Articles | Volume 22, issue 16
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Statistical and machine learning methods for evaluating trends in air quality under changing meteorological conditions
Institute for Data, Systems, and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
current address: Earth System Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
Department of Statistics and Data Science, University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA
Noelle E. Selin
Institute for Data, Systems, and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
No articles found.
William Atkinson, Sebastian D. Eastham, Y.-H. Henry Chen, Jennifer Morris, Sergey Paltsev, C. Adam Schlosser, and Noelle E. Selin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7767–7789,Short summary
Understanding policy effects on human-caused air pollutant emissions is key for assessing related health impacts. We develop a flexible scenario tool that combines updated emissions data sets, long-term economic modeling, and comprehensive technology pathways to clarify the impacts of climate and air quality policies. Results show the importance of both policy levers in the future to prevent long-term emission increases from offsetting near-term air quality improvements from existing policies.
Shaojie Song, Hélène Angot, Noelle E. Selin, Hubert Gallée, Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Detlev Helmig, Joël Savarino, Olivier Magand, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15825–15840,Short summary
Mercury is a trace metal with adverse health effects on human and wildlife. Its unique property makes it undergo long-range transport, and even remote Antarctica receives significant inputs. This paper presents the first model that aims to understand mercury behavior over the Antarctic Plateau. We find that mercury is quickly cycled between snow and air in the sunlit period, likely driven by bromine chemistry, and that several uncertain processes contribute to its behavior in the dark period.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald Prinn, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, Jean-François Lamarque, and Philip Cameron-Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4155–4174,Short summary
We conduct three simulations of atmospheric chemistry using chemical mechanisms of different levels of complexity and compare their results to observations. We explore situations in which the simplified mechanisms match the output of the most complex mechanism, as well as when they diverge. We investigate how concurrent utilization of chemical mechanisms of different complexities can further our atmospheric-chemistry understanding at various scales and give some strategies for future research.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald G. Prinn, Erwan Monier, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8373–8388,Short summary
Detecting signals in observations and simulations of atmospheric chemistry is difficult due to the underlying variability in the chemistry, meteorology, and climatology. Here we examine the scale dependence of ozone variability and explore strategies for reducing or averaging this variability and thereby enhancing ozone signal detection capabilities. We find that 10–15 years of temporal averaging, and some level of spatial averaging, reduces the risk of overconfidence in ozone signals.
Johannes Bieser, Franz Slemr, Jesse Ambrose, Carl Brenninkmeijer, Steve Brooks, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco DeSimone, Ralf Ebinghaus, Christian N. Gencarelli, Beate Geyer, Lynne E. Gratz, Ian M. Hedgecock, Daniel Jaffe, Paul Kelley, Che-Jen Lin, Lyatt Jaegle, Volker Matthias, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Shaojie Song, Oleg Travnikov, Andreas Weigelt, Winston Luke, Xinrong Ren, Andreas Zahn, Xin Yang, Yun Zhu, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6925–6955,Short summary
We conducted a multi model study to investigate our ability to reproduce the vertical distribution of mercury in the atmosphere. For this, we used observational data from over 40 aircraft flights in EU and US. We compared observations to the results of seven chemistry transport models and found that the models are able to reproduce vertical gradients of total and elemental Hg. Finally, we found that different chemical reactions seem responsible for the oxidation of Hg depending on altitude.
Oleg Travnikov, Hélène Angot, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Johannes Bieser, Francesco D'Amore, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Volker Matthias, Nikolay Mashyanov, Nicola Pirrone, Ramesh Ramachandran, Katie Alana Read, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Fabrizio Sena, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Dennis Wip, Ingvar Wängberg, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5271–5295,Short summary
The study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measurement data and simulation results of chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model simulations and numerical experiments against observations allows explaining spatial and temporal variations of Hg concentration in the near-surface atmospheric layer and shows possibility of multiple pathways of Hg oxidation occurring concurrently in various parts of the atmosphere.
Colin P. Thackray and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4585–4597,Short summary
PFCAs are toxic contaminants that can form in the atmosphere when precursor chemicals are released and degrade. We calculate the capacity of different atmospheric environments to form PFCAs this way. Different environments have very different capacities to form PFCAs, with the atmosphere far from sources of pollution being much better able to make the more toxic PFCAs. While the chemistry involved has uncertainties, they are small compared to the differences between environments.
