Articles | Volume 20, issue 9
Research article 14 May 2020
Research article | 14 May 2020
Measurements and modeling of airborne plutonium in Subarctic Finland between 1965 and 2011
Susanna Salminen-Paatero et al.
No articles found.
Toni Viskari, Janne Pusa, Istem Fer, Anna Repo, Julius Vira, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
We wanted to examine how the chosen measurement data and calibration process itself affects soil organic carbon model calibration. In our results we found that there is benefit in using data multiple litterbag decomposition experiments simultaneously, even with the required assumptions. Additionally due to the amount of noise and uncertainties in the system, more advanced calibration methods should be used to parameterize the models.
Olli Nevalainen, Olli Niemitalo, Istem Fer, Antti Juntunen, Tuomas Mattila, Olli Koskela, Joni Kukkamäki, Layla Höckerstedt, Laura Mäkelä, Pieta Jarva, Laura Heimsch, Henriikka Vekuri, Liisa Kulmala, Åsa Stam, Otto Kuusela, Stephanie Gerin, Toni Viskari, Julius Vira, Jari Hyväluoma, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Annalea Lohila, Tuomas Laurila, Jussi Heinonsalo, Tuula Aalto, Iivari Kunttu, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GIShort summary
Better monitoring of sequestered soil carbon in different soils and climate conditions due to carbon farming practices is needed. For this, we, Field Observatory Network (FiON), have established a methodology towards monitoring and forecasting agricultural carbon sequestration by combining offline and near real-time field measurements, weather data, satellite imagery and modeling. To disseminate our work, we have built a web-based dashboard called Field Observatory (fieldobservatory.org).
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Money Ossohou, and Corinne Galy-Lacaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Ammonia is an important trace gas due to its role in atmospheric chemistry and due to its adverse effects on sensitive ecosystems. Here we used a new model to assess the global ammonia emissions from agriculture, which is the largest emission source. The model results agree with earlier estimates over industrialized regions, but the model predicts much higher emissions over the sub-Saharan Africa. The available observations from surface stations and satellites support the higher emissions.
Fule Zhang, Jinlong Wang, Mark Baskaran, Qiangqiang Zhong, Yali Wang, Jussi Paatero, and Jinzhou Du
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2963–2994,Short summary
Here we present a global dataset of air concentration and depositional flux measurements of atmospheric 7Be and 210Pb. The dataset could be used to better understand the transport processes of air masses and depositional processes of aerosols. This dataset not only lays a solid foundation to develop better parameterizations contributing to future modeling efforts but also supplies a basic parameter for tracing soil erosion, particle dynamics, and ocean surface process using 7Be and/or 210Pb.
Erika Brattich, Hongyu Liu, Bo Zhang, Miguel Ángel Hernández-Ceballos, Jussi Paatero, Darko Sarvan, Vladimir Djurdjevic, Laura Tositti, and Jelena Ajtić
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
In this study we analyse the output of a chemistry and transport model together with observations of different meteorological and compositional variables to demonstrate the link between sudden stratospheric warming and transport of stratospheric air to the surface in the subpolar regions of Europe during the cold season. Our findings have particular implications for atmospheric composition since climate projections indicate more frequent sudden stratospheric warming under a warmer climate.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Jeff Melkonian, and William R. Wieder
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4459–4490,Short summary
Mostly emitted by the agricultural sector, ammonia has an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We developed a model to simulate how ammonia emissions respond to changes in temperature and soil moisture, and we evaluated agricultural ammonia emissions globally. The simulated emissions agree with earlier estimates over many regions, but the results highlight the variability of ammonia emissions and suggest that emissions in warm climates may be higher than previously thought.
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Mikhail Sofiev, Julius Vira, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5837–5859,Short summary
Estimates of the age of stratospheric air (AoA), its distribution, and trends, obtained by different experimental methods, differ among each other. AoA derived form MIPAS satellite observations, the richest observational dataset on sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the stratosphere, are a clear outlier. With multi-decade simulations of AoA and SF6 in the stratosphere, we show that the origin of the discrepancy is in a methodology of deriving AoA from observations rather than in observational data.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Susan J. Cheng, Peter G. Hess, William R. Wieder, R. Quinn Thomas, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Julius Vira, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Per Gundersen, Ivan J. Fernandez, Patrick Schleppi, Marie-Cécile Gruselle, Filip Moldan, and Christine L. Goodale
Biogeosciences, 16, 2771–2793,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils. Understanding how much added nitrogen is recovered in plants or soils is critical to estimating the size of the future land carbon sink. We compared how nitrogen additions are recovered in modeled soil and plant stocks against data from long-term nitrogen addition experiments. We found that the model simulates recovery of added nitrogen into soils through a different process than found in the field.
