Articles | Volume 21, issue 6
Research article 30 Mar 2021
Research article | 30 Mar 2021
Observed trends in clouds and precipitation (1983–2009): implications for their cause(s)
Xiang Zhong et al.
No articles found.
Baolei Lyu, Ran Huang, Xinlu Wang, Weiguo Wang, and Yongtao Hu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Data fusion is to estimate spatially completed and smooth reanalysis fields from multiple data sources of observations and model simulations. We developed a well-designed deep learning model framework to embed spatial correlation principles. The model has very high accuracy to predict reanalysis data fields from isolated observation data points. Besides, it is also feasible for operational applications due to computational efficiency.
Run Liu, Lu Mao, Shaw Chen Liu, Yuanhang Zhang, Hong Liao, Huopo Chen, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8563–8568,Short summary
The recent paper by Shen et al. (2018; referred to hereafter as SHEN) made a sweeping statement on the winter haze pollution in Beijing by claiming an
Insignificant effect of climate change on winter haze in Beijing. We argue that the paper contains three serious flaws. Any one of the three flaws can nullify the claim of SHEN.
Daocheng Gong, Hao Wang, Shenyang Zhang, Yu Wang, Shaw Chen Liu, Hai Guo, Min Shao, Congrong He, Duohong Chen, Lingyan He, Lei Zhou, Lidia Morawska, Yuanhang Zhang, and Boguang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14417–14432,Short summary
The complex air pollution in the air-polluted Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has significantly elevated the background atmospheric oxidative capacity of the adjacent forests and subsequently lowered the levels of important biogenic volatile organic compounds, such as isoprene, which probably affect the regional air quality and ecological environment in the long term.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Morning boundary layer conditions for shallow to deep convective cloud evolution during the dry season in the central AmazonAnalysis of aerosol–cloud interactions and their implications for precipitation formation using aircraft observations over the United Arab EmiratesImpact of wind pattern and complex topography on snow microphysics during International Collaborative Experiment for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter games (ICE-POP 2018)Evaluation of simulated cloud liquid water in low clouds over the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic System Reanalysis using ARISE airborne in situ observationsComprehensive quantification of height dependence of entrainment mixing between stratiform cloud top and environmentSunlight-absorbing aerosol amplifies the seasonal cycle in low-cloud fraction over the southeast AtlanticCoupled and decoupled stratocumulus-topped boundary layers: turbulence propertiesSupercooled liquid water and secondary ice production in Kelvin–Helmholtz instability as revealed by radar Doppler spectra observationsShape dependence of snow crystal fall speedCaptured cirrus ice particles in high definitionWhat drives daily precipitation over the central Amazon? Differences observed between wet and dry seasonsMicrophysical investigation of the seeder and feeder region of an Alpine mixed-phase cloudCase study of a humidity layer above Arctic stratocumulus and potential turbulent coupling with the cloud topLinear relationship between effective radius and precipitation water content near the top of convective cloudsJoint cloud water path and rainwater path retrievals from airborne ORACLES observationsLagrangian matches between observations from aircraft, lidar and radar in a warm conveyor belt crossing orographyMeasurement report: Mass and Density of Individual Frozen HydrometeorsInfluence of low-level blocking and turbulence on the microphysics of a mixed-phase cloud in an inner-Alpine valleyStatistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution over the Western Ghats of India: wet versus dry spells of the Indian summer monsoonImpact of the variability in vertical separation between biomass burning aerosols and marine stratocumulus on cloud microphysical properties over the Southeast AtlanticMeasurement report: Ice nucleating abilities of biomass burning, African dust, and sea spray aerosol particles over the Yucatán PeninsulaThe prevalence of precipitation from polar supercooled cloudsContinuous secondary-ice production initiated by updrafts through the melting layer in mountainous regionsVertical dependence of horizontal variation of cloud microphysics: observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm-rain simulation in climate modelsContrasting characteristics of open- and closed- cellular stratocumulus cloud in the Eastern North AtlanticBreakup of nocturnal low-level stratiform clouds during