Articles | Volume 22, issue 17
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Experimental development of a lake spray source function and its model implementation for Great Lakes surface emissions
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
No articles found.
Orren Russell Bullock Jr., Hosein Foroutan, Robert C. Gilliam, and Jerold A. Herwehe
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2897–2922,Short summary
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing a new modeling system to investigate air pollution pathways on a global scale. We plan to use the Model for Prediction Across Scales – Atmosphere (MPAS-A) to define the meteorology that affects air pollution transport and fate. In order to do so, MPAS-A must accurately reproduce historical weather conditions. This work demonstrates that our implementation of four-dimensional data assimilation by analysis nudging provides that capability.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
K. Wyat Appel, Sergey L. Napelenok, Kristen M. Foley, Havala O. T. Pye, Christian Hogrefe, Deborah J. Luecken, Jesse O. Bash, Shawn J. Roselle, Jonathan E. Pleim, Hosein Foroutan, William T. Hutzell, George A. Pouliot, Golam Sarwar, Kathleen M. Fahey, Brett Gantt, Robert C. Gilliam, Nicholas K. Heath, Daiwen Kang, Rohit Mathur, Donna B. Schwede, Tanya L. Spero, David C. Wong, and Jeffrey O. Young
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1703–1732,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling system. The CMAQ model is used extensively throughout the world to simulate air pollutants for many purposes, including regulatory and air quality forecasting applications. This work describes the scientific updates made to the latest version of the CMAQ modeling system (CMAQv5.1) and presents an evaluation of the new model against observations and results from the previous model version.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Microphysics of liquid water in sub-10 nm ultrafine aerosol particlesComparing the ice nucleation properties of the kaolin minerals kaolinite and halloysitePhysicochemical properties of charcoal aerosols derived from biomass pyrolysis affect their ice-nucleating abilities at cirrus and mixed-phase cloud conditionsReconsideration of surface tension and phase state effects on cloud condensation nuclei activity based on the atomic force microscopy measurementHygroscopicity and CCN potential of DMS-derived aerosol particlesHybrid water adsorption and solubility partitioning for aerosol hygroscopicity and droplet growthThe effectiveness of the coagulation sink of 3–10 nm atmospheric particlesWhat caused the interdecadal shift in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impact on dust mass concentration over northwestern South Asia?Measurement report: An exploratory study of fluorescence and cloud condensation nuclei activity of urban aerosols in San Juan, Puerto RicoViscosity and physical state of sucrose mixed with ammonium sulfate dropletsDistribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in fresh and aged biomass burning aerosolsTime dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation by ambient aerosols: laboratory observations and a formulation for modelsLaboratory studies of ice nucleation onto bare and internally mixed soot–sulfuric acid particlesEnhanced soot particle ice nucleation ability induced by aggregate compaction and densificationOpinion: Insights into updating Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/ECOn the evolution of sub- and super-saturated water uptake of secondary organic aerosol in chamber experiments from mixed precursorsHygroscopicity of organic compounds as a function of organic functionality, water solubility, molecular weight, and oxidation levelParticle emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine as ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode: a laboratory study on fossil and renewable fuelsComparison of saturation vapor pressures of α-pinene + O3 oxidation products derived from COSMO-RS computations and thermal desorption experimentsPhysical and chemical properties of black carbon and organic matter from different combustion and photochemical sources using aerodynamic aerosol classificationTechnical note: Pyrolysis principles explain time-resolved organic aerosol release from biomass burningThe effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the freezing properties of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances of atmospheric relevanceHeterogeneous ice nucleation ability of aerosol particles generated from Arctic sea surface microlayer and surface seawater samples at cirrus temperaturesAerosol formation and growth rates from chamber experiments using Kalman smoothingPhase state of secondary organic aerosol in chamber photo-oxidation of mixed precursorsIce nucleation on surrogates of boreal forest SOA particles: effect of water content and oxidative ageViscosity and phase state of aerosol particles consisting of sucrose mixed with inorganic saltsObservations on hygroscopic growth and phase transitions of mixed 1, 2, 6-hexanetriol ∕ (NH4)2SO4 particles: investigation of the liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) dynamic process and mechanism and secondary LLPS during