Articles | Volume 20, issue 19
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Differences in fine particle chemical composition on clear and cloudy days
Amy E. Christiansen
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Barron H. Henderson
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
No articles found.
Matthew James Rowlinson, Lucy Carpenter, Katie Read, Shalini Punjabi, Adedayo Adedeji, Luke Fakes, Ally Lewis, Ben Richmond, Neil Passant, Tim Murrells, Barron Henderson, Kelvin Bates, Deltev Helmig, and Mat Evans
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Ethane and propane are volatile organic compounds emitted during human activities which contribute to the formation of ozone, a greenhouse gas, and affect the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Atmospheric models tend to do a poor job at reproducing the abundance of these compounds in the atmosphere. By using regional estimates of their emission, rather than globally consistent estimates, we can significantly improve the simulation of ethane in the model and make some improvement for propane.
Heather Simon, Christian Hogrefe, Andrew Whitehill, Kristen M. Foley, Jennifer Liljegren, Norm Possiel, Benjamin Wells, Barron H. Henderson, Lukas C. Valin, Gail Tonnesen, K. Wyat Appel, and Shannon Koplitz
We assess observed and modeled ozone weekend-weekday differences in the US from 2002–2019. A subset of urban areas that were NOX-saturated at the beginning of the period transitioned to NOX-limited conditions. Multiple rural areas of California were NOX-limited for the entire period but become less influenced by local day-of-week emission patterns in more recent years. The model produces more NOX-saturated conditions than the observations but captures trends in weekend-weekday ozone patterns.
Kelvin Bates, Mathew Evans, Barron Henderson, and Daniel Jacob
Accurate representation of rates and products of chemical reactions in atmospheric models is crucial for simulating concentrations of pollutants and climate forcers. We update the widely used GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model with reaction parameters from recent compilations of experimental data and demonstrate the implications for key atmospheric chemical species. The updates decrease tropospheric CO mixing ratios and increase stratospheric nitrogen oxide mixing ratios, among other changes.
Christine Wiedinmyer, Yosuke Kimura, Elena C. McDonald-Buller, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Wenfu Tang, Keenan Seto, Maxwell B. Joseph, Kelley C. Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Robert Yokelson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3873–3891,Short summary
The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) provides daily global estimates of emissions from open fires based on satellite detections of hot spots. This version has been updated to apply MODIS and VIIRS satellite fire detection and better represents both large and small fires. FINNv2.5 generates more emissions than FINNv1 and is in general agreement with other fire emissions inventories. The new estimates are consistent with satellite observations, but uncertainties remain regionally and by pollutant.
Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Tim Butler, Terry Keating, Rosa Wu, Jacek Kaminski, Jeroen Kuenen, Junichi Kurokawa, Satoru Chatani, Tazuko Morikawa, George Pouliot, Jacinthe Racine, Michael D. Moran, Zbigniew Klimont, Patrick M. Manseau, Rabab Mashayekhi, Barron H. Henderson, Steven J. Smith, Harrison Suchyta, Marilena Muntean, Efisio Solazzo, Manjola Banja, Edwin Schaaf, Federico Pagani, Jung-Hun Woo, Jinseok Kim, Fabio Monforti-Ferrario, Enrico Pisoni, Junhua Zhang, David Niemi, Mourad Sassi, Tabish Ansari, and Kristen Foley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2667–2694,Short summary
This study responds to the global and regional atmospheric modelling community's need for a mosaic of air pollutant emissions with global coverage, long time series, spatially distributed data at a high time resolution, and a high sectoral resolution in order to enhance the understanding of transboundary air pollution. The mosaic approach to integrating official regional emission inventories with a global inventory based on a consistent methodology ensures policy-relevant results.
Qian Shu, Sergey L. Napelenok, William T. Hutzell, Kirk R. Baker, Barron H. Henderson, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Christian Hogrefe
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2303–2322,Short summary
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emission sources to ambient pollutant concentrations. However, source attribution of secondarily formed pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cannot be explicitly measured, making evaluation of source apportionment methods challenging. In this study, multiple apportionment approach comparisons show common features but still reveal wide variations in predicted sector contribution and species dependency.
James D. East, Barron H. Henderson, Sergey L. Napelenok, Shannon N. Koplitz, Golam Sarwar, Robert Gilliam, Allen Lenzen, Daniel Q. Tong, R. Bradley Pierce, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15981–16001,Short summary
We present a framework that uses a computer model of air quality, along with air pollution data from satellite instruments, to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) across the Northern Hemisphere. The framework, which advances current methods to infer emissions from satellite observations, provides observationally constrained NOx estimates, including in regions of the world where emissions are highly uncertain, and can improve simulations of air pollutants relevant for health and policy.
Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Nicholas Balasus, Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18271–18281,Short summary
This study characterizes aerosol liquid water content and aerosol pH at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, Maryland. We characterize the effects of unique meteorology associated with the close proximity to the Chesapeake Bay and episodic NH3 events derived from industrial and agricultural sources on aerosol chemistry during the summer. We also examine two events where primary Bay emissions underwent aging in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Qian Shu, Benjamin Murphy, Jonathan E. Pleim, Donna Schwede, Barron H. Henderson, Havala O.T. Pye, Keith Wyat Appel, Tanvir R. Khan, and Judith A. Perlinger
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We have bridged the gap between dry deposition measurement and modeling by rigorous use of box and regional transport models and field measurements, but more efforts are needed. This study highlights that deviation among deposition schemes is most pronounced for small and large particles. This study better links model predictions to available real-world observations and incrementally reduces uncertainties in the magnitude of loss processes important for the lifecycle of air pollutants.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Haihan Chen, Anna L. Hodshire, John Ortega, James Greenberg, Peter H. McMurry, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Dave R. Hanson, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 311–326,Short summary
Much of what we know about atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is based on ground-level measurements. We used tethered balloon measurements and remote sensing to study the location in the boundary layer in which NPF events are initiated, the degree to which the boundary layer is well-mixed during NPF, and the potential role that water may play in aerosol particle chemical evolution. This information will improve the representativeness of process level models and laboratory experiments.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Matthew C. Woody, Jose L. Jimenez, Ann Marie G. Carlton, Patrick L. Hayes, Shang Liu, Nga L. Ng, Lynn M. Russell, Ari Setyan, Lu Xu, Jeff Young, Rahul A. Zaveri, Qi Zhang, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11107–11133,Short summary
We incorporate recent findings about the behavior of organic pollutants in urban airsheds into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to refine predictions of organic particulate pollution in the United States. The new techniques, which account for the volatility and ongoing chemistry of airborne organic compounds, substantially reduce biases, particularly in the winter time and near emission sources.
Kathleen M. Fahey, Annmarie G. Carlton, Havala O. T. Pye, Jaemeen Baek, William T. Hutzell, Charles O. Stanier, Kirk R. Baker, K. Wyat Appel, Mohammed Jaoui, and John H. Offenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1587–1605,Short summary
Chemical transport models (CTMs) are a crucial tool in understanding links between emissions, air quality, and climate. Only a simple description of cloud chemistry has been implemented in many of these; however, clouds play a major role in the physicochemical processing of atmospheric species. In CMAQ, EPA’s widely used CTM, the cloud code is limited to the treatment of simple chemistry. We update CMAQ clouds to consider additional chemistry and then examine regional impacts of these updates.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Neha Sareen, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jason D. Surratt, Avram Gold, Ben Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Claudia Mohr, Joel A. Thornton, Zhenfa Zhang, Yong B. Lim, and Barbara J. Turpin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14409–14420,
Giulia Ruggeri, Fabian A. Bernhard, Barron H. Henderson, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8729–8747,Short summary
Functional groups provide an intermediate level of chemical resolution between full molecular speciation and elemental composition for describing complex mixtures and can be a useful metric in model–measurement comparison of reaction kinetics and secondary organic aerosol formation. We introduce tools to facilitate such comparisons and demonstrate its application in study of the photooxidation of two precursor volatile organic compounds and the gas–particle partitioning of their products.
K. M. Seltzer, W. Vizuete, and B. H. Henderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5973–5986,
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
W. Tang, D. S. Cohan, A. Pour-Biazar, L. N. Lamsal, A. T. White, X. Xiao, W. Zhou, B. H. Henderson, and B. F. Lash
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1601–1619,Short summary
A joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve Texas O3 SIP modeling is demonstrated in this study. The GOES-retrieved clouds are applied to correct the modeled photolysis rates, and the DKF inversion approach is incorporated into the CAMx-DDM model to adjust NOx emissions using OMI NO2. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together improves O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.
K. C. Barsanti, A. G. Carlton, and S. H. Chung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12073–12088,
A. G. Carlton and B. J. Turpin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10203–10214,
C. He, J. Liu, A. G. Carlton, S. Fan, L. W. Horowitz, H. Levy II, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1913–1926,
Related subject area
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Xiaoxiao Li, Yijing Chen, Yuyang Li, Runlong Cai, Yiran Li, Chenjuan Deng, Jin Wu, Chao Yan, Hairong Cheng, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Jiming Hao, James N. Smith, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14801–14812,Short summary
Near-continuous measurements show the composition, sources, and seasonal variations of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban Beijing. Vehicle and cooking emissions and new particle formation are the main sources of UFPs, and aqueous/heterogeneous processes increase UFP mode diameters. UFPs are the highest in winter due to the highest primary particle emission rates and new particle formation rates, and CHO fractions are the highest in summer due to the strongest photooxidation.
Jiaqi Wang, Jian Gao, Fei Che, Xin Yang, Yuanqin Yang, Lei Liu, Yan Xiang, and Haisheng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14715–14733,Short summary
Regional-scale observations of surface O3, PM2.5 and its major chemical species, mixing layer height (MLH), and other meteorological parameters were made in the North China Plain during summer. Unlike the cold season, synchronized increases in MDA8 O3 and PM2.5 under medium MLH conditions have been witnessed. The increasing trend of PM2.5 was associated with enhanced secondary chemical formation. The correlation between MLH and secondary air pollutants should be treated with care in hot seasons.
Takuma Miyakawa, Akinori Ito, Chunmao Zhu, Atsushi Shimizu, Erika Matsumoto, Yusuke Mizuno, and Yugo Kanaya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14609–14626,Short summary
This study conducted semi-continuous measurements of PM2.5 aerosols and their elemental composition in western Japan, during spring 2018. It analyzed the emissions, transport, and wet removal of elements such as Pb, Cu, Fe, and Mn. It also assessed the accuracy of modeled concentrations and found overestimations of BC and underestimations of Cu and anthropogenic Fe in East Asia. Insights into emissions, removals, and source apportionment of trace metals in the East Asian outflow were provided.