the southern West African monsoon seasonEffects of thermodynamics, dynamics and aerosols on cirrus clouds based on in situ observations and NCAR CAM6Towards parameterising atmospheric concentrations of ice-nucleating particles active at moderate supercoolingMeteorological and cloud conditions during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expeditionLong-term deposition and condensation ice-nucleating particle measurements from four stations across the globeShip-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceansProperties of Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds from shipborne Cloudnet observations during ACSE 2014The evolution of cloud and aerosol microphysics at the summit of Mt. Tai, ChinaIce-nucleating particle concentrations of the past: insights from a 600-year-old Greenland ice coreIce-supersaturated air masses in the northern mid-latitudes from regular in situ observations by passenger aircraft: vertical distribution, seasonality and tropospheric fingerprintSupercooled drizzle development in response to semi-coherent vertical velocity fluctuations within an orographic-layer cloudStratocumulus cloud clearings: statistics from satellites, reanalysis models, and airborne measurementsSupercooled liquid water cloud observed, analysed, and modelled at the top of the planetary boundary layer above Dome C, AntarcticaOpen cells exhibit weaker entrainment of free-tropospheric biomass burning aerosol into the south-east Atlantic boundary layerSmall ice particles at slightly supercooled temperatures in tropical maritime convectionStatistical analysis of ice microphysical properties in tropical mesoscale convective systems derived from cloud radar and in situ microphysical observationsBiomass burning aerosol as a modulator of the droplet number in the southeast Atlantic regionConceptual model of diurnal cycle of low-level stratiform clouds over southern West AfricaThe structure of turbulence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics in a highly supercooled altocumulus cloudCharacterization of aerosol particles at Cabo Verde close to sea level and at the cloud level – Part 2: Ice-nucleating particles in air, cloud and seawaterA new look at the environmental conditions favorable to secondary ice productionSpatial and temporal variability in the ice-nucleating ability of alpine snowmelt and extension to frozen cloud fractionEvaluation of hygroscopic cloud seeding in liquid-water clouds: a feasibility studyThe impact of fluctuations and correlations in droplet growth by collision–coalescence revisited – Part 2: Observational evidence of gel formation in warm cloudsThe diurnal cycle of the smoky marine boundary layer observed during August in the remote southeast Atlantic
Alice Henkes, Gilberto Fisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Jean-Pierre Chaboureau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13207–13225,Short summary
The Amazonian boundary layer is investigated during the dry season in order to better understand the processes that occur between night and day until the stage where shallow cumulus clouds become deep. Observations show that shallow to deep clouds are characterized by a shorter morning transition stage (e.g., the time needed to eliminate the stable boundary layer inversion), while higher humidity above the boundary layer favors the evolution from shallow to deep cumulus clouds.
Youssef Wehbe, Sarah A. Tessendorf, Courtney Weeks, Roelof Bruintjes, Lulin Xue, Roy Rasmussen, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, and Marouane Temimi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12543–12560,Short summary
The role of dust aerosols as ice-nucleating particles is well established in the literature, whereas their role as cloud condensation nuclei is less understood, particularly in polluted desert environments. We analyze coincident aerosol size distributions and cloud particle imagery collected over the UAE with a research aircraft. Despite the presence of ultra-giant aerosol sizes associated with dust, an active collision–coalescence process is not observed within the limited depths of warm cloud.
Kwonil Kim, Wonbae Bang, Eun-Chul Chang, Francisco J. Tapiador, Chia-Lun Tsai, Eunsil Jung, and Gyuwon Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11955–11978,Short summary
This study analyzes the microphysical characteristics of snow in complex terrain and the nearby ocean according to topography and wind pattern during the ICE-POP 2018 campaign. The observations from collocated vertically pointing radars and disdrometers indicate that the riming in the mountainous region is likely caused by a strong shear and turbulence. The different behaviors of aggregation and riming were found by three different synoptic patterns (air–sea interaction, cold low, and warm low).
