complex environment.
Shreta Ghimire, Zachary J. Lebo, Shane Murphy, Stefan Rahimi, and Trang Tran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9413–9438,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have occurred often in recent years in mountain basins with oil and gas production facilities. Photochemical modeling of ozone production serves as a basis for understanding the mechanism by which it occurs and for predictive capability. We present photochemical model simulations of ozone formation and accumulation in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming, demonstrating the model's ability to simulate wintertime ozone and the sensitivity of ozone to its precursors.
Adedayo R. Adedeji, Stephen J. Andrews, Matthew J. Rowlinson, Mathew J. Evans, Alastair C. Lewis, Shigeru Hashimoto, Hitoshi Mukai, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yasunori Tohjima, and Takuya Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9229–9244,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model to interpret observations of CO, C2H6, C3H8, NOx, NOy and O3 made from Hateruma Island in 2018. The model captures many synoptic-scale events and the seasonality of most pollutants at the site but underestimates C2H6 and C3H8 during the winter. These underestimates are unlikely to be reconciled by increases in biomass burning emissions but could be reconciled by increasing the Asian anthropogenic source of C2H6 and C3H8 by factors of around 2 and 3, respectively.
Bryan K. Place, William T. Hutzell, K. Wyat Appel, Sara Farrell, Lukas Valin, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Golam Sarwar, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Emma L. D'Ambro, Emily Saunders, Heather Simon, Ana Torres-Vasquez, Jonathan Pleim, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Lu Xu, William R. Stockwell, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9173–9190,Short summary
Ground-level ozone is a pollutant with adverse human health and ecosystem effects. Air quality models allow scientists to understand the chemical production of ozone and demonstrate impacts of air quality management plans. In this work, the role of multiple systems in ozone production was investigated for the northeastern US in summer. Model updates to chemical reaction rates and monoterpene chemistry were most influential in decreasing predicted ozone and improving agreement with observations.
Alfred W. Mayhew, Peter M. Edwards, and Jaqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8473–8485,Short summary
Isoprene nitrates are chemical species commonly found in the atmosphere that are important for their impacts on air quality and climate. This paper investigates modelled changes to daytime isoprene nitrate concentrations resulting from changes in NOx and O3. The results highlight the complex, nonlinear chemistry of this group of species under typical conditions for megacities such as Beijing, with many species showing increased concentrations when NOx is decreased and/or ozone is increased.
Alice Drinkwater, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Tim Arnold, Xin Lan, Sylvia E. Michel, Robert Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8429–8452,Short summary
Changes in atmospheric methane over the last few decades are largely unexplained. Previous studies have proposed different hypotheses to explain short-term changes in atmospheric methane. We interpret observed changes in atmospheric methane and stable isotope source signatures (2004–2020). We argue that changes over this period are part of a large-scale shift from high-northern-latitude thermogenic energy emissions to tropical biogenic emissions, particularly from North Africa and South America.
Claudio A. Belis and Rita Van Dingenen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8225–8240,Short summary
The study assesses the influence that abating emissions in the rest of the world have on exposure and mortality due to ozone and fine particulate matter in the region covered by the Gothenburg protocol (UNECE, mainly Europe and North America). To that end, the impacts of pollutants derived from different geographic areas and anthropogenic sources are analysed in a series of scenarios including measures to abate air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions with different levels of ambition.
Xuewei Hou, Oliver Wild, Bin Zhu, and James Lee
In response to the climate crisis, many countries have committed to net zero in a certain future year. The impacts of net zero scenario on tropospheric O3 are less well studied and remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the changes of tropospheric O3 budgets, spatiotemporal distributions of future surface O3 in East Asia and regional O3 source contributions for 2060 under a net zero scenario, using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and online O3 tagging methods.
Ruosi Liang, Yuzhong Zhang, Wei Chen, Peixuan Zhang, Jingran Liu, Cuihong Chen, Huiqin Mao, Guofeng Shen, Zhen Qu, Zichong Chen, Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Alba Lorente, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8039–8057,Short summary
We compare and evaluate East Asian methane emissions inferred from different satellite observations (GOSAT and TROPOMI). The results show discrepancies over northern India and eastern China. Independent ground-based observations are more consistent with TROPOMI-derived emissions in northern India and GOSAT-derived emissions in eastern China.
Marc Guevara, Hervé Petetin, Oriol Jorba, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Ingrid Super, Claire Granier, Thierno Doumbia, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Liu, Robin D. Lamboll, Sabine Schindlbacher, Bradley Matthews, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8081–8101,Short summary
This study provides an intercomparison of European 2020 emission changes derived from official inventories, which are reported by countries under the framework of several international conventions and directives, and non-official near-real-time estimates, the use of which has significantly grown since the COVID-19 outbreak. The results of the work are used to produce recommendations on how best to approach and make use of near-real-time emissions for modelling and monitoring applications.