Hélène Angot, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, Katarina Gårdfeldt, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Sarka Langer, Olivier Magand, Michelle N. Mastromonaco, Claus Nordstrøm, Katrine A. Pfaffhuber, Nicola Pirrone, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Henrik Skov, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Alexandra Steffen, Kenjiro Toyota, Oleg Travnikov, Xin Yang, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10735–10763,Short summary
This is a synthesis of the atmospheric mercury (Hg) monitoring data available in recent years (2011–2015) in the Arctic and in Antarctica along with a comparison of these observations with numerical simulations using four cutting-edge global models. Based on this comparison, we discuss whether the processes that affect atmospheric Hg seasonality and interannual variability are appropriately represented in the models, and identify remaining research gaps.
Carey L. Friedman and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3433–3448,Short summary
We present a new global model to simulate the atmospheric transport of toxic contaminants (PCBs). We evaluate the model against PCB observations in the northern hemisphere midlatitude and Arctic atmosphere. We then use the model to calculate global budgets of PCBs and to examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic atmospheric concentrations. We find that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic PCBs than those occurring within.
V. Shah, L. Jaeglé, L. E. Gratz, J. L. Ambrose, D. A. Jaffe, N. E. Selin, S. Song, T. L. Campos, F. M. Flocke, M. Reeves, D. Stechman, M. Stell, J. Festa, J. Stutz, A. J. Weinheimer, D. J. Knapp, D. D. Montzka, G. S. Tyndall, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Hills, D. D. Riemer, N. J. Blake, C. A. Cantrell, and R. L. Mauldin III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1511–1530,Short summary
We present airborne observations of mercury over the southeastern USA during summer. Higher concentrations of oxidized mercury were observed in clean, dry air masses descending in the subtropical anti-cyclones. We used an atmospheric model to simulate the chemistry and transport of mercury. We found reasonable agreement with the observations when the modeled oxidation of elemental mercury was increased, suggesting fast cycling between elemental and oxidized mercury.
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
P. Weiss-Penzias, H. M. Amos, N. E. Selin, M. S. Gustin, D. A. Jaffe, D. Obrist, G.-R. Sheu, and A. Giang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1161–1173,Short summary
Speciated atmospheric Hg measurements from five high-elevation sites were compared with a global mercury model. The comparison confirmed that reactive mercury is formed in dry free tropospheric air from the oxidation of elemental Hg, more so in the summer than in other seasons. Simulations run with OH-O3 oxidation instead of the Br oxidation mechanism compared more closely with observations at desert sites, suggesting future simulations should include multiple reaction mechanisms simultaneously.
T. M. Thompson, R. K. Saari, and N. E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 969–978,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Contribution of regional aerosol nucleation to low-level CCN in an Amazonian deep convective environment: results from a regionally nested global modelCoarse particulate matter air quality in East Asia: implications for fine particulate nitrateForeign emissions exacerbate PM2.5 pollution in China through nitrate chemistryAnalysis of new particle formation events and comparisons to simulations of particle number concentrations based on GEOS-Chem–advanced particle microphysics in Beijing, ChinaSimulation of organic aerosol, its precursors, and related oxidants in the Landes pine forest in southwestern France: accounting for domain-specific land use and physical conditionsModelling the European wind-blown dust emissions and their impact on particulate matter (PM) concentrationsImpacts of estimated plume rise on PM2.5 exceedance prediction during extreme wildfire events: a comparison of three schemes (Briggs, Freitas, and Sofiev)Impact of Solar Geoengineering on Wildfires in the 21st Century in CESM2/WACCM6Strong particle production and condensational growth in the upper troposphere sustained by biogenic VOCs from the canopy of the Amazon BasinSources of organic aerosols in eastern China: a modeling study with high-resolution intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compound emissionsComposited analyses of the chemical and physical characteristics of co-polluted days by ozone and PM2.5 over 2013–2020 in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionObservation-based constraints on modeled aerosol surface area: implications for heterogeneous chemistryOligomer formation from the gas-phase reactions of Criegee intermediates with hydroperoxide esters: mechanism and kineticsModelling SO2 conversion into sulfates in the mid-troposphere with a 3D chemistry transport model: the case of Mount Etna's eruption on 12 April 2012Global distribution of Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African dust simulated by