J. Brant Dodson, Patrick C. Taylor, Richard H. Moore, David H. Bromwich, Keith M. Hines, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Chelsea A. Corr, Bruce E. Anderson, Edward L. Winstead, and Joseph R. Bennett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11563–11580,Short summary
Aircraft in situ observations of low-level Beaufort Sea cloud properties and thermodynamics from the ARISE campaign are compared with the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) to better understand deficiencies in simulated clouds. ASR produces too little cloud water, which coincides with being too warm and dry. In addition, ASR struggles to produce cloud water even in favorable thermodynamic conditions. A random sampling experiment also shows the effects of the limited aircraft sampling on the results.
Sinan Gao, Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Seong Soo Yum, Jiashan Zhu, Lei Zhu, Neel Desai, Yongfeng Ma, and Shang Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11225–11241,Short summary
Only a few studies have been focused on the vertical variation of entrainment mixing with low resolutions which are crucial to cloud-related processes. A sawtooth pattern allows for an examination of mixing with high vertical resolution. A new measure is introduced to estimate entrainment mixing to overcome difficulties in existing measures, where vertical profile indicates that entrainment mixing becomes more homogeneous with decreasing altitudes, consistent with the dynamical measures.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11179–11199,Short summary
The subtropical Atlantic hosts one of the planet's largest marine low cloud decks and interacts with biomass burning aerosol from approximately July through October. This study clarifies how the monthly evolution in meteorology and the biomass burning aerosol vertical structure affects the seasonal cycle in its low cloud fraction, such that the July–October evolution in low cloud cover and morphology are reinforced, when compared to scenarios with less aerosol present.
Jakub L. Nowak, Holger Siebert, Kai-Erik Szodry, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10965–10991,Short summary
Turbulence properties in two cases of a marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layer have been compared using high-resolution helicopter-borne in situ measurements. In the coupled one, small-scale turbulence was close to isotropic and reasonably followed inertial range scaling according to Kolmogorov theory. In the decoupled one, turbulence was more anisotropic and the scaling deviated from theory. This was more pronounced in the cloud and subcloud layers in comparison to the surface mixed layer.
Haoran Li, Alexei Korolev, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Kelvin-Helmholtz clouds embedded in a stratiform precipitation event were revealled by using radar doppler spectra analysis. Given the unprecedented detail of the observations, we show that multiple populations of secondary ice columns were generated in the pockets where larger cloud droplets are formed and not at some constant level within the cloud. Our observations indicate that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is favorable for droplet growth and secondary ice formation.
Sandra Vázquez-Martín, Thomas Kuhn, and Salomon Eliasson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7545–7565,Short summary
In this work, we present new fall speed measurements of natural snow particles and ice crystals. We study the particle fall speed relationships and how they depend on particle shape. We analyze these relationships as a function of particle size, cross-sectional area, and area ratio for different particle shape groups. We also investigate the dependence of the particle fall speed on the orientation, as it has a large impact on the cross-sectional area.
Nathan Magee, Katie Boaggio, Samantha Staskiewicz, Aaron Lynn, Xuanyi Zhao, Nicholas Tusay, Terance Schuh, Manisha Bandamede, Lucas Bancroft, David Connelly, Kevin Hurler, Bryan Miner, and Elissa Khoudary
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7171–7185,Short summary
The cryo-electron microscopy images and analysis in this paper result from the first balloon-borne capture, preservation, and high-resolution imaging of ice particles from cirrus clouds. The images show cirrus particle complexity in unprecedented detail, revealing unexpected morphology, a mixture of surface roughness scales and patterns, embedded aerosols, and a large variety of habits within a single cloud. The results should inform ongoing efforts to refine modeling of cirrus radiative impact.