Seyed Omid Nabavi, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Christos Fountoukis, Huda Al-Sulaiti, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7719–7739,Short summary
The objective of our study is to comprehensively assess the timing of radioactive material transportation and deposition, along with the associated population exposure in the designated region. We employed diverse meteorological inputs, emission specifics, and simulation codes, aiming to quantify the level of uncertainty.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, David R. Lyon, Mark Omara, Melissa Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Drew Pendergrass, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Zachary R. Barkley, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Kenneth J. Davis, Sudhanshu Pandey, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7503–7520,Short summary
We use TROPOMI satellite observations to quantify weekly methane emissions from the US Permian oil and gas basin from May 2018 to October 2020. We find that Permian emissions are highly variable, with diverse economic and activity drivers. The most important drivers during our study period were new well development and natural gas price. Permian methane intensity averaged 4.6 % and decreased by 1 % per year.
Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Luke M. Western, Jgor Arduini, Anita L. Ganesan, Christina M. Harth, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Joseph Pitt, Stefan Reimann, Matthew Rigby, Peter K. Salameh, Peter G. Simmonds, T. Gerard Spain, Kieran Stanley, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7383–7398,Short summary
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used in Europe pre-1990, damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. Legislation has controlled production and use, and global emissions have decreased sharply. The global rate of decline in CFC-11 recently slowed and was partly attributed to illegal emission in eastern China. This study concludes that emissions of CFC-11 in western Europe have not contributed to the unexplained part of the global increase in CFC-11 observed in the last decade.
Peiyang Cheng, Arastoo Pour-Biazar, Yuling Wu, Shi Kuang, Richard T. McNider, and William J. Koshak
Lightning-induced nitrogen monoxide (LNO) emission can be estimated from geostationary satellite observations. The present study uses the LNO emission estimates derived from geostationary satellite observations in an air quality modeling system to investigate the impact of LNO to air quality. Results indicate that significant ozone increase could be due to long-distance chemical transport, lightning activity in the upwind direction, and the mixing of high LNO (or ozone) plumes.
Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Marielle Saunois, Joël Thanwerdas, Adrien Martinez, Jean-Daniel Paris, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Xin Lan, Rona L. Thompson, Espen Sollum, and Mikhail Arshinov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6457–6485,Short summary
Here, an inverse modelling approach is applied to estimate CH4 sources and sinks in the Arctic from 2008 to 2019. We study the magnitude, seasonal patterns and trends from different sources during recent years. We also assess how the current observation network helps to constrain fluxes. We find that constraints are only significant for North America and, to a lesser extent, West Siberia, where the observation network is relatively dense. We find no clear trend over the period of inversion.
Ruijun Dang, Daniel J. Jacob, Viral Shah, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Loretta J. Mickley, Tianjia Liu, Yi Wang, and Jun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6271–6284,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model to better understand the magnitude and trend in free tropospheric NO2 over the contiguous US. Model underestimate of background NO2 is largely corrected by considering aerosol nitrate photolysis. Increase in aircraft emissions affects satellite retrievals by altering the NO2 shape factor, and this effect is expected to increase in future. We show the importance of properly accounting for the free tropospheric background in interpreting NO2 observations from space.
Maria Rosa Russo, Brian John Kerridge, Nathan Luke Abraham, James Keeble, Barry Graham Latter, Richard Siddans, James Weber, Paul Thomas Griffiths, John Adrian Pyle, and Alexander Thomas Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6169–6196,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important component of the Earth system as it can affect both climate and air quality. In this work we use observed tropospheric ozone derived from satellite observations and compare it to tropospheric ozone from model simulations. Our aim is to investigate recent changes (2005–2018) in tropospheric ozone in the North Atlantic region and to understand what factors are driving such changes.
Zachary Barkley, Kenneth Davis, Natasha Miles, Scott Richardson, Aijun Deng, Benjamin Hmiel, David Lyon, and Thomas Lauvaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6127–6144,Short summary
Using methane monitoring instruments attached to towers, we measure methane concentrations and quantify methane emissions coming from the Marcellus and Permian oil and gas basins. In the Marcellus, emissions were 3 times higher than the state inventory across the entire monitoring period. In the Permian, we see a sharp decline in emissions aligning with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Tower observational networks can be utilized in other basins for long-term monitoring of emissions.
Ling Huang, Jiong Fang, Jiaqiang Liao, Yarwood Greg, Hui Chen, Yangjun Wang, and Li Li
Surface ozone concentrations have emerged as a major environmental issue in China. Although control strategies aimed at reducing NOx emissions from conventional combustion sources are widely recognized, soil NOx emissions have received little attention. The impact of soil NO emissions on ground-level ozone concentration is yet to be evaluated. In this study, we estimated the soil NO emissions and evaluated its impact on ozone formation in China.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6083–6112,Short summary
The sensitivity of fine particles and reactive N and S species to reductions in precursor emissions is investigated using the EMEP MSC-W (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre – West) atmospheric chemistry transport model. This study reveals that the individual emissions reduction has multiple and geographically varying co-benefits and small disbenefits on different species, demonstrating the importance of prioritizing regional emissions controls.
