Articles | Volume 21, issue 19
Research article
 | Highlight paper
13 Oct 2021
Research article | Highlight paper |  | 13 Oct 2021

Aerosol–cloud interactions: the representation of heterogeneous ice activation in cloud models

Bernd Kärcher and Claudia Marcolli

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Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Cziczo, D. J., Ladino, L., Boose, Y., Kanji, Z. A., Kupiszweski, P., Lance, S., Mertes, S., and Wex, H.: Measurements of ice nucleating particles and ice residuals, Meteor. Mon., 58, 8.1–8.13,, 2017. a
David, R. O., Marcolli, C., Fahrni, J., Qiu, Y., Sirkin, Y. A. P., Molinero, V., Mahrt, F., Brühwiler, D., Lohmann, U., and Kanji, Z. A.: Pore condensation and freezing is responsible for ice formation below water saturation for porous particles, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 8184–8189,, 2019. a
Holden, M. A., Whale, T. F., Tarn, M. D., O'Sullivan, D., Walshaw, R. D., Murray, B. J., Meldrum, F. C., and Christenson, H. K.: High-speed imaging of ice nucleation in water proves the existence of active sites, Sci. Adv., 5, 2,, 2019. a
Kanji, Z. A., Ladino, L. A., Wex, H., Boose, Y., Burkert-Kohn, M., Cziczo, D. J., and Krämer, M.: Overview of ice nucleating particles, Meteor. Mon., 58, 1.1–1.33,, 2017. a
Kärcher, B.: Cirrus clouds and their response to anthropogenic activities, Current Climate Change Reports, 3, 45–57,, 2017. a
Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions play an important role in climate change. Simulations of the competition between homogeneous solution droplet freezing and heterogeneous ice nucleation can be compromised by the misapplication of ice-active particle fractions frequently derived from laboratory measurements or parametrizations. Our study frames the problem and establishes a solution that is easy to implement in cloud models.
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