Articles | Volume 22, issue 3
15 Feb 2022
Research article | 15 Feb 2022
Using carbon-14 and carbon-13 measurements for source attribution of atmospheric methane in the Athabasca oil sands region
Regina Gonzalez Moguel et al.
No articles found.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Haeyoung Lee, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Sepyo Lee, Scott J. Lehman, John B. Miller, Gabrielle Pétron, Jeong-Sik Lim, Gang-Woong Lee, Sang-Sam Lee, and Young-San Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12033–12045,Short summary
To understand South Korea's CO2 emissions and sinks as well as those of the surrounding region, we used flask-air samples collected for 2 years at Anmyeondo (36.53° N, 126.32° E; 46 m a.s.l.), South Korea, for analysis of observed 14C in atmospheric CO2 as a tracer of fossil fuel CO2 contribution (Cff). Here, we showed our observation result of 14C and Cff. SF6 and CO can be good proxies of Cff in this study, and the ratio of CO to Cff was compared to a bottom-up inventory.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Isaac J. Vimont, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Philip F. Place, Colm Sweeney, Natasha Miles, Scott Richardson, Bruce H. Vaughn, and James W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8547–8562,Short summary
Stable isotopes of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and radiocarbon carbon dioxide were measured over three summers at Indianapolis, Indiana, US, and for 1 year at a site thought to be strongly influenced by CO from oxidized volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in South Carolina, US. The Indianapolis results were used to provide an estimate of the carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of CO produced from oxidized VOCs. This updated estimate agrees well with the data from South Carolina during the summer.
Emmanuel Arzoumanian, Felix R. Vogel, Ana Bastos, Bakhram Gaynullin, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2665–2677,Short summary
We tested commercial lower-cost CO2 sensors in laboratory and field studies to see if they can measure atmospheric CO2 mole fractions with less than 1 ppm bias (with monthly calibration), to allow continuous urban CO2 monitoring. We find that the sensors' CO2 readings are influenced by temperature, atmospheric pressure and water vapour content, but this can be corrected for by adding sensors (T, p, RH) and carefully calibrating each sensor against a high-precision instrument.
Misa Ishizawa, Douglas Chan, Doug Worthy, Elton Chan, Felix Vogel, and Shamil Maksyutov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4637–4658,Short summary
The Canadian Arctic has the potential for enhanced methane (CH4) emissions under global warming. However, the regional CH4 emission (fluxes) estimates range widely. This study analyzes recent Canadian Arctic CH4 observations and estimates the regional emissions. The additional observations yield robust CH4 flux estimates and enable the partitioning of the CH4 sources into wetland and forest fires. The results indicate that years with warmer summer conditions result in more wetland CH4 emissions.
Felix R. Vogel, Matthias Frey, Johannes Staufer, Frank Hase, Grégoire Broquet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Pascale Chelin, Pascal Jeseck, Christof Janssen, Yao Té, Jochen Groß, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3271–3285,Short summary
Providing timely information on greenhouse gas emissions to stakeholders at sub-national scale is an emerging challenge and understanding urban CO2 levels is one key aspect. This study uses atmospheric observations of total column CO2 and compares them to numerical simulations to investigate CO2 levels in the Paris metropolitan area due to natural fluxes and anthropogenic emissions. Our measurements reveal the influence of locally added CO2, which our model is also able to predict.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Hinrich Schaefer, Dan Smale, Sylvia E. Nichol, Tony M. Bromley, Gordon W. Brailsford, Ross J. Martin, Rowena Moss, Sylvia Englund Michel, and James W. C. White
Biogeosciences, 15, 6371–6386,Short summary
To quantify the impact of El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate events on the methane budget, we studied the correlation between CH4 time series and ENSO indices. We find that ENSO explains less than one-third of the variability in CH4 levels and their stable carbon isotopes, which constrain the source processes of emissions. ENSO forcing of the CH4 cycle is too small, episodic, and regional to force atmospheric trends, which are more likely caused by agricultural or industrial emissions.
Claudia Grossi, Felix R. Vogel, Roger Curcoll, Alba Àgueda, Arturo Vargas, Xavier Rodó, and Josep-Anton Morguí
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5847–5860,Short summary
To gain a full picture of the Spanish (and European) GHG balance, understanding of CH4 emissions in different regions is a critical challenge, as is the improvement of bottom-up inventories for all European regions. This study uses, among other elements, GHG, meteorological and 222Rn tracer data from a Spanish region to understand the main causes of temporal variability of GHG mixing ratios. The study can offer new insights into regional emissions by identifying the impacts of changing sources.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Felix Vogel, Lin Wu, Yi Yin, Rong Wang, and Shu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4229–4250,Short summary
This paper assesses the potential of atmospheric 14CO2 observations and a global inversion system to solve for fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in Europe. The estimate of monthly emission budgets is largely improved in high emitting regions. The results are sensitive to the observation network and the prior uncertainty. Using a high-resolution transport model and a systematic evaluation of the uncertainty in current emission inventories should improve the potential to retrieve FFCO2 emissions.