Roger Teoh, Zebediah Engberg, Marc Shapiro, Lynnette Dray, and Marc Stettler
Emissions from aircraft contribute to climate change and degrade air quality. We describe an up-to-date 4D emissions inventory of global aviation from 2019 to 2021 based on actual flown trajectories. In 2019, 40.2 million flights collectively travelled 61 billion kilometres using 283 Tg of fuel. Long-haul flights were responsible for 43 % of CO2. The emissions inventory is made available for use in future studies to evaluate the negative externalities arising from global aviation.
Scott Archer-Nicholls, Rachel Allen, Nathan L. Abraham, Paul T. Griffiths, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5801–5813,Short summary
The nitrate radical is a major oxidant at nighttime, but much less is known about it than about the other oxidants ozone and OH. We use Earth system model calculations to show how the nitrate radical has changed in abundance from 1850–2014 and to 2100 under a range of different climate and emission scenarios. Depending on the emissions and climate scenario, significant increases are projected with implications for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds and the formation of fine aerosol.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5679–5697,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and the ozone production regime in Beijing in the summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Pengwei Li, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Su Li, Ke Li, Pinya Wang, Baojie Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5403–5417,Short summary
We use a novel technique that can attribute O3 to precursors to investigate O3 changes in the United States during 1995–2019. We found that the US domestic energy and surface transportation emission reductions are primarily responsible for the O3 decrease in summer. In winter, factors such as nitrogen oxide emission reduction in the context of its inhibition of ozone production, increased aviation and shipping activities, and large-scale circulation changes contribute to the O3 increases.
Jianing Dai, Guy P. Brasseur, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, Kun Qu, Yijuan Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Tao Wang
In this study, we used a regional chemical transport model to characterize the different parameters of atmospheric oxidative capacity in recent chemical environments in China. These parameters including the production and destruction rates of ozone and other oxidants, the ozone production efficiency, the OH reactivity, and the length of the reaction chain responsible for the formation of ozone and ROx. It is also affected by the aerosol burden in the atmosphere.
Glen Chua, Vaishali Naik, and Larry Wayne Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4955–4975,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is an atmospheric
detergent, removing air pollutants and greenhouse gases like methane from the atmosphere. Thus, understanding how it is changing and responding to its various drivers is important for air quality and climate. We found that OH has increased by about 5 % globally from 1980 to 2014 in our model, mostly driven by increasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. This suggests potential climate tradeoffs from air quality policies solely targeting NOx emissions.
Meghna Soni, Rolf Sander, Lokesh K. Sahu, Domenico Taraborrelli, Pengfei Liu, Ankit Patel, Imran A. Girach, Andrea Pozzer, Sachin S. Gunthe, and Narendra Ojha
The study presents the implementation of comprehensive multiphase chlorine chemistry in the box model CAABA/MECCA. Simulations for contrasting urban environments of Asia and Europe highlight the significant impacts of chlorine on atmospheric oxidation capacity and composition. Chemical processes governing the production and loss of chlorine-containing species have been discussed. The updated chemical mechanism will be useful to interpret field measurements and for future air quality studies.
Jinlong Ma, Shengqiang Zhu, Siyu Wang, Peng Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4311–4325,Short summary
An updated version of the CMAQ model with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from MEGAN was applied to study the impacts of different land cover inputs on O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in China. The estimated BVOC emissions ranged from 25.42 to 37.39 Tg using different leaf area index (LAI) and land cover (LC) inputs. Those differences further induced differences of 4.8–6.9 ppb in O3 concentrations and differences of 5.3–8.4 µg m−3 in SOA concentrations in China.
Chen Gu, Lei Zhang, Zidie Xu, Sijia Xia, Yutong Wang, Li Li, Zeren Wang, Qiuyue Zhao, Hanying Wang, and Yu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4247–4269,Short summary
We demonstrated the development of a high-resolution emission inventory and its application to evaluate the effectiveness of emission control actions, by incorporating the improved methodology, the best available data, and air quality modeling. We show that substantial efforts for emission controls indeed played an important role in air quality improvement even with worsened meteorological conditions and that the contributions of individual measures to emission reduction were greatly changing.
Nadia K. Colombi, Daniel J. Jacob, Laura Hyesung Yang, Shixian Zhai, Viral Shah, Stuart K. Grange, Robert M. Yantosca, Soontae Kim, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4031–4044,Short summary
Surface ozone, detrimental to human and ecosystem health, is very high and increasing in South Korea. Using a global model of the atmosphere, we found that emissions from South Korea and China contribute equally to the high ozone observed. We found that in the absence of all anthropogenic emissions over East Asia, ozone is still very high, implying that the air quality standard in South Korea is not practically achievable unless this background external to East Asia can be decreased.
Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3819–3828,Short summary
This study established a high-resolution vehicular NH3 emission inventory for mainland China to quantify the absolute value and relative importance of on-road NH3 emissions for different regions, seasons and population densities. Our results indicate that the significant role of on-road NH3 emissions in populated urban areas may have been underappreciated, suggesting the control of vehicular NH3 emission can be a feasible and cost-effective way of mitigating haze pollution in urban areas.
Lei Shu, Lei Zhu, Juseon Bak, Peter Zoogman, Han Han, Song Liu, Xicheng Li, Shuai Sun, Juan Li, Yuyang Chen, Dongchuan Pu, Xiaoxing Zuo, Weitao Fu, Xin Yang, and Tzung-May Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3731–3748,Short summary
We quantify the benefit of multisource observations (GEMS, LEO satellite, and surface) on ozone simulations in Asia. Data assimilation improves the monitoring of exceedance, spatial pattern, and diurnal variation of surface ozone, with the regional mean bias reduced from −2.1 to −0.2 ppbv. Data assimilation also better represents ozone vertical distributions in the middle to upper troposphere at low latitudes. Our results offer a valuable reference for future ozone simulations.
Le Cao, Simeng Li, Yicheng Gu, and Yuhan Luo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3363–3382,Short summary
We performed a 3-D mesoscale model study on ozone depletion events (ODEs) occurring in the spring of 2019 at Barrow using an air quality model, CMAQ. Many ODEs observed at Barrow were captured by the model, and the contribution from each physical or chemical process to ozone and bromine species during ODEs was quantitatively evaluated. We found the ODEs at Barrow to be strongly influenced by horizontal transport. In contrast, over the sea, local chemistry significantly reduced the surface ozone.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Daven K. Henze, Alexander J. Turner, Alba Lorente Delgado, A. Anthony Bloom, and Jianxiong Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3325–3346,Short summary
We combine satellite measurements with a novel downscaling method to map global methane emissions at 0.1°×0.1° resolution. These fine-scale emission estimates reveal unreported emission hotspots and shed light on the roles of agriculture, wetlands, and fossil fuels for regional methane budgets. The satellite-derived emissions point in particular to missing fossil fuel emissions in the Middle East and to a large emission underestimate in South Asia that appears to be tied to monsoon rainfall.
Chaohao Ling, Lulu Cui, and Rui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3311–3324,Short summary
An ensemble machine-learning model coupled with chemical transport models (CTMs) was applied to assess the impact of COVID-19 on ambient benzene. The change ratio of the deweathered benzene concentration from the pre-lockdown to lockdown period was in the order of India (−23.6 %) > Europe (−21.9 %) > the United States (−16.2 %) > China (−15.6 %), which might be associated with local serious benzene pollution and substantial emission reduction in the industrial and transportation sectors.
Chi Li, Randall V. Martin, Ronald C. Cohen, Liam Bindle, Dandan Zhang, Deepangsu Chatterjee, Hongjian Weng, and Jintai Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3031–3049,Short summary
Models are essential to diagnose the significant effects of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on air pollution. We use an air quality model to illustrate the variability of NOx resolution-dependent simulation biases; how these biases depend on specific chemical environments, driving mechanisms, and vertical variabilities; and how these biases affect the interpretation of satellite observations. High-resolution simulations are thus critical to accurately interpret NOx and its relevance to air quality.
Laura Hyesung Yang, Daniel J. Jacob, Nadia K. Colombi, Shixian Zhai, Kelvin H. Bates, Viral Shah, Ellie Beaudry, Robert M. Yantosca, Haipeng Lin, Jared F. Brewer, Heesung Chong, Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Lok N. Lamsal, Ja-Ho Koo, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2465–2481,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can now provide hourly NO2 vertical columns, and obtaining the NO2 vertical columns from space relies on NO2 vertical distribution from the chemical transport model (CTM). In this work, we update the CTM to better represent the chemistry environment so that the CTM can accurately provide NO2 vertical distribution. We also find that the changes in NO2 vertical distribution driven by a change in mixing depth play an important role in the NO2 column's diurnal variation.
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Observations of ammonia made using the satellite-borne CrIS instrument were used to improve the ammonia emissions used in the GEM-MACH model. These observations were used to refine estimates of the monthly mean ammonia emissions over North America for May to August 2016. The updated ammonia emissions reduced biases of GEM-MACH surface ammonia fields with surface observations and showed some improvements in the forecasting of species involved in inorganic particulate matter formation.
Observations of ammonia made using the satellite-borne CrIS instrument were used to improve the...