Mikhail Sofiev, Olga Ritenberga, Roberto Albertini, Joaquim Arteta, Jordina Belmonte, Carmi Geller Bernstein, Maira Bonini, Sevcan Celenk, Athanasios Damialis, John Douros, Hendrik Elbern, Elmar Friese, Carmen Galan, Gilles Oliver, Ivana Hrga, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Kai Krajsek, Donat Magyar, Jonathan Parmentier, Matthieu Plu, Marje Prank, Lennart Robertson, Birthe Marie Steensen, Michel Thibaudon, Arjo Segers, Barbara Stepanovich, Alvaro M. Valdebenito, Julius Vira, and Despoina Vokou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12341–12360,Short summary
This work presents the features and evaluates the quality of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service forecasts of olive pollen distribution in Europe. It is shown that the models can predict the main features of the observed pollen distribution but have more difficulties in capturing the season start and end, which appeared shifted by a few days. We also demonstrated that the combined use of model predictions with up-to-date measurements (data fusion) can strongly improve the results.
Julius Vira, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, and Mikhail Sofiev
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1985–2008,Short summary
The vertical and temporal distributions of sulfur dioxide emissions during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull were reconstructed by combining data from the IASI satellite instrument with a dispersion model. Unlike in previous studies, both column density (the total amount above a given point) and the plume height were derived from the satellite data. This resulted in more accurate simulated vertical distributions for the times when the emission was not constrained by the column densities.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
M. Sofiev, J. Vira, R. Kouznetsov, M. Prank, J. Soares, and E. Genikhovich
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3497–3522,Short summary
The paper presents a transport mechanism of SILAM CTM based on an algorithm of M. Galperin. We describe the original scheme and its updates needed for applications to long-living species, complex atmospheric flows, etc. The scheme is connected to vertical diffusion, chemical transformation and deposition algorithms. Quality of the advection routine is evaluated with a large set of tests, which showed performance fully comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms at much lower computational costs.
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
M. Bocquet, H. Elbern, H. Eskes, M. Hirtl, R. Žabkar, G. R. Carmichael, J. Flemming, A. Inness, M. Pagowski, J. L. Pérez Camaño, P. E. Saide, R. San Jose, M. Sofiev, J. Vira, A. Baklanov, C. Carnevale, G. Grell, and C. Seigneur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5325–5358,Short summary
Data assimilation is used in atmospheric chemistry models to improve air quality forecasts, construct re-analyses of concentrations, and perform inverse modeling. Coupled chemistry meteorology models (CCMM) are atmospheric chemistry models that simulate meteorological processes and chemical transformations jointly. We review here the current status of data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models, with a particular focus on future prospects for data assimilation in CCMM.
J. Vira and M. Sofiev
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 191–203,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Photochemical impacts of haze pollution in an urban environmentChanges in the aerosol direct radiative forcing from 2001 to 2015: observational constraints and regional mechanismsThe role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate changeReducing CO2 from shipping – do non-CO2 effects matter?The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheetsEnvironmental impacts of shipping in 2030 with a particular focus on the Arctic regionEffect of aerosols and NO2 concentration on ultraviolet actinic flux near Mexico City during MILAGRO: measurements and model calculationsModeling the meteorological and chemical effects of secondary organic aerosols during an EUCAARI campaignPerformance of the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for temperature and species retrievals: IASI case studies from JAIVEx
Michael Hollaway, Oliver Wild, Ting Yang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Lisa Whalley, Eloise Slater, Dwayne Heard, and Dantong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9699–9714,Short summary
This study, for the first time, uses combinations of aerosol and lidar data to drive an offline photolysis scheme. Absorbing species are shown to have the greatest impact on photolysis rate constants in the winter and scattering aerosol are shown to dominate responses in the summer. During haze episodes, aerosols are shown to produce a greater impact than cloud cover. The findings demonstrate the potential photochemical impacts of haze pollution in a highly polluted urban environment.
Fabien Paulot, David Paynter, Paul Ginoux, Vaishali Naik, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13265–13281,Short summary
Observations show that the sunlight reflected to space by particles has decreased over the US and Europe, increased over India, and not changed over China from 2001 to 2015. These changes are attributed to different types of particles, namely sulfate over the US and Europe, and black carbon, sulfate, and nitrate over China and India. Our results suggest that the recent shift in human emissions from the US and Europe to Asia has altered their impact on the Earth's outgoing energy.
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We measured concentrations and isotope ratios of plutonium in air filters collected in Finnish Lapland in 1965–2011. Radioactive-contamination sources were global nuclear-testing fallout and the Fukushima and SNAP-9A accidents. Both real and hypothetical nuclear accidents were studied with atmospheric-dispersion modeling. The radioactive-contamination effect on Finnish Lapland would be minor from an intended nuclear power plant and negligible from a floating nuclear reactor in the Barents Sea.
We measured concentrations and isotope ratios of plutonium in air filters collected in Finnish...