CESM1/CARMAOpinion: Coordinated development of emission inventories for climate forcers and air pollutantsLinking gas, particulate, and toxic endpoints to air emissions in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMM) version 1.0Seasonal modeling analysis of nitrate formation pathways in Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaModeling radiative and climatic effects of brown carbon aerosols with the ARPEGE-Climat global climate modelNumerical simulation of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on tropospheric composition and aerosol radiative forcing in EuropeEvaluation of the WRF and CHIMERE models for the simulation of PM2.5 in large East African urban conurbationsImpact of urban heat island on inorganic aerosol in the lower free troposphere: a case study in Hangzhou, ChinaSimulating the radiative forcing of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Asia based on machine learning estimatesQuantifying the effects of mixing state on aerosol optical propertiesSecondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reaction of hydrocarbons in urban atmospheres using CAMx integrated with the UNIPAR modelContrasting source contributions of Arctic black carbon to atmospheric concentrations, deposition flux, and atmospheric and snow radiative effectsSimulating organic aerosol in Delhi with WRF-Chem using the VBS approach: Exploring model uncertainty with a Gaussian Process emulatorEffect of dust on rainfall over the Red Sea coast based on WRF-Chem model simulationsA new assessment of global and regional budgets, fluxes, and lifetimes of atmospheric reactive N and S gases and aerosolsLimitations in representation of physical processes prevent successful simulation of PM2.5 during KORUS-AQEurodelta multi-model simulated and observed particulate matter trends in Europe in the period of 1990–2010Elucidating the critical oligomeric steps in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formationFast climate responses to emission reductions in aerosol and ozone precursors in China during 2013–2017Secondary PM2.5 decreases significantly less than NO2 emission reductions during COVID lockdown in GermanyModelling wintertime Arctic Haze and sea-spray aerosolsMolecular-level nucleation mechanism of iodic acid and methanesulfonic acidEstimation of secondary PM2.5 in China and the United States using a multi-tracer approachTwo-way coupled meteorology and air quality models in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of impacts of aerosol feedbacks on meteorology and air qualityOCEANFILMS (Organic Compounds from Ecosystems to Aerosols: Natural Films and Interfaces via Langmuir Molecular Surfactants) sea spray organic aerosol emissions – implementation in a global climate model and impacts on cloudsThe pathway of impacts of aerosol direct effects on secondary inorganic aerosol formationThe impact of molecular self-organisation on the atmospheric fate of a cooking aerosol proxyThe formation and mitigation of nitrate pollution: comparison between urban and suburban environmentsImpacts of aerosol–photolysis interaction and aerosol–radiation feedback on surface-layer ozone in North China during multi-pollutant air pollution episodesReducing future air-pollution-related premature mortality over Europe by mitigating emissions from the energy sector: assessing an 80 % renewable energies scenarioThe impact of chlorine chemistry combined with heterogeneous N2O5 reactions on air quality in ChinaOH-initiated atmospheric degradation of hydroxyalkyl hydroperoxides: mechanism, kinetics, and structure–activity relationshipA predictive viscosity model for aqueous electrolytes and mixed organic–inorganic aerosol phasesThe role of organic acids in new particle formation from methanesulfonic acid and methylamineThe number fraction of iron-containing particles affects OH, HO2 and H2O2 budgets in the atmospheric aqueous phaseSource-resolved variability of fine particulate matter and human exposure in an urban area
Xuemei Wang, Hamish Gordon, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4431–4461,Short summary
New particle formation in the upper troposphere is important for the global boundary layer aerosol population, and they can be transported downward in Amazonia. We use a global and a regional model to quantify the number of aerosols that are formed at high altitude and transported downward in a 1000 km region. We find that the majority of the aerosols are from outside the region. This suggests that the 1000 km region is unlikely to be a
closed loopfor aerosol formation, transport and growth.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Jun-Wei Xu, Jintai Lin, Gan Luo, Jamiu Adeniran, and Hao Kong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4149–4163,Short summary
Research on the sources of Chinese PM2.5 pollution has focused on the contributions of China’s domestic emissions. However, the impact of foreign anthropogenic emissions has typically been simplified or neglected. Here we find that foreign anthropogenic emissions play an important role in Chinese PM2.5 pollution through chemical interactions between foreign-transported pollutants and China’s local emissions. Thus, foreign emission reductions are essential for improving Chinese air quality.