the dehumidificationBoundary layer structure characteristics under objective classification of persistent pollution weather types in the Beijing areaProperties and emission factors of cloud condensation nuclei from biomass cookstoves – observations of a strong dependency on potassium content in the fuelMeasurement report: Effects of NOx and seed aerosol on highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from cyclohexene ozonolysisInteractions of organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditionsLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part I: Influence of relative humiditySize-resolved atmospheric ice-nucleating particles during East Asian dust eventsAqueous-phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyBrown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesToward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurementsLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 1: Optical propertiesEnhanced growth rate of atmospheric particles from sulfuric acidComposition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of real tree emissions compared to simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) systemsEffects of SO2 on optical properties of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of toluene under different relative humidity conditionsInfluence of the dry aerosol particle size distribution and morphology on the cloud condensation nuclei activation. An experimental and theoretical investigationExperimental investigation into the volatilities of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs)Detection of tar brown carbon with a single particle soot photometer (SP2)Complex refractive indices and single-scattering albedo of global dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum and relationship to size and iron contentTechnical note: Frenkel, Halsey and Hill analysis of water on clay minerals: toward closure between cloud condensation nuclei activity and water adsorption
Xiaohan Li and Ian C. Bourg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2525–2556,Short summary
Aerosol particles with sizes smaller than 50 nm impact cloud formation and precipitation. Representation of this effect is hindered by limited understanding of the properties of liquid water in these particles. Our simulations of aerosol particles containing salt or organic compounds reveal that water enters a less cohesive phase at droplet sizes below 4 nm. This effect causes important deviations from theoretical predictions of aerosol properties, including phase state and hygroscopic growth.
Kristian Klumpp, Claudia Marcolli, Ana Alonso-Hellweg, Christopher H. Dreimol, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1579–1598,Short summary
The prerequisites of a particle surface for efficient ice nucleation are still poorly understood. This study compares the ice nucleation activity of two chemically identical but morphologically different minerals (kaolinite and halloysite). We observe, on average, not only higher ice nucleation activities for halloysite than kaolinite but also higher diversity between individual samples. We identify the particle edges as being the most likely site for ice nucleation.
Fabian Mahrt, Carolin Rösch, Kunfeng Gao, Christopher H. Dreimol, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1285–1308,Short summary
Major aerosol types emitted by biomass burning include soot, ash, and charcoal particles. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation activity of 400 nm size-selected particles of two different pyrolyis-derived charcoal types in the mixed phase and cirrus cloud regime. We find that ice nucleation is constrained to cirrus cloud conditions, takes place via pore condensation and freezing, and is largely governed by the particle porosity and mineral content.
Chun Xiong, Xueyan Chen, Xiaolei Ding, Binyu Kuang, Xiangyu Pei, Zhengning Xu, Shikuan Yang, Huan Hu, and Zhibin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16123–16135,Short summary
Water surface tension is applied widely in current aerosol–cloud models but could be inappropriate in the presence of atmospheric surfactants. With cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement results of mixed inorganic salt and dicarboxylic acid particles, we concluded that surface tension reduction and phase state should be carefully considered in aerosol–cloud interactions. Our results could help to decease uncertainties in climate models.
Bernadette Rosati, Sini Isokääntä, Sigurd Christiansen, Mads Mørk Jensen, Shamjad P. Moosakutty, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Andreas Massling, Marianne Glasius, Jonas Elm, Annele Virtanen, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13449–13466,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols have a strong influence on climate. Due to the reduction in sulfur-based fossil fuels, natural sulfur emissions play an increasingly important role. Studies investigating the climate relevance of natural sulfur aerosols are scarce. We study the water uptake of such particles in the laboratory, demonstrating a high potential to take up water and form cloud droplets. During atmospheric transit, chemical processing affects the particles’ composition and thus their water uptake.