Stephanie C. Pugliese, Jennifer G. Murphy, Felix R. Vogel, Michael D. Moran, Junhua Zhang, Qiong Zheng, Craig A. Stroud, Shuzhan Ren, Douglas Worthy, and Gregoire Broquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3387–3401,Short summary
We developed the Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions (SOCE) inventory, which identifies the spatial and temporal distribution (2.5 km and hourly, respectively) of CO2 emissions from seven source sectors. When the SOCE inventory was used with a chemistry transport model, we found strong agreement between modelled and measured mixing ratios. We were able to quantify that natural gas combustion contributes > 80 % of CO2 emissions at nighttime while on-road emissions contribute > 70 % during the day.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Sara E. Mikaloff Fletcher, India Ansell, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, Margaret W. Norris, and Kay Steinkamp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14771–14784,Short summary
We present a 60-year record of radiocarbon in carbon dioxide (14CO2) from Wellington New Zealand. It records the atmospheric 14C “bomb spike” and decline as bomb 14C moved through the carbon cycle and fossil fuel emissions increased. The bomb peak is lower and 1.4 years later than in the Northern Hemisphere. Since the early 2000s, Wellington 14CO2 has been elevated above the Northern Hemisphere, possibly due to a reinvigorated Southern Ocean carbon sink.
Daniel Baggenstos, Thomas K. Bauska, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, James E. Lee, Hinrich Schaefer, Christo Buizert, Edward J. Brook, Sarah Shackleton, and Vasilii V. Petrenko
Clim. Past, 13, 943–958,Short summary
We present measurements of the gas composition in trapped air bubbles in ice samples taken from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We can show that ice from the entire last glacial cycle (125 000 years ago to the present) is exposed at the surface of this glacier and that the atmospheric record contained in the air bubbles is well preserved. Taylor Glacier therefore provides an easily accessible archive of ancient ice that allows for studies of trace components that require large ice volumes.
Sabina Assan, Alexia Baudic, Ali Guemri, Philippe Ciais, Valerie Gros, and Felix R. Vogel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2077–2091,Short summary
This study is dedicated to improving measurement methods when using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument to measure methane at sites with elevated ethane concentrations such as Oil and Gas sites. The research was undertaken after measurements of natural gas samples suggested biased δ13CH4 results. Two instruments were extensively tested to characterize the cross sensitivities to ethane and δ13CH4 and propose corrections. Results indicate that it is imperative to account for the biases.
Lamia Ammoura, Irène Xueref-Remy, Felix Vogel, Valérie Gros, Alexia Baudic, Bernard Bonsang, Marc Delmotte, Yao Té, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15653–15664,Short summary
We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed. We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO2, CO and some VOCs from atmospheric measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between 2010 and 2014. We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition. With this new method, we may reveal spatial and seasonal variability in the ratios in Paris.
Elton Chan, Douglas Chan, Misa Ishizawa, Felix Vogel, Jerome Brioude, Andy Delcloo, Yuehua Wu, and Baisuo Jin
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The main objective of this study is to examine the impacts of errors introduced by different components in our newly developed inversion system on flux estimates with a series of controlled experiments. It is very critical for any inversion system to be fully evaluated prior to applying to real observations. As demonstrated, the results can be very sensitive to the model setup and region. It is not reasonable to expect realistic results can always be obtained using the same approach.
Lin Wu, Grégoire Broquet, Philippe Ciais, Valentin Bellassen, Felix Vogel, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Remy, and Yilong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7743–7771,Short summary
This paper advances atmospheric inversion of city CO2 emissions as follows: (1) illustrate how inversion methodology can be tailored to deal with very large urban networks of sensors measuring CO2 concentrations; (2) demonstrate that atmospheric inversion could be a relevant tool of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of city CO2 emissions; (3) clarify the theoretical potential of inversion for reducing uncertainties in the estimates of citywide total and sectoral CO2 emissions.
Elizabeth D. Keller, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, and Margaret W. Norris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5481–5495,Short summary
We examine the utility of tree ring 14C archives for detecting long-term changes in fossil CO2 emissions from a point source using six years of observations from two trees near the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant in New Zealand. Pairing these observations with an atmospheric transport model, we quantify the minimum amount of change in annual emissions that it would be possible to detect in new samples representing averages over one, two, and four years.
