Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China
- 1State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, China
- 2Shijiazhuang Environmental Monitoring Center of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050022, China
Abstract. To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA) was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP), under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+) in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP) still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO) were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY) and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP), the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However, the necessary coal heating for the cold winter and the unfavourable meteorological conditions had an offset effect on the control measures for emission sources to some degree. The results also illustrated that the discharge of pollutants might still be enormous even under such strict control measures.The backward trajectory and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis in the light of atmospheric pollutants suggested that the potential source areas mainly involved the surrounding regions of Shijiazhuang, i.e. south of Hebei and north of Henan and Shanxi. The regional nature of the atmospheric pollution in the North China Plain revealed that there is an urgent need for making cross-boundary control policies in addition to local control measures given the high background level of pollutants.The TECA is an important practical exercise but it cannot be advocated for as the normalized control measures for atmospheric pollution in China. The direct cause of atmospheric pollution in China is the emission of pollutants exceeding the air environment's self-purification capacity, which is caused by an unreasonable and unhealthy pattern for economic development in China.