Jingjing Meng, Yachen Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Tonglin Huang, Zhifei Wang, Yiqiu Wang, Min Chen, Zhanfang Hou, Houhua Zhou, Keding Lu, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14481–14503,Short summary
This study investigated the effect of COVID-19 lockdown (LCD) measures on the formation and evolutionary process of diacids and related compounds from field observations. Results demonstrate that more aged organic aerosols are observed during the LCD due to the enhanced photochemical oxidation. Our study also found that the reactivity of 13C was higher than that of 12C in the gaseous photochemical oxidation, leading to higher δ13C values of C2 during the LCD than before the LCD.
Christopher J. Hennigan, Michael McKee, Vikram Pratap, Bryanna Boegner, Jasper Reno, Lucia Garcia, Madison McLaren, and Sara M. Lance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14437–14449,Short summary
This study characterized the optical properties of light-absorbing organic compounds, called brown carbon (BrC), in atmospheric cloud water samples. In all samples, light absorption by BrC increased linearly with increasing pH. There was variability in the sensitivity of the absorption–pH relationship, depending on the degree of influence from fire emissions. Overall, these results show that the climate forcing of BrC is quite strongly affected by its pH-dependent absorption.
Máté Vörösmarty, Gaëlle Uzu, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Pamela Dominutti, Zsófia Kertész, Enikő Papp, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14255–14269,Short summary
Poor air quality caused by high concentrations of particulate matter is one of the most severe public health concerns for humans worldwide. One of the most important biological mechanisms inducing adverse health effects is the oxidant–antioxidant imbalance. We showed that the oxidative stress changed substantially and in a complex manner with location and season. Biomass burning exhibited the dominant influence, while motor vehicles played an important role in the non-heating period.
Da Lu, Hao Li, Mengke Tian, Guochen Wang, Xiaofei Qin, Na Zhao, Juntao Huo, Fan Yang, Yanfen Lin, Jia Chen, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Xinyi Dong, Congrui Deng, Sabur F. Abdullaev, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13853–13868,Short summary
Environmental conditions during dust are usually not favorable for secondary aerosol formation. However in this study, an unusual dust event was captured in a Chinese mega-city and showed “anomalous” meteorology and a special dust backflow transport pathway. The underlying formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols are probed in the context of this special dust event. This study shows significant implications for the varying dust aerosol chemistry in the future changing climate.
Thomas Audoux, Benoit Laurent, Karine Desboeufs, Gael Noyalet, Franck Maisonneuve, Olivier Lauret, and Servanne Chevaillier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13485–13503,Short summary
In the Paris region, a campaign was conducted to study wet deposition of aerosol particles during rainfall events. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol and wet deposition allowed us to discuss their transfer from the atmosphere to rain. Chemical evolution within events revealed meteorology, atmospheric conditions and local vs. long range sources as key factors. This study highlights the variability of wet deposition and the need to consider event-specific factors to understand its mechanisms.
Ting Yang, Yu Xu, Qing Ye, Yi-Jia Ma, Yu-Chen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Yu-Sen Duan, Chen-Xi Li, Hong-Wei Xiao, Zi-Yue Li, Yue Zhao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13433–13450,Short summary
In this study, 130 OS species were quantified in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in urban and suburban Shanghai (East China) in the summer of 2021. The daytime OS formation was concretized based on the interactions among OSs, ultraviolet (UV), ozone (O3), and sulfate. Our finding provides field evidence for the influence of photochemical process and anthropogenic sulfate on OS formation and has important implications for the mitigation of organic particulate pollution.
Miao Zhong, Jianzhong Xu, Huiqin Wang, Li Gao, Haixia Zhu, Lixiang Zhai, Xinghua Zhang, and Wenhui Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12609–12630,Short summary
This study focus on coal-combustion-dominated aerosol in urban areas in northwestern China and combines the results of optical measurement and chemical analysis to deduce the evolution of these characteristics in the atmosphere, which has previously been unknown. The results provide insights into the effects of atmospheric processes and emissions on brown carbon properties.
Li Wu, Hyo-Jin Eom, Hanjin Yoo, Dhrubajyoti Gupta, Hye-Rin Cho, Pingqing Fu, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12571–12588,Short summary
Hygroscopicity of ambient marine aerosols is of critical relevance to investigate their atmospheric impacts, which, however, remain uncertain due to their complex compositions and mixing states. Therefore, a study on the hygroscopic behavior of ambient marine aerosols for understanding the phase states when interacting with water vapor at different RH levels and their subsequent impacts on the heterogeneous chemical reactions, atmospheric environment, and human health is of vital importance.
Yutong Liang, Rebecca A. Wernis, Kasper Kristensen, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Philip L. Croteau, Scott C. Herndon, Arthur W. H. Chan, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12441–12454,Short summary
We measured the gas–particle partitioning behaviors of biomass burning markers and examined the effect of wildfire organic aerosol on the partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. Most compounds measured are less volatile than model predictions. Wildfire aerosol enhanced the condensation of polar compounds and caused some nonpolar (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) compounds to partition into the gas phase, thus affecting their lifetimes in the atmosphere and the mode of exposure.