Thiago S. Biscaro, Luiz A. T. Machado, Scott E. Giangrande, and Michael P. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6735–6754,Short summary
This study suggests that there are two distinct modes driving diurnal precipitating convective clouds over the central Amazon. In the wet season, local factors such as turbulence and nighttime cloud coverage are the main controls of daily precipitation, while dry-season daily precipitation is modulated primarily by the mesoscale convective pattern. The results imply that models and parameterizations must consider different formulations based on the seasonal cycle to correctly resolve convection.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Johannes Bühl, Martin Radenz, Patric Seifert, Jörg Wieder, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Ronny Engelmann, Claudia Mignani, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6681–6706,Short summary
Orographic mixed-phase clouds are an important source of precipitation, but the ice formation processes within them remain uncertain. Here we investigate the origin of ice crystals in a mixed-phase cloud in the Swiss Alps using aerosol and cloud data from in situ and remote sensing observations. We found that ice formation primarily occurs in cloud top generating cells. Our results indicate that secondary ice processes are active in the feeder region, which can enhance orographic precipitation.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth’s hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperatures levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Andrew M. Dzambo, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Kenneth Sinclair, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Siddhant Gupta, Greg McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Brian Cairns, Andrzej P. Wasilewski, and Mikhail Alexandrov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5513–5532,Short summary
This work highlights a new algorithm using data collected from the 2016–2018 NASA ORACLES field campaign. This algorithm synthesizes cloud and rain measurements to attain estimates of cloud and precipitation properties over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Estimates produced by this algorithm compare well against in situ estimates. Increased rain fractions and rain rates are found in regions of atmospheric instability. This dataset can be used to explore aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions.
Maxi Boettcher, Andreas Schäfler, Michael Sprenger, Harald Sodemann, Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Donato Summa, Paolo Di Girolamo, Daniele Nerini, Urs Germann, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5477–5498,Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are important airstreams in extratropical cyclones, often leading to the formation of intense precipitation. We present a case study that involves aircraft, lidar and radar observations of water and clouds in a WCB ascending from western Europe across the Alps towards the Baltic Sea during the field campaigns HyMeX and T-NAWDEX-Falcon in October 2012. A probabilistic trajectory measure and an airborne tracer experiment were used to confirm the long pathway of the WCB.
Karlie Rees, Dhiraj Singh, Eric Pardyjak, and Timothy Garrett
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
An old problem for accurately predicting weather and climate is knowing the mass and density of snowflakes as a function of their size. Few measurements have been obtained because snowflakes are so small and fragile. The most widely used sample is of just 376 snowflakes obtained in the early 1970s in Washington State. We developed a new instrument for automatic measurement of snowflake mass and density. Our analysis shows that snowflakes have a lower density than is often assumed.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5151–5172,Short summary
Interactions between dynamics, microphysics and orography can enhance precipitation. Yet the exact role of these interactions is still uncertain. Here we investigate the role of low-level blocking and turbulence for precipitation by combining remote sensing and in situ observations. The observations show that blocked flow can induce the formation of feeder clouds and that turbulence can enhance hydrometeor growth, demonstrating the importance of local flow effects for orographic precipitation.
Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna, Subrata Kumar Das, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj Sulochana, Utsav Bhowmik, Sachin Madhukar Deshpande, and Govindan Pandithurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4741–4757,Short summary
Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall exhibits sub-seasonal variability as active spells with good rainfall (wet spell) and weak spells or breaks with little to no rainfall (dry spell). Studies have shown that during the wet and dry periods of the ISM, there are contrasting behaviors in the formation of weather systems and large-scale instability. Thus, it is worth investigating how the raindrop size distribution varies during intra-seasonal timescale variations of the ISM in the Western Ghats.
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, David J. Delene, Michael R. Poellot, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Jens Redemann, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Kristina Pistone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4615–4635,Short summary
Observations from the 2016 NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign examine how biomass burning aerosols from southern Africa affect marine stratocumulus cloud decks over the Southeast Atlantic. Instances of contact and separation between aerosols and clouds are examined to quantify the impact of aerosol mixing into cloud top on cloud drop numbers and sizes. This information is needed for improving Earth system models and satellite retrievals.
Fernanda Córdoba, Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Diego Cabrera, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Bernardo Figueroa, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Talib Amador, Wilfrido Gutierrez, Manuel García, Allan K. Bertram, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4453–4470,Short summary
Most precipitation from deep clouds over the continents and in the intertropical convergence zone is strongly influenced by the presence of ice crystals whose formation requires the presence of aerosol particles. In the present study, the ability of three different aerosol types (i.e., marine aerosol, biomass burning, and African dust) to facilitate ice particle formation was assessed in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.