Kun Wang, Xiaoyan Ma, Rong Tian, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4091–4104,Short summary
From 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, there were 11 typical new particle formation days, 13 non-event days, and 2 undefined days. We first analyzed the favorable background of new particle formation in Beijing and then conducted the simulations using four nucleation schemes based on a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to understand the nucleation mechanism.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Guillaume Siour, Isabelle Coll, Manuela Cirtog, Elena Ormeño, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, and Eric Villenave
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3679–3706,Short summary
This article revolves around the simulation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Landes forest (southwestern France). Several sensitivity cases involving biogenic emission factors, land cover data, anthropogenic emissions, and physical or meteorological parameters were performed and each compared to measurements both in the forest canopy and around the forest. The chemistry behind the formation of these aerosols and their production and transport in the forest canopy is discussed.
Marina Liaskoni, Peter Huszar, Lukáš Bartík, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, Jan Karlický, and Ondřej Vlček
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3629–3654,Short summary
Wind-blown dust (WBD) emissions emitted from European soils are estimated for the 2007–2016 period, and their impact on the total particulate matter (PM) concentration is calculated. We found a considerable increase in PM concentrations due to such emissions, especially on selected days (rather than on a seasonal average). We also found that WBD emissions are strongest over western Europe, and the highest impacts on PM are calculated for this region.
Yunyao Li, Daniel Tong, Siqi Ma, Saulo R. Freitas, Ravan Ahmadov, Mikhail Sofiev, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Ralph Kahn, Youhua Tang, Barry Baker, Patrick Campbell, Rick Saylor, Georg Grell, and Fangjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3083–3101,Short summary
Plume height is important in wildfire smoke dispersion and affects air quality and human health. We assess the impact of plume height on wildfire smoke dispersion and the exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A higher plume height predicts lower pollution near the source region, but higher pollution in downwind regions, due to the faster spread of the smoke once ejected, affects pollution exceedance forecasts and the early warning of extreme air pollution events.
Wenfu Tang, Simone Tilmes, David M. Lawrence, Fang Li, Cenlin He, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, and Lili Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Globally, total wildfire burned area is projected to increase over the 21st century under scenarios without geoengineering and decrease under the two geoengineering scenarios. Geoengineering reduces fire through decreasing surface temperature and wind speed and increasing relative humidity and soil water. However, geoengineering also yields reductions in precipitation, which offsets some of the fire reduction.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 251–272,Short summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that strong aerosol nucleation and condensation in the UT is triggered by biogenic organics, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol–climate feedback.
Jingyu An, Cheng Huang, Dandan Huang, Momei Qin, Huan Liu, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Yingjie Li, Shuhui Zhu, Qian Wang, and Hongli Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 323–344,Short summary
This paper aims to build up an approach to establish a high-resolution emission inventory of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds in city-scale and detailed source categories and incorporate it into the CMAQ model. We believe this approach can be widely applied to improve the simulation of secondary organic aerosol and its source contributions.
Huibin Dai, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Xu Yue, Yang Yang, Jia Zhu, Jianbing Jin, Baojie Li, and Xingwen Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 23–39,Short summary
We apply the 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate co-polluted days by O3 and PM2.5 (O3–PM2.5PDs) in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei in 2013–2020 and investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs by composited analyses of such days that are captured by both the observations and the model. We report for the first time the unique features in vertical distributions of aerosols during O3–PM2.5PDs and the physical and chemical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs.
Rachel A. Bergin, Monica Harkey, Alicia Hoffman, Richard H. Moore, Bruce Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Tracey Holloway, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15449–15468,Short summary
Correctly predicting aerosol surface area concentrations is important for determining the rate of heterogeneous reactions in chemical transport models. Here, we compare aircraft measurements of aerosol surface area with a regional model. In polluted air masses, we show that the model underpredicts aerosol surface area by a factor of 2. Despite this disagreement, the representation of heterogeneous chemistry still dominates the overall uncertainty in the loss rate of molecules such as N2O5.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14529–14546,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the oligomerization reaction mechanisms and kinetics of distinct stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) reactions with hydroperoxide esters, where calculations show that SCI addition reactions with hydroperoxide esters proceed through the successive insertion of SCIs to form oligomers that involve SCIs as the repeating unit. The saturated vapor pressure of the formed oligomers decreases monotonically with the increasing number of SCIs.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Pasquale Sellitto, Guillaume Siour, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, and Salvatore Giammanco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13861–13879,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the predominance of various pathways of volcanic SO2 conversion to sulfates in the upper troposphere. We show that the main conversion pathway was gaseous oxidation by OH, although the liquid pathways were expected to be predominant. These results are interesting with respect to a better understanding of sulfate formation in the middle and upper troposphere and are an important component to help evaluate particulate matter radiative forcing.