Bojiang Su, Xinhui Bi, Zhou Zhang, Yue Liang, Congbo Song, Tao Wang, Yaohao Hu, Lei Li, Zhen Zhou, Jinpei Yan, Xinming Wang, and Guohua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10697–10711,Short summary
During the R/V Xuelong cruise observation over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the mass concentrations of water-soluble Ca2+ and the mass spectra of individual calcareous particles were measured. Our results indicated that lower temperature, lower wind speed, and the presence of sea ice may facilitate Ca2+ enrichment in sea spray aerosols and highlighted the potential contribution of organically complexed calcium to calcium enrichment, which is inaccurate based solely on water-soluble Ca2+ estimation.
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel Moreno R., Noemi Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, Radovan Krejci, Vladislav Chrastny, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10325–10347,Short summary
La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. The sources of particulate matter (PM) in this conurbation were not previously investigated. This study identified 11 main sources of PM, of which dust and vehicular emissions stand out as the main ones. The influence of regional biomass combustion and local waste combustion was also observed, with the latter being a major source of hazardous compounds.
Sayako Ueda, Yoko Iwamoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Mingxu Liu, and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10117–10135,Short summary
We examine iron in atmospheric fine aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during shipborne observations in November 2018. Transmission electron microscopy analysis with water dialysis shows that various types of iron (fly ash, iron oxide, and mineral dust) co-exist with ammonium sulfate and that their solubility differs depending on the iron type. Using PM2.5 bulk samples and global model simulations, we elucidate their origins, aging, and implications for present iron simulations.
Qiongqiong Wang, Shuhui Zhu, Shan Wang, Cheng Huang, Yunsen Duan, and Jian Zhen Yu
We investigated short-term source apportionment of PM2.5 utilizing rolling positive matrix factorization (PMF) and online PM chemical speciation data, which included source-specific organic tracers collected over a period of 37 days during the winter of 2019–2020 in suburban Shanghai, China. The findings highlight that by imposing constraints on the primary source profiles, short-term PMF analysis successfully replicated both the individual primary sources and the total secondary sources.
Farhan R. Nursanto, Roy Meinen, Rupert Holzinger, Maarten C. Krol, Xinya Liu, Ulrike Dusek, Bas Henzing, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10015–10034,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) is a harmful air pollutant that depends on the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Thus, in different regions and seasons, the way that PM is formed and grows can differ. In this study, we use a combined statistical analysis of the chemical composition and particle size distribution to determine what drives particle formation and growth across seasons, using varying wind directions to elucidate the role of different sources.
Kohei Sakata, Aya Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Yamakawa, Chihiro Miyamoto, Minako Kurisu, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9815–9836,Short summary
Anthropogenic iron is the dominant source of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles, but its contribution to dissolved Fe in aerosol particles has not been quantitatively evaluated. We established the molar concentration ratio of dissolved Fe to dissolved Al as a new indicator to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic iron. As a result, about 10 % of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles was derived from anthropogenic iron when aerosol particles were transported from East Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Li Li, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9597–9612,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has a unique geographical location, but there is a lack of detailed research on the real-time characteristics of full aerosol composition. This study elaborates the changes in chemical characteristics between transport and local fine particles during the pre-monsoon, reveals the size distribution and the mixing states of different individual particles, and highlights the contributions of photooxidation and aqueous reaction to the formation of the secondary species.
Erin K. Boedicker, Elisabeth Andrews, Patrick J. Sheridan, and Patricia K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9525–9547,Short summary
We present 15 years of measurements from a marine site on the northern California coast and characterize the seasonal trends of aerosol ion composition and optical properties at the site. We investigate the relationship between the chemical and optical properties and show that they both support similar seasonal variations in aerosol sources at the site. Additionally, we show through comparisons to other marine aerosol observations that the site is representative of a clean marine environment.
Qian Li, Dantong Liu, Xiaotong Jiang, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Siyuan Li, Kang Hu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Ruijie Li, Kai Bi, Shaofei Kong, Deping Ding, and Chenjie Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9439–9453,Short summary
By attributing the shortwave absorption from black carbon, primary organic aerosol and secondary organic aerosol in a suburban environment, we firstly observed that the photochemically produced nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosol may contribute to the enhancement of brown carbon absorption, partly compensating for some bleaching effect on the absorption of primary organic aerosol, hereby exerting radiative impacts.
Yong Zhang, Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Lu Qi, Manousos Ioannis Manousakas, Yuemei Han, Weikang Ran, Yele Sun, Huikun Liu, Renjian Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Tianqu Cui, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Jay Gates Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9455–9471,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution still frequently occurs in northern China during winter, and it is necessary to figure out the causes of air pollution based on intensive real-time measurement. The findings elaborate the chemical characteristics and source contributions of PM2.5 in three pilot cities, reveal potential formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlling biomass burning and inhibiting generation of secondary aerosol for air quality improvement.
Qi Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Chen, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Wei Hu, Dantong Liu, Pingqing Fu, Huiwang Gao, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9385–9399,Short summary
This study for the first time found large amounts of liquid–liquid phase separation particles with soot redistributing in organic coatings instead of sulfate cores in the eastern Tibetan Plateau atmosphere. The particle size and the ratio of the organic matter coating thickness to soot size are two of the major possible factors that likely affect the soot redistribution process. The soot redistribution process promoted the morphological compaction of soot particles.
Ryan N. Farley, Sonya Collier, Christopher D. Cappa, Leah R. Williams, Timothy B. Onasch, Lynn M. Russell, Hwajin Kim, and Qi Zhang
Soot particles, also known as black carbon (BC), have important implication on global climate and regional air quality. After the particles are emitted, BC can be coated with other material, impacting the aerosol properties. We selectively measured the composition of particles containing BC to explore their sources and chemical transformations in the atmosphere. We focus on a persistent, multiday fog event in order to study the effects of chemical reactions occurring within liquid droplets.