E. Chan, D. Chan, M. Ishizawa, F. Vogel, J. Brioude, A. Delcloo, Y. Wu, and B. Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This paper uses synthetic data experiments to investigate the impacts of different error sources associated with prior flux, transport model and optimisation method on the atmospheric greenhouse gas inverse estimates. Results indicate that estimation errors are dominated by the transport model error and can propagate to the flux estimates non-linearly. It is necessary to obtain stable and realistic results in synthetic data experiments before a real observation-based inversion is performed.
R. Kretschmer, C. Gerbig, U. Karstens, G. Biavati, A. Vermeulen, F. Vogel, S. Hammer, and K. U. Totsche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7149–7172,
F. R. Vogel, L. Huang, D. Ernst, L. Giroux, S. Racki, and D. E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 301–308,
Related subject area
Subject: Isotopes | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Experimental investigation of the stable water isotope distribution in an Alpine lake environment (L-WAIVE)Craig–Gordon model validation using stable isotope ratios in water vapor over the Southern OceanMoisture origin as a driver of temporal variabilities of the water vapour isotopic composition in the Lena River Delta, SiberiaMeridional and vertical variations of the water vapour isotopic composition in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic and Southern OceanVertical profile observations of water vapor deuterium excess in the lower troposphereA new interpretative framework for below-cloud effects on stable water isotopes in vapour and rainIsotopic composition of daily precipitation along the southern foothills of the Himalayas: impact of marine and continental sources of atmospheric moistureThe stable isotopic composition of water vapour above Corsica during the HyMeX SOP1 campaign: insight into vertical mixing processes from lower-tropospheric survey flightsAnnual variation in event-scale precipitation δ2H at Barrow, AK, reflects vapor source regionInterpreting the 13C ∕ 12C ratio of carbon dioxide in an urban airshed in the Yangtze River Delta, ChinaThe influence of snow sublimation and meltwater evaporation on δD of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer of central EuropeContinuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic PlateauInvestigating the source, transport, and isotope composition of water vapor in the planetary boundary layerDetecting moisture transport pathways to the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere using paired H2O-δD in situ measurementsToward consistency between trends in bottom-up CO2 emissions and top-down atmospheric measurements in the Los Angeles megacityIsotopic signatures of production and uptake of H2 by soilSimultaneous monitoring of stable oxygen isotope composition in water vapour and precipitation over the central Tibetan PlateauDeuterium excess in the atmospheric water vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland: regional vs. local signaturesFactors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over central EuropeThe isotopic composition of water vapour and precipitation in Ivittuut, southern GreenlandDeuterium excess as a proxy for continental moisture recycling and plant transpirationOn the variability of atmospheric 222Rn activity concentrations measured at Neumayer, coastal AntarcticaPrecipitation isoscape of high reliefs: interpolation scheme designed and tested for monthly resolved precipitation oxygen isotope records of an Alpine domainKinetic fractionation of gases by deep air convection in polar firnContinuous monitoring of summer surface water vapor isotopic composition above the Greenland Ice SheetDetermining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in ColoradoTemporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010)Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependentChange of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in MongoliaA map of radon flux at the Australian land surface
Patrick Chazette, Cyrille Flamant, Harald Sodemann, Julien Totems, Anne Monod, Elsa Dieudonné, Alexandre Baron, Andrew Seidl, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Pascal Doira, Amandine Durand, and Sylvain Ravier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10911–10937,Short summary
To gain understanding on the vertical structure of atmospheric water vapour above mountain lakes and to assess its link to the isotopic composition of the lake water and small-scale dynamics, the L-WAIVE field campaign was conducted in the Annecy valley in the French Alps in June 2019. Based on a synergy between ground-based, boat-borne, and airborne measuring platforms, significant gradients of isotopic content have been revealed at the transitions to the lake and to the free troposphere.
Shaakir Shabir Dar, Prosenjit Ghosh, Ankit Swaraj, and Anil Kumar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11435–11449,
Jean-Louis Bonne, Hanno Meyer, Melanie Behrens, Julia Boike, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Benjamin Rabe, Toni Schmidt, Lutz Schönicke, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, and Martin Werner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10493–10511,Short summary
This study introduces 2 years of continuous near-surface in situ observations of the stable isotopic composition of water vapour in parallel with precipitation in north-eastern Siberia. We evaluate the atmospheric transport of moisture towards the region of our observations with simulations constrained by meteorological reanalyses and use this information to interpret the temporal variations of the vapour isotopic composition from seasonal to synoptic timescales.
Iris Thurnherr, Anna Kozachek, Pascal Graf, Yongbiao Weng, Dimitri Bolshiyanov, Sebastian Landwehr, Stephan Pfahl, Julia Schmale, Harald Sodemann, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Alessandro Toffoli, Heini Wernli, and Franziska Aemisegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5811–5835,Short summary
Stable water isotopes (SWIs) are tracers of moist atmospheric processes. We analyse the impact of large- to small-scale atmospheric processes and various environmental conditions on the variability of SWIs using ship-based SWI measurement in water vapour from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of SWIs at two altitudes are used to illustrate the potential of such measurements for future research to estimate sea spray evaporation and turbulent moisture fluxes.
Olivia E. Salmon, Lisa R. Welp, Michael E. Baldwin, Kristian D. Hajny, Brian H. Stirm, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11525–11543,Short summary
We conducted airborne vertical profile measurements of water vapor stable isotopes to examine how boundary layer, cloud, and mixing processes influence the vertical structure of deuterium excess in the lower troposphere. We discuss reasons our observations are consistent with water vapor isotope theory on some days and not others. Deuterium excess may be useful for understanding complex processes occurring at the top of the boundary layer, including cloud formation, evaporation, and air mixing.
Pascal Graf, Heini Wernli, Stephan Pfahl, and Harald Sodemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 747–765,Short summary
This article studies the interaction between falling rain and vapour with stable water isotopes. In particular, rain evaporation is relevant for several atmospheric processes, but remains difficult to quantify. A novel framework is introduced to facilitate the interpretation of stable water isotope observations in near-surface vapour and rain. The usefulness of this concept is demonstrated using observations at high time resolution from a cold front. Sensitivities are tested with a simple model.
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D. Deshpande, Michal Galkowski, and Kazimierz Rozanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8789–8805,Short summary
Analysis of stable isotope composition of daily precipitation collected along the southern foothills of the Himalayas was used to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms controlling isotopic composition of precipitation. The results suggested that the decrease in isotopic composition in the course of ISM evolution stems from large-scale recycling of moisture-driven monsoonal circulation. High d-excess of rainfall is attributed to moisture of continental origin released into the atmosphere.
Harald Sodemann, Franziska Aemisegger, Stephan Pfahl, Mark Bitter, Ulrich Corsmeier, Thomas Feuerle, Pascal Graf, Rolf Hankers, Gregor Hsiao, Helmut Schulz, Andreas Wieser, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6125–6151,Short summary
We report here the first survey of stable water isotope composition over the Mediterranean sea made from aircraft. The stable isotope composition of the atmospheric water vapour changed in response to evaporation conditions at the sea surface, elevation, and airmass transport history. Our data set will be valuable for testing how water is transported in weather prediction and climate models and for understanding processes in the Mediterranean water cycle.
Annie L. Putman, Xiahong Feng, Leslie J. Sonder, and Eric S. Posmentier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4627–4639,Short summary
Water vapor source and transport are linked to the stable isotopes of precipitation of 70 storms at Barrow, AK, USA. Barrow's vapor came from the North Pacific in winter and the Arctic Ocean in summer. Half the isotopic variability was explained by the size of the temperature drop from the vapor source to Barrow, the evaporation conditions, and whether the vapor traveled over mountains. Because isotopes reflect the regional meteorology they may be early indicators of Arctic hydroclimatic change.
Jiaping Xu, Xuhui Lee, Wei Xiao, Chang Cao, Shoudong Liu, Xuefa Wen, Jingzheng Xu, Zhen Zhang, and Jiayu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3385–3399,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most industrialized regions in China. In situ optical isotopic measurement in Nanjing, a city located in the Delta, showed unusually high atmospheric δ13C signals in the summer (−7.44 ‰, July 2013 mean), which we attributed to the influence of cement production in the region. Flux partitioning calculations revealed that natural ecosystems in the region were a negligibly small source of atmospheric CO2.
Emanuel Christner, Martin Kohler, and Matthias Schneider
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1207–1225,Short summary
Post-depositional fractionation of stable water isotopes due to fractioning surface evaporation introduces uncertainty to isotope applications such as the reconstruction of paleotemperatures, paleoaltimetry, and the investigation of ground water formation. In this paper we combine measurements of stable water isotopes in near-surface water vapor with a Lagrangian isotope model to investigate isotope fractionation during the evaporation of surface-layer snow in central Europe.