Kanishk Gohil, Chun-Ning Mao, Dewansh Rastogi, Chao Peng, Mingjin Tang, and Akua Asa-Awuku
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12769–12787,Short summary
The Hybrid Activity Model (HAM) is a promising new droplet growth model that can be potentially used for the analysis of any type of atmospheric compound. HAM may potentially improve the representation of hygroscopicity of organic aerosols in large-scale global climate models (GCMs), hence reducing the uncertainties in the climate forcing due to the aerosol indirect effect.
Runlong Cai, Ella Häkkinen, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11529–11541,Short summary
The influences of new particle formation on the climate and air quality are governed by particle survival, which has been under debate due to uncertainties in the coagulation sink. Here we measure the coagulation coefficient of sub-10 nm particles and demonstrate that collisions between the freshly nucleated and background particles can effectively lead to coagulation. We further show that the effective coagulation sink is consistent with the new particle formation measured in urban Beijing.
Lamei Shi, Jiahua Zhang, Da Zhang, Jingwen Wang, Xianglei Meng, Yuqin Liu, and Fengmei Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11255–11274,Short summary
Dust impacts climate and human life. Analyzing the interdecadal change in dust activity and its influence factors is crucial for disaster mitigation. Based on a linear regression method, this study revealed the interdecadal variability of relationships between ENSO and dust over northwestern South Asia from 1982 to 2014 and analyzed the effects of atmospheric factors on this interdecadal variability. The result sheds new light on numerical simulation involving the interdecadal variation of dust.
Bighnaraj Sarangi, Darrel Baumgardner, Benjamin Bolaños-Rosero, and Olga L. Mayol-Bracero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9647–9661,Short summary
Here, the fluorescent characteristics and cloud-forming efficiency of aerosols at an urban site in Puerto Rico are discussed. The results from this pilot study highlight the capabilities of ultraviolet-induced fluorescence (UV-IF) measurements for characterizing the properties of fluorescing aerosol particles, as they relate to the daily evolution of primary biological aerosol particles. This work has established a database of measurements on which future, longer-term studies will be initiated.
Rani Jeong, Joseph Lilek, Andreas Zuend, Rongshuang Xu, Man Nin Chan, Dohyun Kim, Hi Gyu Moon, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8805–8817,Short summary
In this study, the viscosities of particles of sucrose–H2O, AS–H2O, and sucrose–AS–H2O for OIRs of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4 for decreasing RH, were quantified by poke-and-flow and bead-mobility techniques at 293 ± 1 K. Based on the viscosity results, the particles of binary and ternary systems ranged from liquid to semisolid, and even the solid state depending on the RH. Moreover, we compared the measured viscosities of ternary systems to the predicted viscosities with excellent agreement.
Minxia Shen, Kin Fai Ho, Wenting Dai, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Qiyuan Wang, Jingjing Meng, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Junji Cao, and Jianjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7489–7504,Short summary
Looking at characteristics and δ13C compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in BB aerosols, we used a combined combustion and aging system to generate fresh and aged aerosols from burning straw. The results showed the emission factors (EFaged) of total diacids of aging experiments were around an order of magnitude higher than EFfresh. This meant that dicarboxylic acids are involved with secondary photochemical processes in the atmosphere rather than primary emissions from BB.
Jonas K. F. Jakobsson, Deepak B. Waman, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Thomas Bjerring Kristensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6717–6748,Short summary
Long-lived cold-layer clouds at subzero temperatures are observed to be remarkably persistent in their generation of ice particles and snow precipitation. There is uncertainty about why this is so. This motivates the present lab study to observe the long-term ice-nucleating ability of aerosol samples from the real troposphere. Time dependence of their ice nucleation is observed to be weak in lab experiments exposing the samples to isothermal conditions for up to about 10 h.