Yuting Lyu, Yin Hau Lam, Yitao Li, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, and Theodora Nah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9245–9263,Short summary
We measured singlet oxygen (1O2*) and triplet excited states of organic matter (3C*) in illuminated aqueous extracts of PM2.5 collected in different seasons at different sites in Hong Kong SAR, South China. In contrast to the locations, seasonality had significant effects on 3C* and 1O2* production due to seasonal variations in long-range air mass transport. The steady-state concentrations of 3C* and 1O2* correlated with the concentration and absorbance of water-soluble organic carbon.
Sophie L. Haslett, David M. Bell, Varun Kumar, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu S. Wang, Suneeti Mishra, Neeraj Rastogi, Atinderpal Singh, Dilip Ganguly, Joel Thornton, Feixue Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, David Hadden, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9023–9036,Short summary
In Delhi, some aspects of daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry are inverted, and parodoxically, vehicle emissions may be limiting other forms of particle production. This is because the nighttime emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) by traffic and biomass burning prevent some chemical processes that would otherwise create even more particles and worsen the urban haze.
Rose Marie Miller, Robert M. Rauber, Larry Di Girolamo, Matthew Rilloraza, Dongwei Fu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Luke D. Ziemba, Sarah Woods, and Kenneth Lee Thornhill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8959–8977,Short summary
The influence of human-produced aerosols on clouds remains one of the uncertainties in radiative forcing of Earth’s climate. Measurements of aerosol chemistry from sources around the Philippines illustrate the linkage between aerosol chemical composition and cloud droplet characteristics. Differences in aerosol chemical composition in the marine layer from biomass burning, industrial, ship-produced, and marine aerosols are shown to impact cloud microphysical structure just above cloud base.
Yiyu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Song, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Chaomin Wang, Caihong Wu, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Sasho Gligorovski, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8855–8877,Short summary
We studied the variability and molecular composition of ambient oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in both gas and particle phases using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Biomass burning and secondary formation were found to be the two major sources of OON. Daytime nitrate radical chemistry for OON formation was more important than previously thought. Our results improved the understanding of the sources and molecular composition of OON in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Frédéric Ledoux, Cloé Roche, Gilles Delmaire, Gilles Roussel, Olivier Favez, Marc Fadel, and Dominique Courcot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8607–8622,Short summary
We quantify the emissions from the marine sector in northern France, whether from natural or human-made sources. Therefore, a 1-year PM10 sampling campaign was conducted at a French coastal site. Results showed that sea salts contributed 37 %, while secondary nitrate and sulfate contributed 42 %, biomass burning 8 %, and heavy-fuel-oil combustion from shipping emissions 5 %. Sources contributing more than 80 % of PM10 are of regional and/or long-range origin.
Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Moritz Zeising, Astrid Bracher, and Hartmut Herrmann
Marine carbohydrates are produced in the surface of the ocean, enter the atmophere as part of sea spray aerosol particles and potentially contribute to the formation of clouds. Here, we present the results of a sea-air transfer study of marine carbohydrates conducted in the high Arctic. Besides a chemo-selective transfer, we observed a quick atmospheric aging of carbohydrates, possibly as a result of both biotic and abiotic processes.
Shuhui Zhu, Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Dan Dan Huang, Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Changhong Chen, Cheng Huang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7551–7568,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is increasingly important in urban PM2.5 pollution as inorganic ions are becoming lower. We investigated the chemical characteristics of OA during nine episodes in Shanghai. The availability of bi-hourly measured molecular markers revealed that the control of local urban sources such as vehicular and cooking emissions lessened the severity of local episodes. Regional control of precursors and biomass burning would reduce PM2.5 episodes influenced by regional transport.
Karolina Siegel, Yvette Gramlich, Sophie L. Haslett, Gabriel Freitas, Radovan Krejci, Paul Zieger, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7569–7587,Short summary
Hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF) is a recently discovered oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). We present a full year of concurrent gas- and particle-phase observations of HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products from the Arctic. We did not observe significant amounts of HPMTF in the particle phase but a good agreement between gas-phase HMPTF and methanesulfonic acid in the summer. Our study provides information about the relationship between HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products.
Samira Atabakhsh, Laurent Poulain, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Mira Pöhlker, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6963–6988,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol chemical variations found in the rural-background station of Melpitz based on ACSM and MAAP measurements. Source apportionment on both organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (eBC) was performed, and source seasonality was also linked to air mass trajectories. Overall, three anthropogenic sources were identified in OA and eBC plus two additional aged OA. Our results demonstrate the influence of transported coal-combustion-related OA even during summer time.
Yanqin Ren, Gehui Wang, Jie Wei, Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, and Hong Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6835–6848,Short summary
Nine quantified nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 were examined at the peak of Mt. Wuyi. They manifested a significant rise in overall abundance in the winter and autumn. The transport of contaminants had a significant impact on NACs. Under low-NOx conditions, the formation of NACs was comparatively sensitive to NO2, suggesting that NACs would become significant in the aerosol characteristics when nitrate concentrations decreased as a result of emission reduction measures.
Yu Xu, Xin-Ni Dong, Chen He, Dai-She Wu, Hong-Wei Xiao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6775–6788,Short summary
The air pollution associated with fine particles and secondary organic aerosol is not weakened by the application of mist cannon trucks but rather is aggravated. Our results provide not only new insights into the formation processes of aerosol water-soluble organic compounds associated with the water mist sprayed by mist cannon trucks in the road atmospheric environment but also crucial information for the decision makers to regulate the operation of mist cannon trucks in many cities in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Sanja Frka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6571–6590,Short summary
Important marine organic carbon compounds were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and marine aerosol particles. These compounds were strongly enriched in the atmosphere. Their enrichment was, however, not solely explained via sea-to-air transfer but also via atmospheric in situ formation. The identified compounds constituted about 50 % of the organic carbon on the aerosol particles, and a pronounced coupling between ocean and atmosphere for this oligotrophic region could be concluded.
Aliki Christodoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maximillien Desservettaz, Michael Pikridas, Elie Bimenyimana, Jonilda Kushta, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Philippe Goloub, Konstantina Oikonomou, Roland Sarda-Estève, Chrysanthos Savvides, Charbel Afif, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stéphane Sauvage, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6431–6456,Short summary
Our study presents, for the first time, a detailed source identification of aerosols at an urban background site in Cyprus (eastern Mediterranean), a region strongly impacted by climate change and air pollution. Here, we identify an unexpected high contribution of long-range transported pollution from fossil fuel sources in the Middle East, highlighting an urgent need to further characterize these fast-growing emissions and their impacts on regional atmospheric composition, climate, and health.
Tingting Li, Jun Li, Zeyu Sun, Hongxing Jiang, Chongguo Tian, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6395–6407,Short summary
N-NH4+ and N-NO3- were vital components in nitrogenous aerosols and contributed 69 % to total nitrogen in PM2.5. Coal combustion was still the most important source of urban atmospheric NO3-. However, the non-agriculture sources play an increasingly important role in NH4+ emissions.
Yuan Cheng, Xu-bing Cao, Jiu-meng Liu, Ying-jie Zhong, Qin-qin Yu, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6241–6253,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols were explored in the northernmost megacity in China during a frigid winter and an agricultural-fire-impacted spring. BrC was more light absorbing at night for both seasons, with more pronounced diurnal variations in spring, and the dominant drivers were identified as regulations on heavy-duty diesel trucks and open burning, respectively. Agricultural fires resulted in unique absorption spectra of BrC, which were characterized by a distinct peak at ∼365 nm.
Nansi Fakhri, Robin Stevens, Arnold Downey, Konstantina Oikonomou, Jean Sciare, Charbel Afif, and Patrick L. Hayes
The chemical composition of PM2.5 and emission sources as well as potential human health risk associated with trace elements are investigated for an urban site in Montréal over a 3-month period (August–November). To our knowledge, this study represents the first time that such extensive composition measurements were included in an urban source apportionment study in Canada and provides greater resolution of PM2.5 sources than has been previously achieved using PMF in similar Canadian studies.
Lisa Azzarello, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Michael A. Robinson, Alessandro Franchin, Caroline C. Womack, Christopher D. Holmes, Steven S. Brown, Ann Middlebrook, Tim Newberger, Colm Sweeney, and Cora J. Young
We present a molecular size-resolved offline analysis of water-soluble brown carbon collected on an aircraft during FIREX-AQ. The smoke plumes were aged 0 to 5 h where absorption was dominated by small molecular weight molecules, brown carbon absorption downwind did not consistently decrease, and the measurements differed from online absorption measurements of the same samples. We show how differences between online and offline absorption could be related to different measurement conditions.
Eric Schneider, Hendryk Czech, Olga Popovicheva, Marina Chichaeva, Vasily Kobelev, Nikolay Kasimov, Tatiana Minkina, Christopher Paul Rüger, and Ralf Zimmermann
This study provides insights into the complex chemical composition of long-range transported wildfire plumes from Yakutia, which underwent different levels of atmospheric processing. With mass complementary mass spectrometric techniques, we improve our understanding of the chemical processes and atmospheric fate of wildfire plumes. Unprecedented high levels of carbonaceous aerosols crossed the polar circle with implications for the Arctic ecosystem and consequently climate.
Eka Dian Pusfitasari, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Aleksi Tiusanen, Markus Suuronen, Jesse Haataja, Yusheng Wu, Juha Kangasluoma, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Jussila, Kari Hartonen, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5885–5904,Short summary
A miniaturized air-sampling drone system was successfully applied for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and for the measurement of black carbon (BC) and total particle number concentrations in atmospheric air. Here we report, for the first time, the vertical profiles of BC and aerosol number concentrations above the boreal forest in Hyytiälä (Finland) at high altitudes close to the boundary layer in autumn 2021. VOC composition with its distribution was studied as well.
Yifang Gu, Ru-Jin Huang, Jing Duan, Wei Xu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Ying Wang, Haiyan Ni, Quan Liu, Ruiguang Xu, Litao Wang, and Yong Jie Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5419–5433,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be produced by various pathways, but its formation mechanisms are unclear. Observations were conducted in the North China Plain during a highly oxidizing atmosphere in summer. We found that fast photochemistry dominated SOA formation during daytime. Two types of aqueous-phase chemistry (nocturnal and daytime processing) take place at high relative humidity. The potential transformation from primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA was also an important pathway.
