Articles | Volume 21, issue 23
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17577–17605, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
03 Dec 2021
Research article | 03 Dec 2021
Intercomparison of middle atmospheric meteorological analyses for the Northern Hemisphere winter 2009–2010
John P. McCormack et al.
No articles found.
Phoebe Noble, Neil Hindley, Corwin Wright, Chihoko Cullens, Scott England, Nicholas Pedatella, Nicholas Mitchell, and Tracy Moffat-Griffin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We use long term radar data and the WACCM-X model to study the impact of dynamical phenomena, including the 11-year solar cycle, ENSO, QBO and SAM, on Antarctic mesospheric winds. We find that in summer, the zonal wind (both observationally and in the model) is strongly correlated with the solar cycle. We also see important differences in the results from the other processes. In addition we find important and large biases in the winter model zonal winds relative to the observations.
Dai Koshin, Kaoru Sato, Masashi Kohma, and Shingo Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2293–2307,Short summary
The 4D ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the whole neutral atmosphere has been updated. The update includes the introduction of a filter to reduce the generation of spurious waves, change in the order of horizontal diffusion of the forecast model to reproduce more realistic tidal amplitudes, and use of additional satellite observations. As a result, the analysis performance has been greatly improved, even for disturbances with periods of less than 1 d.
David E. Siskind, V. Lynn Harvey, Fabrizio Sassi, John P. McCormack, Cora E. Randall, Mark E. Hervig, and Scott M. Bailey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14059–14077,Short summary
General circulation models have had a very difficult time simulating the descent of nitric oxide through the polar mesosphere to the stratosphere. Here, we present results suggesting that, with the proper specification of middle atmospheric meteorology, the simulation of this process can be greatly improved. Despite differences in the detailed geographic morphology of the model NO as compared with satellite data, we show that the overall abundance is likely in good agreement with the data.
Marta Abalos, Natalia Calvo, Samuel Benito-Barca, Hella Garny, Steven C. Hardiman, Pu Lin, Martin B. Andrews, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Clara Orbe, David Saint-Martin, Shingo Watanabe, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13571–13591,Short summary
The stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC), responsible for transporting mass, tracers and heat globally in the stratosphere, is evaluated in a set of state-of-the-art climate models. The acceleration of the BDC in response to increasing greenhouse gases is most robust in the lower stratosphere. At higher levels, the well-known inconsistency between model and observational BDC trends can be partly reconciled by accounting for limited sampling and large uncertainties in the observations.
Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5873–5886,Short summary
Measuring atmospheric gravity waves in low vertical-resolution data is technically challenging, especially when the waves are significantly longer in the vertical than in the length of the measurement domain. We introduce and demonstrate a modification to the existing Stockwell transform methods of characterising these waves that address these problems, with no apparent reduction in the other capabilities of the technique.
Arata Amemiya and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13857–13876,Short summary
The spatial pattern of subseasonal variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) is analyzed using long-term reanalysis data, integrating two different views using potential vorticity and the geopotential height anomaly. This study provides a link between two existing description of the Asian monsoon anticyclone, which is important for the understanding of the whole life cycle of its characteristic subseasonal variability pattern.
Dai Koshin, Kaoru Sato, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Shingo Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3145–3177,Short summary
A new data assimilation system with a 4D local ensemble transform Kalman filter for the whole neutral atmosphere is developed using a T42L124 general circulation model. A conventional observation dataset and bias-corrected satellite temperature data are assimilated. After the improvements of the forecast model, the assimilation parameters are optimized. The minimum optimal number of ensembles is also examined. Results are evaluated using the reanalysis data and independent radar observations.
Tomohiro Hajima, Michio Watanabe, Akitomo Yamamoto, Hiroaki Tatebe, Maki A. Noguchi, Manabu Abe, Rumi Ohgaito, Akinori Ito, Dai Yamazaki, Hideki Okajima, Akihiko Ito, Kumiko Takata, Koji Ogochi, Shingo Watanabe, and Michio Kawamiya
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2197–2244,Short summary
We developed a new Earth system model (ESM) named MIROC-ES2L. This model is based on a state-of-the-art climate model and includes carbon–nitrogen cycles for the land and multiple biogeochemical cycles for the ocean. The model's performances on reproducing historical climate and biogeochemical changes are confirmed to be reasonable, and the new model is likely to be an
optimisticmodel in projecting future climate change among ESMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6.