Kunfeng Gao, Chong-Wen Zhou, Eszter J. Barthazy Meier, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5331–5364,Short summary
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produces carbonaceous particles called soot. These particles can affect cloud formation by acting as centres for droplet or ice formation. The atmospheric residence time of soot particles is of the order of days to weeks, which can result in them becoming coated by various trace species in the atmosphere such as acids. In this study, we quantify the cirrus cloud-forming ability of soot particles coated with the atmospherically ubiquitous sulfuric acid.
Kunfeng Gao, Franz Friebel, Chong-Wen Zhou, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4985–5016,Short summary
Soot particles impact cloud formation and radiative properties in the upper atmosphere where aircraft emit carbonaceous particles. We use cloud chambers to mimic the upper atmosphere temperature and humidity to test the influence of the morphology of the soot particles on ice cloud formation. For particles larger than 200 nm, the compacted (densified) samples have a higher affinity for ice crystal formation in the cirrus regime than the fluffy (un-compacted) soot particles of the same sample.
Joel Kuula, Hilkka Timonen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hanna E. Manninen, Topi Rönkkö, Tareq Hussein, Pak Lun Fung, Sasu Tarkoma, Mikko Laakso, Erkka Saukko, Aino Ovaska, Markku Kulmala, Ari Karppinen, Lasse Johansson, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4801–4808,Short summary
Modern and up-to-date policies and air quality management strategies are instrumental in tackling global air pollution. As the European Union is preparing to revise Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC, this paper initiates discussion on selected features of the directive that we believe would benefit from a reassessment. The scientific community has the most recent and deepest understanding of air pollution; thus, its contribution is essential.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Dawei Hu, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Ying Chen, Judith Kleinheins, Claudia Marcolli, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4149–4166,Short summary
Aerosol water uptake plays a key role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed chamber experiments on aerosol water uptake of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from mixed biogenic and anthropogenic precursors with inorganic seed. Our results highlight this chemical composition influences the reconciliation of the sub- and super-saturated water uptake, providing laboratory evidence for understanding the chemical controls of water uptake of the multi-component aerosol.
Shuang Han, Juan Hong, Qingwei Luo, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Long Peng, Yao He, Jingnan Shi, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3985–4004,Short summary
We present the hygroscopicity of 23 organic species with different physicochemical properties using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compare the results with previous studies. Based on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, the influence of different physicochemical properties that potentially drive hygroscopicity, such as the functionality, water solubility, molar volume, and O : C ratio of organics, are examined separately.
Kimmo Korhonen, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel Eriksson, Louise Gren, Maja Novakovic, Sam Shamun, Panu Karjalainen, Lassi Markkula, Joakim Pagels, Birgitta Svenningsson, Martin Tunér, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1615–1631,Short summary
We investigated the ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern diesel engine using the portable ice-nuclei counter SPIN, a continuous-flow diffusion chamber instrument. Three different fuels were studied without blending, including fossil diesel and two renewable fuels, testing different emission aftertreatment systems and photochemical aging. We found that the diesel emissions were inefficient ice nuclei, and aging had no or little effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.
Noora Hyttinen, Iida Pullinen, Aki Nissinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1195–1208,Short summary
Accurate saturation vapor pressure estimates of atmospherically relevant organic compounds are critical for modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated vapor pressures of highly oxygenated SOA constituents using state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. We found a good agreement between low and extremely low vapor pressures estimated using the two methods, and the smallest molecules detected in our experiment were likely products of thermal decomposition.
Dawei Hu, M. Rami Alfarra, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Claire Belcher, Ian Rule, Zixia Liu, Chenjie Yu, Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Brett Smith, Greg Smallwood, Prem Lobo, Dantong Liu, Jim M. Haywood, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16161–16182,Short summary
Here, we developed new techniques for investigating these properties in the laboratory and applied these to BC and BrC from different sources, including diesel exhaust, inverted propane flame and wood combustion. These have allowed us to quantify the changes in shape and chemical composition of different soots according to source and variables such as the moisture content of wood.