Siying Lian, Luxi Zhou, Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Owen B. Toon, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13659–13676,Short summary
Parameterizations of dust lifting and microphysical properties of dust in climate models are still subject to large uncertainty. Here we use a sectional aerosol climate model to investigate the global vertical distributions of the dust. Constrained by a suite of observations, the model suggests that, although North African dust dominates global dust mass loading at the surface, the relative contribution of Asian dust increases with altitude and becomes dominant in the upper troposphere.
Steven J. Smith, Erin E. McDuffie, and Molly Charles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13201–13218,Short summary
Emissions into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants, quantified in emission inventories, impact human health, ecosystems, and the climate. We review how air pollutant and GHG inventory activities have historically been structured and their different uses and requirements. We discuss the benefits of increasing coordination between air pollutant and GHG inventory development efforts, but also caution that there are differences in appropriate methodologies and applications.
Havala O. T. Pye, Bryan K. Place, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Emma L. D'Ambro, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Sara Farrell, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Emily Saunders, Lu Xu, Golam Sarwar, William T. Hutzell, Kristen M. Foley, George Pouliot, Jesse Bash, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Chemical mechanisms describe how emissions from vehicles, chemical products, vegetation, and other sources are chemically transformed in the atmosphere to secondary products. The Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism is a new mechanism that integrates radical chemistry leading to gas-phase endpoints with pathways to fine particle mass. In addition, some hazardous air pollutants are explicitly included to enable calculation of health risks from specific chemicals.
Jinjin Sun, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Wenxing Fu, Yang Qin, Li Sheng, Lin Li, Jingyi Li, Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lei Jiang, Lin Huang, Xingna Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12629–12646,Short summary
NO3- has become the dominant and the least reduced chemical component of fine particulate matter in China. NO3- formation is mostly in the NH3-rich regime in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). OH + NO2 contributes 60 %–83 % of the TNO3 production rates, and the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway contributes 10 %–36 %. The N2O5 heterogeneous pathway becomes more important in cold seasons. Local emissions and regional transportation contribute 50 %–62 % and 38 %–50 % to YRD NO3- concentrations, respectively.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Samuel Rémy, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12167–12205,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of brown carbon in the atmospheric component of the CNRM global climate model and particularly in its aerosol scheme TACTIC. Several simulations were carried out with this climate model, over the period 2000–2014, to evaluate the model by comparison with different reference datasets (PARASOL-GRASP, OMI-OMAERUVd, MACv2, FMI_SAT, AERONET) and to analyze the brown carbon radiative and climatic effects.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10677–10701,Short summary
A modelling system for meteorology and chemistry transport processes, WRF–CHIMERE, has been tested and validated for three East African conurbations using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations that are close to observations in both urban and rural environments, encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Junri Zhao, Weichun Ma, Kelsey R. Bilsback, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shengqian Zhou, Ying Chen, Guipeng Yang, and Yan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9583–9600,Short summary
Marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions play important roles in atmospheric sulfur cycle and climate effects. In this study, DMS emissions were estimated by using the machine learning method and drove the global 3D chemical transport model to simulate their climate effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Asian region that quantifies the combined impacts of DMS on sulfate, particle number concentration, and radiative forcings.
Yu Yao, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Joseph Ching, Zhonghua Zheng, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9265–9282,Short summary
Investigating the impacts of aerosol mixing state on aerosol optical properties has a long history from both the modeling and experimental perspective. In this study, we used particle-resolved simulations as a benchmark to determine the error in optical properties when using simplified aerosol representations. We found that errors in single scattering albedo due to the internal mixture assumptions can have substantial effects on calculating aerosol direct radiative forcing.
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Soontae Kim, Kyuwon Son, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, and Jinsoo Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9083–9098,Short summary
The UNIPAR model was incorporated into CAMx to predict the ambient concentration of organic matter in urban atmospheres during the KORUS-AQ campaign. CAMx–UNIPAR significantly improved the simulation of SOA formation under the wet aerosol condition through the consideration of aqueous reactions of reactive organic species and gas–aqueous partitioning into the wet inorganic aerosol.