Ellis Remsberg, V. Lynn Harvey, Arlin Krueger, Larry Gordley, John C. Gille, and James M. Russell III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3663–3668,Short summary
The Nimbus 7 limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument operated from October 25, 1978, through May 28, 1979. This note focuses on the lower stratosphere of the southern hemisphere, subpolar regions in relation to the position of the polar vortex. Both LIMS ozone and nitric acid show reductions within the edge of the polar vortex at 46 hPa near 60° S from late October through mid-November 1978, indicating that there was a chemical loss of Antarctic ozone some weeks earlier.
Yuki Matsushita, Daiki Kado, Masashi Kohma, and Kaoru Sato
Ann. Geophys., 38, 319–329,Short summary
Interannual variabilities of the zonal mean wind and temperature related to the Rossby wave forcing in the winter stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere are studied using 38-year reanalysis data. Correlation of the mean fields to the wave forcing is extended to the subtropics of the Northern Hemisphere. This interhemispheric link is caused by the wave forcing which reduces the meridional gradient of the angular momentum and drives the meridional circulation over the Equator in the stratosphere.
Neil P. Hindley, Corwin J. Wright, Nathan D. Smith, Lars Hoffmann, Laura A. Holt, M. Joan Alexander, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Nicholas J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15377–15414,Short summary
In this study, a 3–D Stockwell transform is applied to AIRS–Aqua satellite observations in the first extended 3–D study of stratospheric gravity waves over the Southern Ocean during winter. A dynamic environment is revealed that contains some of the most intense gravity wave sources on Earth. A particularly striking result is a large–scale meridional convergence of gravity wave momentum flux towards latitudes near 60 °S, something which is not normally considered in model parameterisations.
Miho Yamamori, Yasuhiro Murayama, Kazuo Shibasaki, Isao Murata, and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The contribution of vertical and horizontal advection to the production of small-scale vertical ozone structures in the stratosphere is investigated using data from an ozonesonde observation performed at intervals of 3 h in Fairbanks, Alaska. A case is reported in which horizontal advection due to an inertia gravity wave with near-inertial frequency mainly contributes to the formation of a small-scale vertical ozone structure in the middle stratosphere.
Lina Broman, Susanne Benze, Jörg Gumbel, Ole Martin Christensen, and Cora E. Randall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12455–12475,Short summary
Combining satellite observations of polar mesospheric clouds are complicated due to satellite geometry and measurement technique. In this study, tomographic limb observations are compared to observations from a nadir-viewing satellite using a common volume approach. We present a technique that overcomes differences in scattering conditions and observation geometry. The satellites show excellent agreement, which lays the basis for future insights into horizontal and vertical cloud processes.
Hiroaki Tatebe, Tomoo Ogura, Tomoko Nitta, Yoshiki Komuro, Koji Ogochi, Toshihiko Takemura, Kengo Sudo, Miho Sekiguchi, Manabu Abe, Fuyuki Saito, Minoru Chikira, Shingo Watanabe, Masato Mori, Nagio Hirota, Yoshio Kawatani, Takashi Mochizuki, Kei Yoshimura, Kumiko Takata, Ryouta O'ishi, Dai Yamazaki, Tatsuo Suzuki, Masao Kurogi, Takahito Kataoka, Masahiro Watanabe, and Masahide Kimoto
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2727–2765,Short summary
For a deeper understanding of a wide range of climate science issues, the latest version of the Japanese climate model, called MIROC6, was developed. The climate model represents observed mean climate and climate variations well, for example tropical precipitation, the midlatitude westerlies, and the East Asian monsoon, which influence human activity all over the world. The improved climate simulations could add reliability to climate predictions under global warming.
