Articles | Volume 23, issue 21
Research article
09 Nov 2023
Research article |  | 09 Nov 2023

Evaluating F2-region long-term trends using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model: is this a feasible approximation for experimental trends?

Bruno S. Zossi, Trinidad Duran, Franco D. Medina, Blas F. de Haro Barbas, Yamila Melendi, and Ana G. Elias

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Effects of Earth's magnetic field variation on high frequency wave propagation in the ionosphere
Mariano Fagre, Bruno S. Zossi, Erdal Yiğit, Hagay Amit, and Ana G. Elias
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Preprint retracted
Short summary

Cited articles

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Australian Space Weather Forecasting Centre: Index of /wdc/iondata/au, [data set], (last access: 12 September 2023), 2023a. 
Australian Space Weather Forecasting Centre: Index of /wdc/iondata/medians, [data set], (last access: 12 September 2023), 2023b. 
Bilitza, D., Pezzopane, M., Truhlik, V., Altadill, D., Reinisch, B. W., and Pignalberi, A.: The International Reference Ionosphere model: A review and description of an ionospheric benchmark, Rev. Geophys., 60, e2022RG000792,, 2022. 
Brown, S., Bilitza, D., and Yigit, E.: Ionosonde-based indices for improved representation of solar cycle variation in the International Reference Ionosphere model, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 171, 137–146,, 2018. 
Short summary
The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a widely used ionospheric empirical model based on observations from a worldwide network of ionospheric stations. It is reasonable, then, to expect that it captures long-term changes in ionospheric parameters linked to trend forcings like greenhouse gases increasing concentration and the Earth's magnetic field secular variation. We show that the IRI model can be a valuable tool for obtaining preliminary approximations of experimental trends.
Final-revised paper