Mariam Fawaz, Anita Avery, Timothy B. Onasch, Leah R. Williams, and Tami C. Bond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15605–15618,Short summary
Biomass burning is responsible for 90 % of the emissions of primary organic aerosols to the atmosphere. Emissions from biomass burning sources are considered chaotic. In this work, we developed a controlled experimental approach to understand the controlling factors in emission. Our results showed that emissions are repeatable and deterministic and that emissions from wood can be constrained.
Soleil E. Worthy, Anand Kumar, Yu Xi, Jingwei Yun, Jessie Chen, Cuishan Xu, Victoria E. Irish, Pierre Amato, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14631–14648,Short summary
We studied the effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the immersion freezing of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances (INSs) and mineral dusts. (NH4)2SO4 had no effect on the median freezing temperature of 9 of the 10 tested non-mineral dust INSs, slightly decreased that of the other, and increased that of all the mineral dusts. The difference in the response of mineral dust and non-mineral dust INSs to (NH4)2SO4 suggests that they nucleate ice and/or interact with (NH4)2SO4 via different mechanisms.
Robert Wagner, Luisa Ickes, Allan K. Bertram, Nora Els, Elena Gorokhova, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13903–13930,Short summary
Sea spray aerosol particles are a mixture of inorganic salts and organic matter from phytoplankton organisms. At low temperatures in the upper troposphere, both inorganic and organic constituents can induce the formation of ice crystals and thereby impact cloud properties and climate. In this study, we performed experiments in a cloud simulation chamber with particles produced from Arctic seawater samples to quantify the relative contribution of inorganic and organic species in ice formation.
Matthew Ozon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Aku Seppänen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12595–12611,Short summary
Measuring the rate at which aerosol particles are formed is of importance for understanding climate change. We present an analysis method based on Kalman smoothing, which retrieves new particle formation and growth rates from size-distribution measurements. We apply it to atmospheric simulation chamber experiments and show that it agrees well with traditional methods. In addition, it provides reliable uncertainty estimates, and we suggest instrument design optimisation for signal processing.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yunqi Shao, Taomou Zong, Xiangxinyue Meng, Mao Du, Dawei Hu, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11303–11316,Short summary
Aerosol phase behaviour plays a profound role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed dedicated chamber experiments to study the phase state of secondary organic aerosol from biogenic and anthropogenic mixed precursors. Our results highlight the key role of the organic–inorganic ratio and relative humidity in phase state, but the sources and organic composition are less important. The result provides solid laboratory evidence for understanding aerosol phase in a complex atmosphere.
Ana A. Piedehierro, André Welti, Angela Buchholz, Kimmo Korhonen, Iida Pullinen, Ilkka Summanen, Annele Virtanen, and Ari Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11069–11078,Short summary
Ice crystals in cirrus clouds contain particles that start ice formation. We study whether particles forming above boreal forests can help in the making of cirrus clouds and if the water content in the particles affects this property. In the laboratory, we made boreal-forest-like particles and cooled and humidified them to measure whether an ice crystal develops. We found that only when dry can these particles form an ice crystal but no better than solution droplets.
Young-Chul Song, Joseph Lilek, Jae Bong Lee, Man Nin Chan, Zhijun Wu, Andreas Zuend, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10215–10228,Short summary
We report viscosity of binary mixtures of organic material / H2O and inorganic salts / H2O, as well as ternary mixtures of organic material / inorganic salts/ H2O, over the atmospheric relative humidity (RH) range. The viscosity measurements indicate that the studied mixed organic–inorganic particles range in phase state from liquid to semi-solid or even solid across the atmospheric RH range at a temperature of 293 K.