Israel Silber, Ann M. Fridlind, Johannes Verlinde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Grégory V. Cesana, and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3949–3971,Short summary
Long-term ground-based radar and sounding measurements over Alaska (Antarctica) indicate that more than 85 % (75 %) of supercooled clouds are precipitating at cloud base and that 75 % (50 %) are precipitating to the surface. Such high prevalence is reconciled with lesser spaceborne estimates by considering radar sensitivity. Results provide a strong observational constraint for polar cloud processes in large-scale models.
Annika Lauber, Jan Henneberger, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3855–3870,Short summary
An accurate prediction of the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) is important to determine the radiation budget, lifetime, and precipitation formation of clouds. Even though secondary-ice processes can increase the ICNC by several orders of magnitude, they are poorly constrained and lack a well-founded quantification. During measurements on a mountain slope, a high ICNC of small ice crystals was observed just below 0 °C, attributed to a secondary-ice process and parametrized in this study.
Zhibo Zhang, Qianqian Song, David B. Mechem, Vincent E. Larson, Jian Wang, Yangang Liu, Mikael K. Witte, Xiquan Dong, and Peng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3103–3121,Short summary
This study investigates the small-scale variations and covariations of cloud microphysical properties, namely, cloud liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration, in marine boundary layer clouds based on in situ observation from the Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) campaign. We discuss the dependence of cloud variations on vertical location in cloud and the implications for warm-rain simulations in the global climate models.
Michael P. Jensen, Virendra P. Ghate, Dié Wang, Diana K. Apoznanski, Mary J. Bartholomew, Scott E. Giangrande, Karen L. Johnson, and Mandana M. Thieman
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work compares the large-scale meteorology, cloud, aerosol, precipitation and thermodynamics of closed- and open-cell cloud organizations using long-term observations from the Eastern North Atlantic. Open-cell cases are associated with cold-air outbreaks and occur in deeper boundary layers, with stronger winds and higher rain rates compared to closed-cell cases. These results offer important benchmarks for model representation of boundary layer clouds in this climatically important region.
Maurin Zouzoua, Fabienne Lohou, Paul Assamoi, Marie Lothon, Véronique Yoboue, Cheikh Dione, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Solène Derrien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2027–2051,Short summary
Based on a field experiment conducted in June and July 2016, we analyzed the daytime breakup of continental low-level stratiform clouds over southern West Africa in order to provide complementary guidance for model evaluation during the monsoon season. Those clouds exhibit weaker temperature and moisture jumps at the top compared to marine stratiform clouds. Their lifetime and the transition towards shallow convective clouds during daytime hours depend on their coupling with the surface.
Ryan Patnaude, Minghui Diao, Xiaohong Liu, and Suqian Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1835–1859,Short summary
A comprehensive, in situ observation dataset of cirrus clouds was developed based on seven field campaigns, ranging from 87° N–75° S. The observations were compared with a global climate model. Several key factors for cirrus cloud formation were examined, including thermodynamics, dynamics, aerosol indirect effects and geographical locations. Model biases include lower ice mass concentrations, smaller ice crystals and weaker aerosol indirect effects.
Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Michael A. Sprenger, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Christine Alewell, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 657–664,Short summary
Most precipitation above land starts with ice in clouds. It is promoted by extremely rare particles. Some ice-nucleating particles (INPs) cause cloud droplets to already freeze above −15°C, a temperature at which many clouds begin to snow. We found that the abundance of such INPs among other particles of similar size is highest in precipitating air masses and lowest when air carries desert dust. This brings us closer to understanding the interactions between land, clouds, and precipitation.