Hitoshi Matsui, Tatsuhiro Mori, Sho Ohata, Nobuhiro Moteki, Naga Oshima, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Makoto Koike, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8989–9009,Short summary
Using a global aerosol model, we find that the source contributions to radiative effects of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic are quite different from those to mass concentrations and deposition flux of BC in the Arctic. This is because microphysical properties (e.g., mixing state), altitudes, and seasonal variations of BC in the atmosphere differ among emissions sources. These differences need to be considered for accurate simulations of Arctic BC and its source contributions and climate impacts.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Doug Lowe, Jill Johnson, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alex Archibald, Siddhartha Singh, Manish Shrivastava, Rahul A. Zaveri, Vikas Singh, Gufran Beig, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Organic aerosols (OA), their sources and processes remain poorly understood. The volatility basis set (VBS) approach, implemented in air quality models such as WRF-Chem, can be a useful tool to describe POA production and aging. However, the main disadvantage is its complexity. We used a Gaussian process simulator to reproduce model results and estimate the sources of model uncertainty. We do this by comparing the outputs with OA observations taken at Delhi, India in 2018.
Sagar P. Parajuli, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Paul A. Kucera, Duncan Axisa, William I. Gustafson Jr., and Yannian Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8659–8682,Short summary
Rainfall affects the distribution of surface- and groundwater resources, which are constantly declining over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) due to overexploitation. Here, we explored the effects of dust on rainfall using WRF-Chem model simulations. Although dust is considered a nuisance from an air quality perspective, our results highlight the positive fundamental role of dust particles in modulating rainfall formation and distribution, which has implications for cloud seeding.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8343–8368,Short summary
Reactive N and S gases and aerosols are critical determinants of air quality. We report a comprehensive analysis of the concentrations, wet and dry deposition, fluxes, and lifetimes of these species globally as well as for 10 world regions. We used the EMEP MSC-W model coupled with WRF meteorology and 2015 global emissions. Our work demonstrates the substantial regional variation in these quantities and the need for modelling to simulate atmospheric responses to precursor emissions.
Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, Carolyn E. Jordan, Benjamin A. Nault, Hwajin Kim, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Shixian Zhai, Xuan Wang, Erin E. McDuffie, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Saewung Kim, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Limseok Chang, and Michelle J. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7933–7958,Short summary
The 2016 Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign provided a unique set of observations to improve our understanding of PM2.5 pollution in South Korea. Models typically have errors in simulating PM2.5 in this region, which is of concern for the development of control measures. We use KORUS-AQ observations to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving PM2.5 and the implications of model errors for determining PM2.5 that is attributable to local or foreign sources.
Svetlana Tsyro, Wenche Aas, Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Bertrand Bessagnet, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Hilde Fagerli, Peter Wind, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, and Mario Adani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7207–7257,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse health effects. In Europe, the emissions caused by anthropogenic activities have been reduced in the last decades. To assess the efficiency of emission reductions in improving air quality, we have studied the evolution of PM pollution in Europe. Simulations with six air quality models and observational data indicate a decrease in PM concentrations by 10 % to 30 % across Europe from 2000 to 2010, which is mainly a result of emission reductions.
Yuemeng Ji, Qiuju Shi, Xiaohui Ma, Lei Gao, Jiaxin Wang, Yixin Li, Yanpeng Gao, Guiying Li, Renyi Zhang, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7259–7271,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon from small α-carbonyls are still unclear. Thus, the mechanisms and kinetics of aqueous-phase reactions of glyoxal were investigated using quantum chemical and kinetic rate calculations. Several essential isomeric processes were identified, including protonation to yield diol/tetrol and carbenium ions as well as nucleophilic addition of carbenium ions to diol/tetrol and free methylamine/ammonia.
Jiyuan Gao, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, Huimin Li, Mengyun Li, Lili Ren, Xu Yue, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7131–7142,Short summary
China has been implementing a sequence of policies for clean air since the year 2013. The aerosol decline produced a 0.09 ± 0.10°C warming during 2013–2017 estimated in this study, and the increase in ozone in the lower troposphere during this time period accelerated the warming, leading to a total 0.16 ± 0.15°C temperature increase in eastern China. Residential emission reductions led to a cooling effect because of a substantial decrease in light-absorbing aerosols.
Vigneshkumar Balamurugan, Jia Chen, Zhen Qu, Xiao Bi, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7105–7129,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the response of secondary pollutants to changes in precursor emissions, focusing on the formation of secondary PM, during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We show that, due to the decrease in primary NOx emissions, atmospheric oxidizing capacity is increased. The nighttime increase in ozone, caused by less NO titration, results in higher NO3 radicals, which contribute significantly to the formation of PM nitrates. O3 should be limited in order to control PM pollution.