Shuaishuai Ma, Zhe Chen, Shufeng Pang, and Yunhong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9705–9717,Short summary
LLPS, efflorescence and deliquescence of aerosol particles can be observed visually and determined quantitatively. Different LLPS mechanisms may dominate successively in mixed organic–inorganic particles. The formation of more concentrated inorganic inclusions may cause secondary LLPS. Furthermore, high inorganic factions may result in an inorganic salt crust enclosing the separated organic phases.
Zhaobin Sun, Xiujuan Zhao, Ziming Li, Guiqian Tang, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8863–8882,Short summary
Different weather types will shape significantly different structures of the pollution boundary layer. The findings of this study allow us to understand the inherent difference among heavy pollution boundary layers; in addition, they reveal the formation mechanism of haze pollution from an integrated synoptic-scale and boundary layer structure perspective.
Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Robert Lindgren, Christina Andersen, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel C. Eriksson, Kimmo Korhonen, Ricardo Luis Carvalho, Christoffer Boman, Joakim Pagels, and Birgitta Svenningsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8023–8044,Short summary
Residential biomass combustion is a major anthropogenic source of aerosol particles on regional and global scales. Nevertheless, little is known about those aerosol particles' ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus influence cloud properties and climate. Our study shows a strong link between the potassium content in the fuel and emissions of CCN for different stove technologies. Previous studies may have underestimated the anthropogenic climate impact of these emissions.
Meri Räty, Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Lauriane Quéléver, Olga Garmash, Matti Rissanen, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7357–7372,Short summary
Cyclohexene resembles certain relatively complex compounds in the atmosphere that through oxidation produce vapours that take part in aerosol formation. We studied the highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) formed in cyclohexene ozonolysis, the relationship between their chemical composition and their tendency to condense onto seed aerosol, as well as the effect of NOx pollutants on their signals. Two existing models were also tested for their ability to predict the volatility of the HOMs.
Chao Peng, Patricia N. Razafindrambinina, Kotiba A. Malek, Lanxiadi Chen, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Xiang Ding, Maofa Ge, Xinming Wang, Akua A. Asa-Awuku, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7135–7148,Short summary
Organosulfates are important constituents in tropospheric aerosol particles, but their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities are not well understood. In our work, three complementary techniques were employed to investigate the interactions of 11 organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditions.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6945–6962,Short summary
Present article describe a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of phoretic effects on the collection efficiency.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2881–2894,Short summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.
Damon M. Smith, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10149–10168,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol can scatter and absorb light, contributing to the cooling or warming of the planet. The scattering and absorption properties (optical properties) change as aerosol ages and interacts with atmospheric gases. Optical properties also depend on burning conditions, fuel type, and morphology. Africa is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, but there are very few laboratory studies. This study focuses on the optical properties of aerosols from east African biomass fuels.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Wenyu Zhang, Weigang Wang, Junling Li, Chao Peng, Kun Li, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4477–4492,Short summary
We investigated the effect of SO2 under different humidities on optical properties of toluene-derived SOA under four conditions with CRDs and PAX at 532 and 375 nm, respectively. Our results showed that SO2 under different humidities can change the refractive complex index of toluene SOA by influencing the multiphase processes and altering the aerosol chemical compositions. Different atmospheric conditions could affect the properties of toluene SOA, as well as the global radiative balance.
Junteng Wu, Alessandro Faccinetto, Symphorien Grimonprez, Sébastien Batut, Jérôme Yon, Pascale Desgroux, and Denis Petitprez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4209–4225,Short summary
Soot particles released during anthropogenic activities may lead to positive direct or negative indirect climate forcing depending on their aging in the atmosphere. The latter occurs whenever soot particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and trigger the formation of persistent clouds. Herein, we investigate the impact of the size distribution and morphology of freshly emitted soot particles on their aging process and propose a model to quantitatively predict their efficiency as CCN.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Courtney D. Hatch, Paul R. Tumminello, Megan A. Cassingham, Ann L. Greenaway, Rebecca Meredith, and Matthew J. Christie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13581–13589,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust has been identified as an important contributor to cloud formation and cloud properties that influence the Earth's climate, yet experimental measurements of climate model parameters currently disagree. This study demonstrates current best practices for analyzing water adsorption measurements, resulting in significantly improved agreement among experimental practices. As such, more accurate parameters can be used to improve simulations of aerosol climate effects.
Appel, K. W., Bash, J. O., Fahey, K. M., Foley, K. M., Gilliam, R. C., Hogrefe, C., Hutzell, W. T., Kang, D., Mathur, R., Murphy, B. N., Napelenok, S. L., Nolte, C. G., Pleim, J. E., Pouliot, G. A., Pye, H. O. T., Ran, L., Roselle, S. J., Sarwar, G., Schwede, D. B., Sidi, F. I., Spero, T. L., and Wong, D. C.: The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model versions 5.3 and 5.3.1: system updates and evaluation, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2867–2897, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-2867-2021, 2021. a, b, c, d
Creamean, J. M., Cross, J. N., Pickart, R., McRaven, L., Lin, P., Pacini, A., Hanlon, R., Schmale, D. G., Ceniceros, J., Aydell, T., Colombi, N., Bolger, E., and DeMott, P. J.: Ice Nucleating Particles Carried From Below a Phytoplankton Bloom to the Arctic Atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 8572–8581, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083039, 2019. a, b
Deike, L.: Mass Transfer at the Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: The Role of Wave Breaking, Droplets, and Bubbles, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 54, 191–224, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-030121-014132, 2022. a
Kain, J. S.: The Kain-Fritsch Convective Parameterization: An Update, J. Appl. Meteorol., 43, 170–181, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0170:TKCPAU>2.0.CO;2, 2004. a
Khlystov, A., Stanier, C., and Pandis, S. N.: An Algorithm for Combining Electrical Mobility and Aerodynamic Size Distributions Data when Measuring Ambient Aerosol Special Issue of Aerosol Science and Technology on Findings from the Fine Particulate Matter Supersites Program, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 38, 229–238, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820390229543, 2004. a
May, N. W., Axson, J. L., Watson, A., Pratt, K. A., and Ault, A. P.: Lake spray aerosol generation: a method for producing representative particles from freshwater wave breaking, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4311–4325, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-4311-2016, 2016. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o
May, N. W., Gunsch, M. J., Olson, N. E., Bondy, A. L., Kirpes, R. M., Bertman, S. B., China, S., Laskin, A., Hopke, P. K., Ault, A. P., and Pratt, K. A.: Unexpected Contributions of Sea Spray and Lake Spray Aerosol to Inland Particulate Matter, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 5, 405–412, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00254, 2018a. a, b, c, d
May, N. W., Olson, N. E., Panas, M., Axson, J. L., Tirella, P. S., Kirpes, R. M., Craig, R. L., Gunsch, M. J., China, S., Laskin, A., Ault, A. P., and Pratt, K. A.: Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 397–405, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b03609, 2018b. a, b
Monahan, E. C.: Oceanic Whitecaps, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 1, 139–144, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1971)001<0139:OW>2.0.CO;2, 1971. a, b
Monahan, E. C. and Muircheartaigh, I.: Optimal Power-Law Description of Oceanic Whitecap Coverage Dependence on Wind Speed, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 2094–2099, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<2094:OPLDOO>2.0.CO;2, 1980. a, b, c
Olson, N. E., May, N. W., Kirpes, R. M., Watson, A. E., Hajny, K. D., Slade, J. H., Shepson, P. B., Stirm, B. H., Pratt, K. A., and Ault, A. P.: Lake Spray Aerosol Incorporated into Great Lakes Clouds, ACS Earth Space Chem., 3, 2765–2774, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00258, 2019. a, b, c
Pleim, J. E. and Xiu, A.: Development of a Land Surface Model. Part II: Data Assimilation, J. Appl. Meteorol., 42, 1811–1822, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1811:DOALSM>2.0.CO;2, 2003. a
Prather, K. A., Bertram, T. H., Grassian, V. H., Deane, G. B., Stokes, M. D., DeMott, P. J., Aluwihare, L. I., Palenik, B. P., Azam, F., Seinfeld, J. H., Moffet, R. C., Molina, M. J., Cappa, C. D., Geiger, F. M., Roberts, G. C., Russell, L. M., Ault, A. P., Baltrusaitis, J., Collins, D. B., Corrigan, C. E., Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A., Ebben, C. J., Forestieri, S. D., Guasco, T. L., Hersey, S. P., Kim, M. J., Lambert, W. F., Modini, R. L., Mui, W., Pedler, B. E., Ruppel, M. J., Ryder, O. S., Schoepp, N. G., Sullivan, R. C., and Zhao, D.: Bringing the ocean into the laboratory to probe the chemical complexity of sea spray aerosol, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 7550–7555, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1300262110, 2013. a, b
Rosenfeld, D., Andreae, M. O., Asmi, A., Chin, M., de Leeuw, G., Donovan, D. P., Kahn, R., Kinne, S., Kivekäs, N., Kulmala, M., Lau, W., Schmidt, K. S., Suni, T., Wagner, T., Wild, M., and Quaas, J.: Global observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions, Rev. Geophys., 52, 750–808, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013RG000441, 2014. a
Salter, M. E., Zieger, P., Acosta Navarro, J. C., Grythe, H., Kirkevåg, A., Rosati, B., Riipinen, I., and Nilsson, E. D.: An empirically derived inorganic sea spray source function incorporating sea surface temperature, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11047–11066, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-11047-2015, 2015. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Stokes, M. D., Deane, G. B., Prather, K., Bertram, T. H., Ruppel, M. J., Ryder, O. S., Brady, J. M., and Zhao, D.: A Marine Aerosol Reference Tank system as a breaking wave analogue for the production of foam and sea-spray aerosols, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1085–1094, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-1085-2013, 2013. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Textor, C., Schulz, M., Guibert, S., Kinne, S., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T., Berglen, T., Boucher, O., Chin, M., Dentener, F., Diehl, T., Easter, R., Feichter, H., Fillmore, D., Ghan, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Grini, A., Hendricks, J., Horowitz, L., Huang, P., Isaksen, I., Iversen, I., Kloster, S., Koch, D., Kirkevåg, A., Kristjansson, J. E., Krol, M., Lauer, A., Lamarque, J. F., Liu, X., Montanaro, V., Myhre, G., Penner, J., Pitari, G., Reddy, S., Seland, Ø., Stier, P., Takemura, T., and Tie, X.: Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1777–1813, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006, 2006. a, b, c
Veron, F.: Ocean Spray, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 47, 507–538, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-010814-014651, 2015. a, b
Wuebbles, D., Cardinale, B., Cherkauer, K., Davidson-Arnott, R., Hellmann, J., Infante, D., and Ballinger, A.: An assessment of the impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes, Environmental Law & Policy Center, https://elpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/2019-ELPCPublication-Great-Lakes-Climate-Change-Report.pdf (last access: 6 September 2022), 2019. a
Xiu, A. and Pleim, J. E.: Development of a Land Surface Model. Part I: Application in a Mesoscale Meteorological Model, J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 192–209, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0192:DOALSM>2.0.CO;2, 2001. a
A model representation of lake spray aerosol (LSA) ejection from freshwater breaking waves is crucial for understanding their climatic and public health impacts. We develop an LSA emission parameterization and implement it in an atmospheric model to investigate Great Lakes surface emissions. We find that the same breaking wave is likely to produce fewer aerosols in freshwater than in saltwater and that Great Lakes emissions influence the regional aerosol burden and can reach the cloud layer.
A model representation of lake spray aerosol (LSA) ejection from freshwater breaking waves is...