Jutta Vüllers, Peggy Achtert, Ian M. Brooks, Michael Tjernström, John Prytherch, Annika Burzik, and Ryan Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 289–314,Short summary
This paper provides interesting new results on the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer, cloud conditions, and fog characteristics in the Arctic during the Arctic Ocean 2018 campaign. It provides information for interpreting further process studies on aerosol–cloud interactions and shows substantial differences in thermodynamic conditions and cloud characteristics based on comparison with previous campaigns. This certainly raises the question of whether it is just an exceptional year.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15191–15206,Short summary
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Peggy Achtert, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ian M. Brooks, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Matthew D. Shupe, Bernhard Pospichal, Barbara J. Brooks, and Michael Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14983–15002,Short summary
We present observations of precipitating and non-precipitating Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds during a research cruise along the Russian shelf in summer and autumn of 2014. Active remote-sensing observations, radiosondes, and auxiliary measurements are combined in the synergistic Cloudnet retrieval. Cloud properties are analysed with respect to cloud-top temperature and boundary layer structure. About 8 % of all liquid clouds show a liquid water path below the infrared black body limit.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Jann Schrod, Dominik Kleinhenz, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah Richter, Frank Wilhelms, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Ebert, Birthe Twarloh, Damiano Della Lunga, Camilla M. Jensen, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12459–12482,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations of the last 6 centuries are presented from an ice core in Greenland. The data are accompanied by physical and chemical aerosol data. INPs are correlated to the dust signal from the ice core and seem to follow the annual input of mineral dust. We find no clear trend in the INP concentration. However, modern-day concentrations are higher and more variable than the concentrations of the past. This might have significant atmospheric implications.
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Adam Majewski and Jeffrey R. French
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5035–5054,Short summary
The study reports formation of supercooled drizzle drops in response to repeating kilometer-wide updrafts and downdrafts within a mixed-phase, mountain-layer cloud containing very little ice despite cold cloud top temperatures (T ~ -30°C). The discrete, embedded hydrometeor growth layers and downwind transition to drizzle production at cloud top indicates the relative importance of kinematic mechanisms in determining the location of precipitation development in cloud.
Hossein Dadashazar, Ewan Crosbie, Mohammad S. Majdi, Milad Panahi, Mohammad A. Moghaddam, Ali Behrangi, Michael Brunke, Xubin Zeng, Haflidi H. Jonsson, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4637–4665,Short summary
Clearings in the marine-boundary-layer (MBL) cloud deck of the Pacific Ocean were studied. Remote sensing, reanalysis, and airborne data were used along with machine-learning modeling to characterize the spatiotemporal nature of clearings and factors governing their growth. The most significant implications of our results are linked to modeling of fog and MBL clouds, with implications for societal and environmental issues like climate, military operations, transportation, and coastal ecology.
Philippe Ricaud, Massimo Del Guasta, Eric Bazile, Niramson Azouz, Angelo Lupi, Pierre Durand, Jean-Luc Attié, Dana Veron, Vincent Guidard, and Paolo Grigioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4167–4191,Short summary
Thin (~ 100 m) supercooled liquid water (SLW, water staying in liquid phase below 0 °C) clouds have been detected, analysed, and modelled over the Dome C (Concordia, Antarctica) station during the austral summer 2018–2019 using observations and meteorological analyses. The SLW clouds were observed at the top of the planetary boundary layer and the SLW content was always strongly underestimated by the model indicating an incorrect simulation of the surface energy budget of the Antarctic Plateau.
Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Paquita Zuidema, Jianhao Zhang, Matt Christensen, Fanny Peers, Jonathan W. Taylor, Ian Crawford, Keith N. Bower, and Michael Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4059–4084,Short summary
In situ measurements of a free-tropospheric (FT) biomass burning aerosol plume in contact with the boundary layer inversion overriding a pocket of open cells (POC) and surrounding stratiform cloud are presented. The data highlight the contrasting thermodynamic, aerosol and cloud properties in the two cloud regimes and further demonstrate that the cloud regime plays a key role in regulating the flow of FT aerosols into the boundary layer, which has implications for the aerosol indirect effect.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3503–3553,Short summary
This study investigates properties of ice hydrometeors (shape, concentration, density, and size) in deep convective systems. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences over four locations in the tropical troposphere. It shows that measurements as a function of temperature and radar reflectivity factors tend to be similar in the four types of deep convective systems when concentrations of ice are larger than 0.1 g m-3.
Mary Kacarab, K. Lee Thornhill, Amie Dobracki, Steven G. Howell, Joseph R. O'Brien, Steffen Freitag, Michael R. Poellot, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3029–3040,Short summary
We find that extensive biomass burning aerosol plumes from southern Africa can profoundly influence clouds in the southeastern Atlantic. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity, however, are found to magnify the relationship between boundary layer aerosol and the cloud droplet number. Neglecting these covariances may strongly bias the sign and magnitude of aerosol impacts on the cloud droplet number.