Fazlul I. Laskar, Gunter Stober, Jens Fiedler, Meers M. Oppenheim, Jorge L. Chau, Duggirala Pallamraju, Nicholas M. Pedatella, Masaki Tsutsumi, and Toralf Renkwitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5259–5267,Short summary
Meteor radars are used to track and estimate the fading time of meteor trails. In this investigation, it is observed that the diffusion time estimated from such trail fading time is anomalously higher during noctilucent clouds (NLC) than that in its absence. We propose that NLC particles absorb background electrons and thus modify the background electrodynamics, leading to such an anomaly.
Klemens Hocke, Huixin Liu, Nicholas Pedatella, and Guanyi Ma
Ann. Geophys., 37, 235–242,Short summary
The GPS radio occultation data of the COSMIC-FORMOSAT-3 mission are used to visualize the global distribution of ionospheric irregularities in the F2 region during a geomagnetic storm, at solar minimum, and at solar maximum.
Kaoru Sato and Soichiro Hirano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4517–4539,Short summary
The climatology of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and the potential contribution of gravity waves (GWs) are examined using four modern reanalysis datasets for the annual mean and each season. In this study, unresolved waves are designated as GWs. GWs are essential to determine the high-latitude extension and the turn-around latitude except in summer, although their contribution to the upward mass flux is relatively small. Plausible deficiencies of the current GW parameterizations are discussed.
Ryosuke Shibuya and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3395–3415,Short summary
The first long-term simulation using the high-top non-hydrostatic general circulation model (NICAM) was executed to analyze mesospheric gravity waves. A new finding in this paper is that the spectrum of the vertical fluxes of the zonal momentum has an isolated peak at frequencies slightly lower than f at latitudes from 30 to 75° S at a height of 70 km. This study discusses the physical mechanism for an explanation of the existence of the isolated spectrum peak in the mesosphere.
Gary E. Thomas, Jerry Lumpe, Charles Bardeen, and Cora E. Randall
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1755–1766,Short summary
Polar mesospheric clouds are an upper atmospheric phenomenon of great interest in that they provide information about a previously inaccessible atmospheric region, the coldest of the planet. This paper provides the basis for converting raw radiance measurements of clouds, made by diverse satellite instrumentation, into a physically based quantity, the cloud ice water content. The new algorithm allows intercomparisons of data collected using diverse optical methods.
Tarique A. Siddiqui, Astrid Maute, Nick Pedatella, Yosuke Yamazaki, Hermann Lühr, and Claudia Stolle
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1545–1562,Short summary
Extreme meteorological events such as SSWs induce variabilities in the ionosphere by modulating the atmospheric tides, and these variabilities can be comparable to a moderate geomagnetic storm. The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow ribbon of current flowing over the dip equator in the ionosphere and is particularly sensitive to tidal changes. In this study, we use ground-magnetic measurements to investigate the semidiurnal solar and lunar tidal variabilities of the EEJ during SSWs.
Rumi Ohgaito, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Ryouta O'ishi, Toshihiko Takemura, Akinori Ito, Tomohiro Hajima, Shingo Watanabe, and Michio Kawamiya
Clim. Past, 14, 1565–1581,Short summary
The behaviour of dust in terms of climate can be investigated using past climate. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21000 years before present) is known to be dustier. We investigated the impact of plausible dust distribution on the climate of the LGM using an Earth system model and found that the higher dust load results in less cooling over the polar regions. The main finding is that radiative perturbation by the high dust loading does not necessarily cool the surface surrounding Antarctica.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Duoying Ji, Songsong Fang, Charles L. Curry, Hiroki Kashimura, Shingo Watanabe, Jason N. S. Cole, Andrew Lenton, Helene Muri, Ben Kravitz, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10133–10156,Short summary
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol injection geoengineering schemes. Both types of geoengineering lead to lower minimum temperatures at higher latitudes and greater cooling of minimum temperatures and maximum temperatures over land compared with oceans. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical extreme precipitation, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.