Eleftherios Ioannidis, Kathy S. Law, Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia Upchurch, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Patricia K. Quinn, and Kerri A. Pratt
Enhanced concentrations of aerosols influence the Arctic region during wintertime and winter-spring transition, transported from mid-latitude source regions. However, there are also local anthropogenic and natural (sea-spray aerosols – SSA) sources. SSA are a major contributor to PM1.0/PM10 at remote coastal sites during wintertime, however, models tend to miss essential mechanisms for SSA production and local sources of marine organics in the Arctic. This study addresses these uncertainties.
An Ning, Ling Liu, Lin Ji, and Xiuhui Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6103–6114,Short summary
Iodic acid (IA) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) were previously proved to be significant nucleation precursors in marine areas. However, the nucleation process involved in IA and MSA remains unclear. We show the enhancement of MSA on IA cluster formation and reveal the IAM-SA nucleating mechanism using a theoretical approach. This study helps to understand the clustering process in which marine sulfur- and iodine-containing species are jointly involved and its impact on new particle formation.
Haoran Zhang, Nan Li, Keqin Tang, Hong Liao, Chong Shi, Cheng Huang, Hongli Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Xinlei Ge, Mindong Chen, Zhenxin Liu, Huan Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5495–5514,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm with low economic/technique costs to identify primary and secondary components of PM2.5. Our model was shown to be reliable by comparison with different observation datasets. We systematically explored the patterns and changes in the secondary PM2.5 pollution in China at large spatial and time scales. We believe that this method is a promising tool for efficiently estimating primary and secondary PM2.5, and has huge potential for future PM mitigation.
Chao Gao, Aijun Xiu, Xuelei Zhang, Qingqing Tong, Hongmei Zhao, Shichun Zhang, Guangyi Yang, and Mengduo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5265–5329,Short summary
With ever-growing applications of two-way coupled meteorology and air quality models in Asia over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current status and research focuses, as well as how aerosol effects impact model performance, meteorology, and air quality. These models enable investigations of ARI and ACI effects induced by natural and anthropogenic aerosols in Asia, which has serious air pollution problems. The current gaps and perspectives are also presented and discussed.
Susannah M. Burrows, Richard C. Easter, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Hailong Wang, Scott M. Elliott, Balwinder Singh, Kai Zhang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5223–5251,Short summary
Sea spray particles are composed of a mixture of salts and organic substances from oceanic microorganisms. In prior work, our team developed an approach connecting sea spray chemistry to ocean biology, called OCEANFILMS. Here we describe its implementation within an Earth system model, E3SM. We show that simulated sea spray chemistry is consistent with observed seasonal cycles and that sunlight reflected by simulated Southern Ocean clouds increases, consistent with analysis of satellite data.
Jiandong Wang, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Rohit Mathur, Jiaping Wang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chao Liu, Jonathan Pleim, Dian Ding, Xing Chang, Jingkun Jiang, Peng Zhao, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Yuzhi Jin, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5147–5156,Short summary
Aerosols reduce surface solar radiation and change the photolysis rate and planetary boundary layer stability. In this study, the online coupled meteorological and chemistry model was used to explore the detailed pathway of how aerosol direct effects affect secondary inorganic aerosol. The effects through the dynamics pathway act as an equally or even more important route compared with the photolysis pathway in affecting secondary aerosol concentration in both summer and winter.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4895–4907,Short summary
Cooking emissions can self-organise into nanostructured lamellar bilayers, and this can influence reaction kinetics. We developed a kinetic multi-layer model-based description of decay data we obtained from laboratory experiments of the ozonolysis of coated films of such a self-organised system, demonstrating a decreased diffusivity for both oleic acid and ozone. Nanostructure formation can thus increase the reactive half-life of oleic acid by days under typical indoor and outdoor conditions.
Suxia Yang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Chenglei Pei, Jun Zhou, David D. Parrish, Wenjie Wang, Xianjun He, Chunlei Cheng, Xiao-Bing Li, Xiaoyun Yang, Yu Song, Haichao Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Chaomin Wang, Zelong Wang, Tiange Li, E Zheng, Sihang Wang, Caihong Wu, Mingfu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Song, Peng Cheng, Duohong Chen, Xinming Wang, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4539–4556,Short summary
We use a model constrained using observations to study the formation of nitrate aerosol in and downwind of a representative megacity. We found different contributions of various chemical reactions to ground-level nitrate concentrations between urban and suburban regions. We also show that controlling VOC emissions are effective for decreasing nitrate formation in both urban and regional environments, although VOCs are not direct precursors of nitrate aerosol.
Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Hong Liao, Jia Zhu, Wenjie Wang, and Xin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4101–4116,Short summary
Aerosols can influence O3 through aerosol–radiation interactions, including aerosol–photolysis interaction (API) and aerosol–radiation feedback (ARF). The weakened photolysis rates and changed meteorological conditions reduce surface-layer O3 concentrations by up to 9.3–11.4 ppb, with API and ARF contributing 74.6 %–90.0 % and 10.0 %–25.4 % of the O3 decrease in three episodes, respectively, which indicates that API is the dominant way for O3 reduction related to aerosol–radiation interactions.
Patricia Tarín-Carrasco, Ulas Im, Camilla Geels, Laura Palacios-Peña, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3945–3965,Short summary
The evidence of the effects of atmospheric pollution (and particularly fine particulate matter, PM2.5) on human mortality is now unquestionable. Here, 895 000 annual premature deaths (PD) are estimated for the present (1991–2010), which increases to 1 540 000 in the year 2050 due to the ageing of the European population. The implementation of a mitigation scenario (80 % of the energy production in Europe from renewable sources) could lead to a decrease of over 60 000 annual PD for the year 2050.
Xiajie Yang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Weiwei Hu, Yang Gao, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, Bin Yuan, Ning Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3743–3762,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model with additional anthropogenic and biomass burning chlorine emissions combined with updated parameterizations for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to investigate the impacts of chlorine chemistry on air quality in China. Our study not only significantly improves the model's performance but also demonstrates the importance of non-sea-salt chlorine sources as well as an appropriate parameterization for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to the impact of chlorine chemistry in China.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3693–3711,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the detailed mechanisms of OH-initiated oxidation of distinct HHPs. The dominant pathway is H-abstraction from the -OOH group in the initiation reactions of the OH radical with HOCH2OOH and HOC(CH3)2OOH. H-abstraction from -CH group is competitive with that from the -OOH group in the reaction of the OH radical with HOCH(CH3)OOH. The barrier of H-abstraction from the -OOH group is slightly increased as the methyl group number increases.
Joseph Lilek and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3203–3233,Short summary
Depending on temperature and chemical makeup, certain aerosols can be highly viscous or glassy, with atmospheric implications. We have therefore implemented two major upgrades to the predictive viscosity model AIOMFAC-VISC. First, we created a new viscosity model for aqueous electrolyte solutions containing an arbitrary number of ion species. Second, we integrated the electrolyte model within the existing AIOMFAC-VISC framework to enable viscosity predictions for organic–inorganic mixtures.
Rongjie Zhang, Jiewen Shen, Hong-Bin Xie, Jingwen Chen, and Jonas Elm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2639–2650,Short summary
Formic acid is screened out as the species that can effectively catalyze the new particle formation (NPF) of the methanesulfonic acid (MSA)–methylamine system, indicating organic acids might be required to facilitate MSA-driven NPF in the atmosphere. The results are significant to comprehensively understand the MSA-driven NPF and expand current knowledge of the contribution of OAs to NPF.
Amina Khaled, Minghui Zhang, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1989–2009,Short summary
Chemical reactions with iron in clouds and aerosol form and cycle reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous model studies assumed that all cloud droplets (particles) contain iron, while single-particle analyses showed otherwise. By means of a model, we explore the bias in predicted ROS budgets by distributing a given iron mass to either all or only a few droplets (particles). Implications for oxidation potential, radical loss and iron oxidation state are discussed.
Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian T. Dinkelacker, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2011–2027,Short summary
The contribution of various pollution sources to the variability of fine PM in an urban area was examined using as an example the city of Pittsburgh. Biomass burning aerosol shows the largest variability during the winter with local maxima within the city and in the suburbs. During both periods the largest contributing source to the average PM2.5 is particles from outside the modeling domain. The average population-weighted PM2.5 concentration does not change significantly with resolution.
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Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological variability. Many studies use simple regression methods to correct for meteorology, but little is known about their performance. Using cases in the US and China, we show that widely used regression models do not perform well and can lead to biased estimates of emission-driven trends. We propose a novel machine learning method with lower bias and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers.
Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological...