Articles | Volume 18, issue 10
Research article 23 May 2018
Research article | 23 May 2018
Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China
Baoshuang Liu et al.
No articles found.
Yingze Tian, Yinchang Feng, Yongli Liang, Yixuan Li, Qianqian Xue, Zongbo Shi, Jingsha Xu, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Size distributions of inorganic and organic components in particulate matter (PM) can provide critical information on sources and pollution processes. Ions, elements, carbon fractions, n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes in size-resolved PM were analyzed during one year in a northern Chinese megacity. Results reveal that size distributions of inorganic and organic aerosol components are dependent on seasons and pollution levels as a result of differing sources and physicochemical processes.
Ruihe Lyu, Zongbo Shi, Mohammed Salim Alam, Xuefang Wu, Di Liu, Tuan V. Vu, Christopher Stark, Pingqing Fu, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10865–10881,Short summary
Severe pollution of the Beijing atmosphere is a frequent occurrence. The airborne particles which characterize the episodes of haze contain a wide range of chemical constituents but organic compounds make up a substantial proportion. In this study individual compounds are analysed under both haze and non-haze conditions, and the measurements are compared with samples collected in London, where the air pollution climate and sources are very different.
Qili Dai, Benjamin C. Schulze, Xiaohui Bi, Alexander A. T. Bui, Fangzhou Guo, Henry W. Wallace, Nancy P. Sanchez, James H. Flynn, Barry L. Lefer, Yinchang Feng, and Robert J. Griffin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9641–9661,Short summary
The formation processes of secondary organic aerosol remain to be fully understood. We reported the measurement data from two field campaigns within Houston, TX, to investigate the effects of aqueous-phase chemistry and photochemistry in processing oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) in winter and summer. Both photochemistry and aqueous-phase processing appear to facilitate more-oxidized OOA formation. The processing mechanism of less-oxidized OOA apparently depended on relative humidity.
Jing Ding, Pusheng Zhao, Jie Su, Qun Dong, Xiang Du, and Yufen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7939–7954,Short summary
Aerosol acidity plays a key role in secondary aerosol formation. To provide a more comprehensive reference for aerosol pH and a basis for controlling secondary aerosol generation, this study used the latest data covering four seasons and different particle sizes to obtain the characteristics of aerosol pH and explore the main factors affecting aerosol pH and gas–particle partitioning in the Beijing area.
Xiaohui Bi, Qili Dai, Jianhui Wu, Qing Zhang, Wenhui Zhang, Ruixue Luo, Yuan Cheng, Jiaying Zhang, Lu Wang, Zhuojun Yu, Yufen Zhang, Yingze Tian, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3223–3243,Short summary
Source profiles are of great importance for the application of receptor models in source apportionment studies, as they characterize specific sources from a chemical point of view, revealing the signatures of source emissions. Here, a total of 3326 chemical profiles of the main primary sources across China from 1987 to 2017 are reviewed. The results highlight the urgent need for increased investigation of more specific markers beyond routinely measured components to better discriminate sources.
Ruihe Lyu, Mohammed S. Alam, Christopher Stark, Ruixin Xu, Zongbo Shi, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2233–2246,Short summary
Organic matter comprises a substantial proportion of the mass of toxic airborne particles which cause poor health and premature death. In this paper, new measurements of three important groups of organic compounds are reported and are analysed to infer their sources and their contributions to airborne particle concentrations.
Benjamin C. Schulze, Henry W. Wallace, Alexander T. Bui, James H. Flynn, Matt H. Erickson, Sergio Alvarez, Qili Dai, Sascha Usenko, Rebecca J. Sheesley, and Robert J. Griffin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14217–14241,Short summary
Atmospheric field measurements at a coastal site near Houston, TX, were used to investigate the influence of shipping vessel emissions on aerosol mass and composition over the Gulf of Mexico. Results suggest that, despite recent regulations, these vessels still produce a considerable fraction of inorganic and organic aerosol mass in the region. Secondary effects of shipping emissions on organic aerosol composition, such as influences on aerosol aging, were also identified.
Congbo Song, Yan Liu, Shida Sun, Luna Sun, Yanjie Zhang, Chao Ma, Jianfei Peng, Qian Li, Jinsheng Zhang, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Peng Wang, Yi Zhang, Ting Wang, Lin Wu, Min Hu, and Hongjun Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vehicular emission is a key contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx in Chinese megacities. Information on real-world emission factors (EFs) for a typical urban fleet is still limited. We found that improvement of fuel quality can significantly reduce feet-average EFs of VOCs (especially for BTEX). Our study provided implications for O3 control in China from the view of primary emission, and highlighted the importance of further control of evaporative emissions.
Xing Peng, Jian Gao, Guoliang Shi, Xurong Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Jiayuan Liu, Yuechong Zhang, Yinchang Feng, Wei Wang, Ruoyu Ma, Cesunica E. Ivey, and Yi Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
A finding here is that source emission dominates the level of pollutants and short-term meteorological condition determines the variation of pollutants. Primary source impact levels are mainly influenced by source emissions, and secondary source impact levels are mainly influenced by synoptic scale fluctuations and source emissions. The implications of results are for source apportionment analyses conducted with data from different geographical locations and under various weather conditions.
S. Han, Y. Zhang, J. Wu, X. Zhang, Y. Tian, Y. Wang, J. Ding, W. Yan, X. Bi, G. Shi, Z. Cai, Q. Yao, H. Huang, and Y. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11165–11177,Short summary
It is crucial for studying regional-scale PM pollution and for the development of efficient joint control policy to improve understanding of the regional background PM concentration. Based on the vertical variation periodic characteristics of particle mass concentration, the atmospheric boundary layer structure, as well as the vertical distribution of chemical composition and pollution source apportionment, a method to estimate regional background PM concentration is proposed.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Sulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingMeasurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereMeasurement report: dual-carbon isotopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosol reveals different primary and secondary sources in Beijing and Xi'an during severe haze eventsNorth Atlantic marine organic aerosol characterized by novel offline thermal desorption mass spectrometry: polysaccharides, recalcitrant material, and secondary organicsSources and characteristics of size-resolved particulate organic acids and methanesulfonate in a coastal megacity: Manila, PhilippinesEffects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS studyChemical composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols on the Namibian coastExploring the drivers of the increased ozone production in Beijing in summertime during 2005–2016Optical source apportionment and radiative effect of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols in a tropical marine monsoon climate zone: the importance of ship emissionsMeasurement report: Seasonality, distribution and sources of organophosphate esters in PM2.5 from an inland urban city in Southwest ChinaNationwide increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles during winter over China revealed by size-segregated measurementsSize-resolved exposure risk of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in atmospheric aerosols and their potential sourcesSource apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in ChinaTracing the evolution of morphology and mixing state of soot particles along with the movement of an Asian dust stormA comparison of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in summer Beijing (China) and Delhi (India)Impact of in-cloud aqueous processes on the chemical compositions and morphology of individual atmospheric aerosolsTropospheric aerosol hygroscopicity in ChinaInvestigation of the wet removal rate of black carbon in East Asia: validation of a below- and in-cloud wet removal scheme in FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) model v10.4Differences in the composition of organic aerosols between winter and summer in Beijing: a study by direct-infusion ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometryThe promotion effect of nitrous acid on aerosol formation in wintertime in Beijing: the possible contribution of traffic-related emissionsSize-segregated particle number and mass concentrations from different emission sources in urban BeijingIdentification and Source Attribution of Organic Compounds in Ultrafine Particles near Frankfurt International AirportCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Aerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignSource apportionment of PM2.5 in Shanghai based on hourly organic molecular markers and other source tracersMixing states of Amazon basin aerosol particles transported over long distances using transmission electron microscopyAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaDifferences in fine particle chemical composition on clear and cloudy daysOptical properties and composition of viscous organic particles found in the Southern Great PlainsMeasurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Characterization of severe spring haze episodes and influences of long-range transport in the Seoul metropolitan area in March 2019Modeling the smoky troposphere of the southeast Atlantic: a comparison to ORACLES airborne observations from September of 2016Formation and sink of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in a polluted subtropical environment: observation-based photochemical analysis and impact evaluationHygroscopicity of urban aerosols and its link to size-resolved chemical composition during spring and summer in Seoul, KoreaElucidating the pollution characteristics of nitrate, sulfate and ammonium in PM2.5 in Chengdu, southwest China, based on 3-year measurementsLong-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionMeasurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China: Seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsThe impact of traffic on air quality in Ireland: insights from the simultaneous kerbside and suburban monitoring of submicron aerosolsVertical distribution of particle-phase dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the urban boundary layer based on the 325 m tower in Beijing
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15907–15935,Short summary
Long-term (16-month) high-frequency (weekly) measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition are reported. Important insights are discussed about factors (e.g., transport, fires, precipitation, photo-oxidation) impacting the mass size distributions of organic and sulfonic acids at a coastal megacity with diverse meteorology. The size-resolved nature of the data yielded one such finding that organic acids preferentially adsorb to dust rather than sea salt particles.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Xin Li, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Ziwei Mo, Sihua Lu, Min Hu, Xin Fang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15617–15633,Short summary
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Ping Wang, Wenting Dai, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Jie Tian, Wenyan Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15537–15549,Short summary
Light-absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) aerosol is an important influencing factor for global climate forcing. In this study, we used a receptor model coupling multi-wavelength absorption with chemical species to explore the source-specific LAC optical properties at a tropical marine monsoon climate zone. The results can improve our understanding of the LAC radiative effects caused by ship emissions.
Hongling Yin, Jinfeng Liang, Di Wu, Shiping Li, Yi Luo, and Xu Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14933–14945,Short summary
Samples were collected from six ground-based sites located in Chengdu, a typical rapidly developing metropolitan area in Southwest China, and were analysed for seven OPEs in atmospheric PM2.5 (Σ7 OPEs). The concentrations of Σ7 OPEs were higher in autumn and winter than in summer. In contrast to coastal cities, sustained and stable high local emissions in the inland city studied were identified, which is particularly noteworthy.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14321–14332,Short summary
We quantified the mixing structures of soot particles and found that the dominant mixing structure changed from fresh to partially embedded to fully embedded along the pathway of an Asian dust storm from eastern China to Japan. Soot particles became more compact following transport. Our findings not only provide direct evidence for soot aging during regional transport but also help us understand how their morphology changes in different air environments.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yiping Yang, Xiufeng Lian, Long Peng, Feng Jiang, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Duohong Chen, Jie Ou, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Jianxi Zhu, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14063–14075,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the morphology and mixing structure of the activated and unactivated particles, our results emphasize the role of in-cloud processes in the chemistry and microphysical properties of individual activated particles. Given that organic coatings may determine the particle hygroscopicity and heterogeneous chemical reactivity, the increase of OM-shelled particles upon in-cloud processes should have considerable implications for their evolution and climate impact.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, Chunmao Zhu, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Xiaole Pan, and Ignacio Pisso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13655–13670,
Sarah S. Steimer, Daniel J. Patton, Tuan V. Vu, Marios Panagi, Paul S. Monks, Roy M. Harrison, Zoë L. Fleming, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13303–13318,Short summary
Air pollution is of growing concern due to its negative effect on public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates how the chemical composition of particles in Beijing changes under different measurement conditions (pollution levels, season) to get a better understanding of the sources of this form of air pollution.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt airport, based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution, and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Rui Li, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao He, Shuhui Zhu, Kun Zhang, Yusen Duan, Qingyan Fu, Liping Qiao, Yangjun Wang, Ling Huang, Li Li, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12047–12061,
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Zhaoheng Gong, Suzane de Sá, Adam P. Bateman, Scot T. Martin, Joel F. de Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Glauber G. Cirino, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Peter R. Buseck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11923–11939,Short summary
Occurrences, size distributions, and number fractions of individual aerosol particles from the Amazon basin during the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Aerosol particles from natural sources (e.g., mineral dust, primary biological aerosols, and sea salts) during the wet season originated from the Amazon forest and long-range transports (the Saharan desert and the Atlantic Ocean). They commonly mix at an individual particle scale during transport.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukiowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Despite vast epidemiological evidence, uncertainty remains regarding the mechanisms of action of aerosol particle toxicity upon exposure. Here, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing, using four acellular assays. We correlate particle OP with a wide range of additional measurements, and using multivariate statistical analysis, highlight specific particle components and sources that influence OP variability.
Amy E. Christiansen, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Barron H. Henderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11607–11624,Short summary
We quantify differences in surface-level fine particle mass (PM2.5) chemical composition in relation to satellite-derived cloud flags and find significant differences between clear-sky and cloud days. The work suggests that future analysis in this area is warranted.
Matthew Fraund, Daniel J. Bonanno, Swarup China, Don Q. Pham, Daniel Veghte, Johannes Weis, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ken Teske, Mary K. Gilles, Alexander Laskin, and Ryan C. Moffet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11593–11606,Short summary
High viscosity organic particles (HVOPs) in the Southern Great Plains have been analyzed, and two particle types were found. Previously studied tar balls and the recently discovered airborne soil organic particles (ASOPs) are both shown to be brown carbon (BrC). These particle types can be identified in bulk by an absorption Ångström exponent approaching 2.6. HVOP types can be differentiated by comparing carbon absorption spectrum peak ratios between the carboxylic acid, alcohol, and sp2 peaks.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m−3, was captured at an upwind area of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event generated and how about the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment, were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Hwajin Kim, Qi Zhang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11527–11550,Short summary
Severe spring haze and influences of long-range transport in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) in March 2019 were investigated. Simultaneous downwind (SMA) and upwind (Beijing) measurements using AMS and ACSM over the same period showed that PM species can be transported in approximately 2 d. Nitrate was the most responsible, and sulfate and two regional-transport-influenced SOAs also contributed. Enhancement of Pb also showed that the haze in the SMA was influenced by the regional transport.
Yohei Shinozuka, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Sharon P. Burton, Richard Ferrare, Sarah J. Doherty, Hamish Gordon, Karla Longo, Marc Mallet, Yan Feng, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Samuel LeBlanc, Connor Flynn, Michal Segal-Rosenhaimer, Kristina Pistone, James R. Podolske, Eric J. Stith, Joseph Ryan Bennett, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11491–11526,Short summary
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observations made during the NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) airborne mission in September 2016.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Najin Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Minsu Park, Jong Sung Park, Hye Jung Shin, and Joon Young Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11245–11262,Short summary
Chemical effects on the size-resolved hygroscopicity of urban aerosols were examined based on the KORUS-AQ field campaign data (HTDMA and HR-ToF-AMS). The size-resolved chemical composition data were found to be critical in explaining the size-dependent hygroscopicity, as well as the diurnal variation of κ for small particles. Aerosol mixing state information was associated with the size-resolved chemical composition data to reveal chemical information of different hygroscopicity modes.
Liuwei Kong, Miao Feng, Yafei Liu, Yingying Zhang, Chen Zhang, Chenlu Li, Yu Qu, Junling An, Xingang Liu, Qinwen Tan, Nianliang Cheng, Yijun Deng, Ruixiao Zhai, and Zheng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11181–11199,Short summary
Secondary inorganic aerosols have an important contribution to PM2.5. Based on 3 years of atmospheric observation data, this study systematically analyzed the pollution levels and chemical conversion characteristics of nitrate, sulfate and ammonium in PM2.5 in Chengdu, southwest China, and analyzed the emission and regional transport characteristics of their gaseous precursors. This conclusion can provide an important reference for the current air pollution control.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. Results of this work have implications international policymaking related to climate and health.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We characterized the seasonal variations of nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon aerosol in Xi'an, northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~ 80 %), while biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~ 75 %). Our results indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have profound impact on the light absorption of BrC.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Organosulfates (OS) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We comprehensively characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contribution of OS and SOA to OA has increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), in particular in summer. We infer that the mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OS and SOA in eastern China.