Mathieu Casado, Amaelle Landais, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Christophe Genthon, Erik Kerstel, Samir Kassi, Laurent Arnaud, Ghislain Picard, Frederic Prie, Olivier Cattani, Hans-Christian Steen-Larsen, Etienne Vignon, and Peter Cermak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8521–8538,Short summary
Climatic conditions in Concordia are very cold (−55 °C in average) and very dry, imposing difficult conditions to measure the water vapour isotopic composition. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces (down to 20 ppmv). Here we present the results results of a first campaign of measurement of isotopic composition of water vapour in Concordia, the site where the 800 000 years long ice core was drilled.
Timothy J. Griffis, Jeffrey D. Wood, John M. Baker, Xuhui Lee, Ke Xiao, Zichong Chen, Lisa R. Welp, Natalie M. Schultz, Galen Gorski, Ming Chen, and John Nieber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5139–5157,Short summary
Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle. We present the first multi-annual isotope (oxygen and deuterium) water vapor observations from a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the atmosphere. The results show a relatively high degree of summertime water recycling within the region (~30 % mean and ~60 % maximum).
Yenny González, Matthias Schneider, Christoph Dyroff, Sergio Rodríguez, Emanuel Christner, Omaira Elena García, Emilio Cuevas, Juan Jose Bustos, Ramon Ramos, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Sabine Barthlott, Andreas Wiegele, and Eliezer Sepúlveda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4251–4269,Short summary
Measurements of water vapour isotopologues, dust, and a back trajectory model were used to identify moisture pathways in the subtropical North Atlantic. Dry air masses, from condensation at low temperatures, are transported from high altitudes and latitudes. The humid sources are related to the mixture, with lower and more humid air during transport. Rain re-evaporation was an occasional source of moisture. In summer, an important humidity source is the strong dry convection over the Sahara.
Sally Newman, Xiaomei Xu, Kevin R. Gurney, Ying Kuang Hsu, King Fai Li, Xun Jiang, Ralph Keeling, Sha Feng, Darragh O'Keefe, Risa Patarasuk, Kam Weng Wong, Preeti Rao, Marc L. Fischer, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3843–3863,Short summary
Combining 14C and 13C data from the Los Angeles, CA megacity with background data allows source attribution of CO2 emissions among biosphere, natural gas, and gasoline. The 8-year record of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning is consistent with "The Great Recession" of 2008–2010. The long-term trend and source attribution are consistent with government inventories. Seasonal patterns agree with the high-resolution Hestia-LA emission data product, when seasonal wind directions are considered.
Q. Chen, M. E. Popa, A. M. Batenburg, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13003–13021,Short summary
We investigated soil production and uptake of H2 and associated isotope effects. Uptake and emission of H2 occurred simultaneously at all sampling sites, with strongest emission where N2 fixing legume was present. The fractionation constant during soil uptake was about 0.945 and it did not show positive correlation with deposition velocity. The isotopic composition of H2 emitted from soil with legume was about -530‰, which is less deuterium-depleted than isotope equilibrium between H2O and H2.
W. Yu, L. Tian, Y. Ma, B. Xu, and D. Qu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10251–10262,
H. Delattre, C. Vallet-Coulomb, and C. Sonzogni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10167–10181,Short summary
Based on summer measurements of δ18O and δD in the atmospheric vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland exposed to high evaporation, this paper explores the main drivers of isotopic signal variability. After having classified the data according to the main regional air mass trajectories, average diurnal cycles are discussed with regards to the contribution of local evaporation to the ground level atmospheric vapour.
M. Zimnoch, P. Wach, L. Chmura, Z. Gorczyca, K. Rozanski, J. Godlowska, J. Mazur, K. Kozak, and A. Jeričević
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9567–9581,
J.-L. Bonne, V. Masson-Delmotte, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, C. Risi, H. Sodemann, and H. C. Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4419–4439,
F. Aemisegger, S. Pfahl, H. Sodemann, I. Lehner, S. I. Seneviratne, and H. Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4029–4054,
R. Weller, I. Levin, D. Schmithüsen, M. Nachbar, J. Asseng, and D. Wagenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3843–3853,
Z. Kern, B. Kohán, and M. Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1897–1907,
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Evaluating methane (CH4) sources in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) is crucial to effectively mitigate CH4 emissions. We tested the use of carbon isotopes to estimate source contributions from key CH4 sources in the AOSR and found that 56 ± 18 % of CH4 emissions originated from surface mining and processing facilities, 34 ± 18 % from tailings ponds, and 10 ± < 1 % from wetlands, confirming previous findings and showing that this method can be successfully used to partition CH4 sources.
Evaluating methane (CH4) sources in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) is crucial to...