Miaomiao Zhai, Ye Kuang, Li Liu, Yao He, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Yu Zou, Fei Li, Changqin Yin, Chunhui Li, Hanbing Xu, and Xuejiao Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5119–5133,Short summary
Using year-long aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, roles of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) during haze formations in an urban area of southern China were systematically analyzed. Almost all severe haze events were accompanied by continuous daytime and nighttime SOA formations, whereas coordinated gas-phase photochemistry and aqueous-phase reactions likely played significant roles in quick daytime SOA formations, and nitrate radicals played significant roles in nighttime SOA formations.
Jiyuan Yang, Guoyang Lei, Jinfeng Zhu, Yutong Wu, Chang Liu, Kai Hu, Junsong Bao, Zitong Zhang, Weili Lin, and Jun Jin
The atmospheric pollution and formation mechanisms of particulate-bound alkyl nitrate in Beijing were studied. Long-chain n-alkyl nitrates contributed more to the total n-alkyl nitrate in PM2.5. Long-chain n-alkyl nitrates negatively correlated with O3 but positively correlated with PM2.5 and NO2, so they may not be produced during photochemical reactions but form through reactions between alkanes and nitrates on PM surfaces. Particulate-bound n-alkyl nitrates strongly influence haze pollution.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven G. Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4775–4799,Short summary
Southern Africa produces approximately one-third of the world’s carbon from fires. The thick smoke layer can flow westward, interacting with the southeastern Atlantic cloud deck. The net radiative impact can alter regional circulation patterns, impacting rainfall over Africa. We find that the smoke is highly absorbing of sunlight, mostly because it contains more black carbon than smoke over the Northern Hemisphere.
Rui Li, Yining Gao, Yubao Chen, Meng Peng, Weidong Zhao, Gehui Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4709–4726,Short summary
A random forest model was used to isolate the effects of emission and meteorology to trace elements in PM2.5 in Tangshan. The results suggested that control measures facilitated decreases of Ga, Co, Pb, Zn, and As, due to the strict implementation of coal-to-gas strategies and optimisation of industrial structure and layout. However, the deweathered levels of Ca, Cr, and Fe only displayed minor decreases, indicating that ferrous metal smelting and vehicle emission controls should be enhanced.
Jinyoung Jung, Yuzo Miyazaki, Jin Hur, Yun Kyung Lee, Mi Hae Jeon, Youngju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Cho, Hyun Young Chung, Kitae Kim, Jung-Ok Choi, Catherine Lalande, Joo-Hong Kim, Taejin Choi, Young Jun Yoon, Eun Jin Yang, and Sung-Ho Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4663–4684,Short summary
This study examined the summertime fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols over the western Arctic Ocean. We found that the WSOC in fine-mode aerosols in coastal areas showed a higher polycondensation degree and aromaticity than in sea-ice-covered areas. The fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC in the summertime marine Arctic boundary can improve our understanding of the WSOC chemical and biological linkages at the ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interface.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Jianjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4343–4359,Short summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequency of new particle formation (NPF) events at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau: 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher frequency of southerly air masses, which brought the organic precursors to participate in the NPF process. It increased the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect earth's radiation balance.
Aswini, A. R., Hegde, P., Nair, P. R., and Aryasree, S.: Seasonal changes in carbonaceous aerosols over a tropical coastal location in response to meteorological processes, Sci. Total Environ., 656, 1261–1279, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.366, 2019.
Babila, J. E., Carlton, A. G., Hennigan, C. J., and Ghate, V. P.: On Aerosol Liquid Water and Sulfate Associations: The Potential for Fine Particulate Matter Biases, Atmosphere, 11, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020194, 2020.
Bar-Or, R. Z., Koren, I., Altaratz, O., and Fredj, E.: Radiative properties of humidified aerosols in cloudy environment, Atmos. Res., 118, 280–294, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.07.014, 2012.
Bray, C. D., Battye, W., Aneja, V. P., Tong, D., Lee, P., Tang, Y., and Nowak, J. B.: Evaluating ammonia (NH3) predictions in the NOAA National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) using in-situ aircraft and satellite measurements from the CalNex2010 campaign, Atmos. Environ., 163, 65–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.032, 2017.
Brock, C. A., Wagner, N. L., Anderson, B. E., Attwood, A. R., Beyersdorf, A., Campuzano-Jost, P., Carlton, A. G., Day, D. A., Diskin, G. S., Gordon, T. D., Jimenez, J. L., Lack, D. A., Liao, J., Markovic, M. Z., Middlebrook, A. M., Ng, N. L., Perring, A. E., Richardson, M. S., Schwarz, J. P., Washenfelder, R. A., Welti, A., Xu, L., Ziemba, L. D., and Murphy, D. M.: Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer – Part 1: Hygroscopic growth, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4987–5007, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4987-2016, 2016.
Cao, J. J., Wu, F., Chow, J. C., Lee, S. C., Li, Y., Chen, S. W., An, Z. S., Fung, K. K., Watson, J. G., Zhu, C. S., and Liu, S. X.: Characterization and source apportionment of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon during fall and winter of 2003 in Xi'an, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3127–3137, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-3127-2005, 2005.
Carlton, A. G. and Turpin, B. J.: Particle partitioning potential of organic compounds is highest in the Eastern US and driven by anthropogenic water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10203–10214, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10203-2013, 2013.
Carlton, A. G., Turpin, B. J., Altieri, K. E., Seitzinger, S. P., Mathur, R., Roselle, S. J., and Weber, R. J.: CMAQ Model Performance Enhanced When In-Cloud Secondary Organic Aerosol is Included: Comparisons of Organic Carbon Predictions with Measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 8798–8802, https://doi.org/10.1021/es801192n, 2008.
Carlton, A. G., Pye, H. O. T., Baker, K. R., and Hennigan, C. J.: Additional Benefits of Federal Air-Quality Rules: Model Estimates of Controllable Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 9254–9265, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01869, 2018a.
Carlton, A. G., de Gouw, J., Jimenez, J. L., Ambrose, J. L., Attwood, A. R., Brown, S., Baker, K. R., Brock, C., Cohen, R. C., Edgerton, S., Farkas, C. M., Farmer, D., Goldstein, A. H., Gratz, L., Guenther, A., Hunt, S., Jaeglé, L., Jaffe, D. A., Mak, J., McClure, C., Nenes, A., Nguyen, T. K., Pierce, J. R., de Sa, S., Selin, N. E., Shah, V., Shaw, S., Shepson, P. B., Song, S., Stutz, J., Surratt, J. D., Turpin, B. J., Warneke, C., Washenfelder, R. A., Wennberg, P. O., and Zhou, X.: Synthesis of the Southeast Atmosphere Studies: Investigating Fundamental Atmospheric Chemistry Questions, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 99, 547–567, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0048.1, 2018b.
Carlton, A. G, Christiansen, A. E., Flesch, M. M., Hennigan, C. J., and Sareen, N.: Multiphase Atmospheric Chemistry in Liquid Water: Impacts and Controllability of Organic Aerosol, Accounts Chem. Res., 53, 1715–1723, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.0c00301, 2020.
Chang, R. Y.-W., Slowik, J. G., Shantz, N. C., Vlasenko, A., Liggio, J., Sjostedt, S. J., Leaitch, W. R., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of ambient organic aerosol at a field site subject to biogenic and anthropogenic influences: relationship to degree of aerosol oxidation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5047–5064, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5047-2010, 2010.
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Kuhns, H., Etyemezian, V., Lowenthal, D. H., Crow, D., Kohl, S. D., Engelbrecht, J. P., and Green, M. C.: Source profiles for industrial, mobile, and area sources in the Big Bend Regional Aerosol Visibility and Observational study, Chemosphere, 54, 185–208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.07.004, 2004.
Christiansen, A., Carlton, A. M. G., and Porter, W. C.: The changing nature of organic carbon over the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 10524–10532, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02225, 2020.
Christiansen, A. E., Ghate, V. P., and Carlton, A. G.: Aerosol Optical Thickness: Organic Composition, Associated Particle Water, and Aloft Extinction, ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 3, 403–412, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00163, 2019.
Christopher, S. A. and Gupta, P.: Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: The Cloud-Cover Problem, JAPCA J. Air Waste Ma., 60, 596–602, https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-32126.96.36.1996, 2010.
Crosbie, E., Youn, J.-S., Balch, B., Wonaschütz, A., Shingler, T., Wang, Z., Conant, W. C., Betterton, E. A., and Sorooshian, A.: On the competition among aerosol number, size and composition in predicting CCN variability: a multi-annual field study in an urbanized desert, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6943–6958, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6943-2015, 2015.
de Hoogh, K., Gulliver, J., Donkelaar, A. van, Martin, R. V., Marshall, J. D., Bechle, M. J., Cesaroni, G., Pradas, M. C., Dedele, A., Eeftens, M., Forsberg, B., Galassi, C., Heinrich, J., Hoffmann, B., Jacquemin, B., Katsouyanni, K., Korek, M., Künzli, N., Lindley, S. J., Lepeule, J., Meleux, F., de Nazelle, A., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Nystad, W., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Peters, A., Peuch, V.-H., Rouil, L., Udvardy, O., Slama, R., Stempfelet, M., Stephanou, E. G., Tsai, M. Y., Yli-Tuomi, T., Weinmayr, G., Brunekreef, B., Vienneau, D., and Hoek, G.: Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data, Environ. Res., 151, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.005, 2016.
Donahue, N. M., Robinson, A. L., and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric organic particulate matter: From smoke to secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 43, 94–106, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.055, 2009.
Duong, H. T., Sorooshian, A., Craven, J. S., Hersey, S. P., Metcalf, A. R., Zhang, X., Weber, R. J., Jonsson, H., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Water-soluble organic aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin and outflow regions: Airborne and ground measurements during the 2010 CalNex field campaign, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D00V04, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016674, 2011.
Ervens, B., Sorooshian, A., Aldhaif, A. M., Shingler, T., Crosbie, E., Ziemba, L., Campuzano-Jost, P., Jimenez, J. L., and Wisthaler, A.: Is there an aerosol signature of chemical cloud processing?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16099–16119, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-16099-2018, 2018.
Fan, J., Wang, Y., Rosenfeld, D., and Liu, X.: Review of Aerosol–Cloud Interactions: Mechanisms, Significance, and Challenges, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4221–4252, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0037.1, 2016.
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We quantify differences in surface-level fine particle mass (PM2.5) chemical composition in relation to satellite-derived cloud flags and find significant differences between clear-sky and cloud days. The work suggests that future analysis in this area is warranted.
We quantify differences in surface-level fine particle mass (PM2.5) chemical composition in...