Fabienne Lohou, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Marie Lothon, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Maurin Zouzoua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2263–2275,Short summary
A conceptual model of the low-level stratiform clouds (LLSCs), which develop almost every night in southern West Africa, is built with the dataset acquired during the DACCIWA (Dynamics Aerosol Chemistry Cloud Interactions in West Africa) ground-based field experiment. Several processes occur during the four phases composing this diurnal cycle: the cooling of the air until saturation (stable and jet phases), LLSC and low-level jet interactions (stratus phase), and LLSC breakup (convective phase).
Paul A. Barrett, Alan Blyth, Philip R. A. Brown, and Steven J. Abel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1921–1939,Short summary
Here we present new in situ observations from altocumulus clouds made with a research aircraft. By carefully measuring the cloud top height, we are able to study the turbulence and cloud properties in high vertical resolution, something not presented before. The clouds contain both ice particles and liquid drops, even though the temperature is −30 °C. These measurements will hopefully assist future developers of climate models to verify and assess the performance of simulations.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Alexei Korolev, Ivan Heckman, Mengistu Wolde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Ann M. Fridlind, Luis A. Ladino, R. Paul Lawson, Jason Milbrandt, and Earle Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1391–1429,Short summary
This study attempts identification of mechanisms of secondary ice production (SIP) based on the observation of small faceted ice crystals. It was found that in both mesoscale convective systems and frontal clouds, SIP was observed right above the melting layer and extended to the higher altitudes with colder temperatures. A principal conclusion of this work is that the freezing drop shattering mechanism is plausibly accounting for the measured ice concentrations in the observed condition.
Killian P. Brennan, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 163–180,Short summary
To contribute to our understanding of the liquid water-to-ice ratio in mixed-phase clouds, this study provides a spatial and temporal dataset of ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations in meltwater of 88 snow samples across 17 locations in the Swiss Alps. The impact of altitude, terrain, time since last snowfall and depth on freezing temperatures was also investigated. The measured INP concentrations provide an estimate of cloud glaciation temperatures important for cloud lifetime.
Fei Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qi Jiang, Gaili Wang, Shuo Jia, Jing Duan, and Yuquan Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14967–14977,Short summary
Though many laboratory, modeling, and field experimental studies on cloud seeding have been conducted for more than a half-century, assessing the effectiveness of cloud seeding is still very challenging due to the notorious difficulties in gaining convincing scientific evidences. The goals of this study are to evaluate any consequence of aircraft hygroscopic seeding and to develop a feasible method for analyzing the cloud seeding effect for stratocumulus clouds.
Lester Alfonso, Graciela B. Raga, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14917–14932,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to find some observational evidence of gel formation in clouds, by analyzing the distribution of the largest droplet at an early stage of cloud formation, and to show that the mass of the gel (
lucky droplet) is a mixture of Gaussian and Gumbel distributions. The results obtained may help advance the understanding of precipitation formation and are a novel application of the theory of critical phenomena in cloud physics.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14493–14516,Short summary
Boundary layer (BL) semi-direct effects in the remote SE Atlantic are investigated using LASIC field measurements and satellite retrievals. Low-cloud cover and cloud liquid water path decrease with increasing smoke loadings in the BL. Daily-mean surface-based mixed layer is warmer by 0.5 K, moisture accumulates near the surface throughout the night, and the BL deepens by 200 m, with LWPs and cloud top heights increasing, in the sunlit morning hours, as part of the smoke-altered BL diurnal cycle.
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The distributions of linear trends in total cloud cover and precipitation in 1983–2009 are both characterized by a broadening of the major ascending zone of Hadley circulation around the Maritime Continent. The broadening is driven primarily by the moisture–convection–latent-heat feedback cycle under global warming conditions. Contribution by other climate oscillations is secondary. The reduction of total cloud cover in China in 1957–2005 is driven by the same mechanism.
The distributions of linear trends in total cloud cover and precipitation in 1983–2009 are both...