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Wei Xu, Eimear Heffernan, Stig Hellebust, John Gallagher, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10513–10529,Short summary
Chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosols (PM1) were simultaneously investigated at a kerbside site in the Dublin city center and at a residential site in suburban Dublin (~5 km apart) during both a nonheating and a heating period in 2018. This study highlights the temporal and spatial variability of sources within the Dublin city center and the need for additional aerosol characterization studies to improve targeted mitigation solutions for a greater impact on urban air quality.
Wanyu Zhao, Hong Ren, Kimitaka Kawamura, Huiyun Du, Xueshun Chen, Siyao Yue, Qiaorong Xie, Lianfang Wei, Ping Li, Xin Zeng, Shaofei Kong, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10331–10350,Short summary
Our observations provide detailed information on the abundance and vertical distribution of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at three heights based on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing in summer. Our results demonstrate that organic acids at the ground surface are largely associated with local traffic emissions, while long-range atmospheric transport followed by photochemical ageing contributes more in the urban boundary layer than the ground surface.
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Dimitriou, K., Remoundaki, E., Mantas, E., and Kassomenos, P.: Spatial distribution of source areas of PM2.5 by Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) model applied in PM2.5 concentration and composition data, Atmos. Environ., 116, 138–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.06.021, 2015.
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Feng, J. L., Yu, H., Su, X. F., Liu, S. H., Li, Y., Pan, Y. P., and Sun, J. H.: Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 during Chinese Spring Festival at Xinxiang, a heavily polluted city in North China: fireworks and health risks, Atmos. Res., 182, 176–188, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.07.028, 2016.
Fu, H. B. and Chen, J. M.: Formation, features and controlling strategies of severe haze-fog pollutions in China, Sci. Total Environ., 578, 121–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.201, 2017.
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Gu, J. X., Bai, Z. P., Li, A. X., Wu, L. P., Xie, Y. Y., Lei, W. F., Dong, H. Y., and Zhang, X.: Chemical composition of PM2.5 during winter in Tianjin, China, Particuology, 9, 215–221, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2011.03.001, 2011.
Guo, S., Hu, M., Guo, Q., Zhang, X., Schauer, J. J., and Zhang, R.: Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8303–8314, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-8303-2013, 2013.
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Jiang, B. F. and Xia, D. H.: Role identification of NH3 in atmospheric secondary new particle formation in haze occurrence of China, Atmos. Environ., 163, 107–117, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.035, 2017.
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Kong, X. Z., He, W., Qin, N., He, Q. S., Yang, B., Ouyang, H. L., Wang, Q. M., and Xu, F. L.: Comparison of transport pathways and potential sources of PM10, in two cities around a large Chinese lake using the modified trajectory analysis, Atmos. Res., 122, 284–297, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.10.012, 2013.
Lee, H., Honda, Y., Hashizume, M., Guo, Y. L., Wu, C. F., Kan, H., Jung, K., Lim, Y. H., Yi, S., and Kim, H.: Short-term exposure to fine and coarse particles and mortality: a multicity time-series study in East Asia, Environ. Pollut., 207, 43–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.036, 2015.
Li, H. M., Wang, Q. G., Shao, M., Wang, J. H., Wang, C., Sun, Y. X., Qian, X., Wu, H. F., Yang, M., and Li, F. Y.: Fractionation of airborne particulate bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China, Environ. Pollut., 208, 655–662, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.10.042, 2016.
Li, J. J., Wang, G. H., Ren, Y. Q., Wang, J. Y., Wu, C., Han, Y. N., Zhang, L., Cheng, C. L., and Meng, J. J.: Identification of chemical compositions and sources of atmospheric aerosols in Xi'an, inland China during two types of haze events, Sci. Total Environ., 566–567, 230–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.057, 2016.
Li, M., Tang, G. Q., Huang, J., Liu, A. R., An, J. L., and Wang, Y. S.: Characteristics of winter atmospheric mixing layer height in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region and their relationship with the atmospheric pollution, Environ. Sci., 36, 1935–1943, 2015 (in Chinese).
Lin, Y.-C., Tsai, C.-J., Wu, Y.-C., Zhang, R., Chi, K.-H., Huang, Y.-T., Lin, S.-H., and Hsu, S.-C.: Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, potential source, and fingerprinting metal ratio, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4117–4130, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-4117-2015, 2015.
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