Neal Butchart, James A. Anstey, Kevin Hamilton, Scott Osprey, Charles McLandress, Andrew C. Bushell, Yoshio Kawatani, Young-Ha Kim, Francois Lott, John Scinocca, Timothy N. Stockdale, Martin Andrews, Omar Bellprat, Peter Braesicke, Chiara Cagnazzo, Chih-Chieh Chen, Hye-Yeong Chun, Mikhail Dobrynin, Rolando R. Garcia, Javier Garcia-Serrano, Lesley J. Gray, Laura Holt, Tobias Kerzenmacher, Hiroaki Naoe, Holger Pohlmann, Jadwiga H. Richter, Adam A. Scaife, Verena Schenzinger, Federico Serva, Stefan Versick, Shingo Watanabe, Kohei Yoshida, and Seiji Yukimoto
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1009–1032,Short summary
This paper documents the numerical experiments to be used in phase 1 of the Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation initiative (QBOi), which was set up to improve the representation of the QBO and tropical stratospheric variability in global climate models.
Pingping Rong, Jia Yue, James M. Russell III, David E. Siskind, and Cora E. Randall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 883–899,Short summary
There is a massive manifestation of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) at the summer mesopause, which serves as indicators of the atmospheric dynamics and climate change. We obtained a universal power law that governs the GW display morphology and clarity level throughout the wave population residing in PMCs. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features. A GW tracking algorithm is used to identify the waves and to sort the albedo power.
Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Lars Ahlm, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Jim Haywood, Ben Kravitz, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven J. Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 621–634,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) has been proposed to help limit global warming. We present here the first multi-model assessment of idealized MCB simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. While all models predict a global cooling as intended, there is considerable spread between the models both in terms of radiative forcing and the climate response, largely linked to the substantial differences in the models' representation of clouds.
Olga V. Tweedy, Natalya A. Kramarova, Susan E. Strahan, Paul A. Newman, Lawrence Coy, William J. Randel, Mijeong Park, Darryn W. Waugh, and Stacey M. Frith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6813–6823,Short summary
In this study we examined the impact of unprecedented disruption in the wind pattern (the quasi-biennial oscillation, or QBO) in the tropical stratosphere (16–48 km above the ground) on chemicals very important to the stratospheric climate such as ozone (O3). During the 2016 boreal summer, total O3 is lower in the extratropics than during previous QBO cycles due to lifting forced from the disruption. This decrease in O3 led to the increase in surface UV index by 8.5 % compared to the 36 yr mean.
Bernd Funke, William Ball, Stefan Bender, Angela Gardini, V. Lynn Harvey, Alyn Lambert, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, Katharina Meraner, Holger Nieder, Sanna-Mari Päivärinta, Kristell Pérot, Cora E. Randall, Thomas Reddmann, Eugene Rozanov, Hauke Schmidt, Annika Seppälä, Miriam Sinnhuber, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriele P. Stiller, Natalia D. Tsvetkova, Pekka T. Verronen, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, and Vladimir Yushkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3573–3604,Short summary
Simulations from eight atmospheric models have been compared to tracer and temperature observations from seven satellite instruments in order to evaluate the energetic particle indirect effect (EPP IE) during the perturbed northern hemispheric (NH) winter 2008/2009. Models are capable to reproduce the EPP IE in dynamically and geomagnetically quiescent NH winter conditions. The results emphasize the need for model improvements in the dynamical representation of elevated stratopause events.
Hiroki Kashimura, Manabu Abe, Shingo Watanabe, Takashi Sekiya, Duoying Ji, John C. Moore, Jason N. S. Cole, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3339–3356,Short summary
This study analyses shortwave radiation (SW) in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. G4 involves stratospheric injection of 5 Tg yr−1 of SO2 against the RCP4.5 scenario. The global mean forcing of the sulphate geoengineering has an inter-model variablity of −3.6 to −1.6 W m−2, implying a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols. Changes in water vapour and cloud amounts due to the SO2 injection weaken the forcing at the surface by around 50 %.
Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Andrew Orr, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Olaf Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2901–2920,Short summary
We introduce a 10-year record (2003–2012) of AIRS/Aqua observations of gravity waves in the polar lower stratosphere. The data set was optimized to study the impact of gravity waves on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). We discuss the temporal and spatial patterns of gravity wave activity, validate explicitly resolved small-scale temperature fluctuations in the ECMWF data, and present a survey of gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events using joint AIRS and MIPAS observations.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Jonathon S. Wright, Gloria L. Manney, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Thomas Birner, Sean Davis, Edwin P. Gerber, V. Lynn Harvey, Michaela I. Hegglin, Cameron R. Homeyer, John A. Knox, Kirstin Krüger, Alyn Lambert, Craig S. Long, Patrick Martineau, Andrea Molod, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Michelle L. Santee, Susann Tegtmeier, Simon Chabrillat, David G. H. Tan, David R. Jackson, Saroja Polavarapu, Gilbert P. Compo, Rossana Dragani, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Will McCarty, Kazutoshi Onogi, Steven Pawson, Adrian Simmons, Krzysztof Wargan, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, and Cheng-Zhi Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417–1452,Short summary
We introduce the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), review key concepts and elements of atmospheric reanalysis systems, and summarize the technical details of and differences among 11 of these systems. This work supports scientific studies and intercomparisons of reanalysis products by collecting these background materials and technical details into a single reference. We also address several common misunderstandings and points of confusion regarding reanalyses.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Ellis Remsberg and V. Lynn Harvey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2927–2946,Short summary
Emissions from polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles affect the retrieved ozone and water vapor from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) satellite experiment. Threshold criteria are applied to the retrieved ozone for the detection and screening of those effects. The PSC effects correlate very well with regions of coldest temperatures (< 194 K) within the polar vortex. Retrieved nitric acid vapor is affected much less, and there is evidence of its uptake in regions of PSCs.
David E. Siskind, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Fabrizio Sassi, Pingping Rong, Scott M. Bailey, Mark E. Hervig, and Cora E. Randall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7957–7967,Short summary
The strong descent of wintertime mesospheric air into the stratosphere has been of great recent interest. Here, we show that because mesospheric air is depleted in methane, it implies that chlorine will be found more in its active form, chlorine monoxide. This is a new way for mesosphere/stratosphere coupling to affect ozone. Second, these effects seem to persist longer than previously thought. Studies of the summer upper stratosphere should consider the conditions from the previous winter.
Maria Mihalikova, Kaoru Sato, Masaki Tsutsumi, and Toru Sato
Ann. Geophys., 34, 543–555,
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
S. Watanabe, K. Sato, Y. Kawatani, and M. Takahashi
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1637–1644,
C. H. Jackman, C. E. Randall, V. L. Harvey, S. Wang, E. L. Fleming, M. López-Puertas, B. Funke, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1025–1038,
R. Ohgaito, T. Sueyoshi, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Hajima, S. Watanabe, H.-J. Kim, A. Yamamoto, and M. Kawamiya
Clim. Past, 9, 1519–1542,
T. Sueyoshi, R. Ohgaito, A. Yamamoto, M. O. Chikamoto, T. Hajima, H. Okajima, M. Yoshimori, M. Abe, R. O'ishi, F. Saito, S. Watanabe, M. Kawamiya, and A. Abe-Ouchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 819–836,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Suppressed migrating diurnal tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region during El Niño in northern winter and its possible mechanismDecay times of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves after deactivation of wave forcingSelf-consistent global transport of metallic ions with WACCM-XDoes the coupling of the semiannual oscillation with the quasi-biennial oscillation provide predictability of Antarctic sudden stratospheric warmings?The sporadic sodium layer: a possible tracer for the conjunction between the upper and lower atmospheresModelled effects of temperature gradients and waves on the hydroxyl rotational distribution in ground-based airglow measurementsA study of the dynamical characteristics of inertia–gravity waves in the Antarctic mesosphere combining the PANSY radar and a non-hydrostatic general circulation modelForcing mechanisms of the terdiurnal tideLocal time dependence of polar mesospheric clouds: a model studyThe role of the winter residual circulation in the summer mesopause regions in WACCMInfluence of the sudden stratospheric warming on quasi-2-day wavesOn the impact of the temporal variability of the collisional quenching process on the mesospheric OH emission layer: a study based on SD-WACCM4 and SABEREnvironmental influences on the intensity changes of tropical cyclones over the western North PacificModeling of very low frequency (VLF) radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistryThe genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS08) field experiment – Part 2: Observations of the convective environmentCO at 40–80 km above Kiruna observed by the ground-based microwave radiometer KIMRA and simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model
Yetao Cen, Chengyun Yang, Tao Li, James M. Russell III, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7861–7874,Short summary
The MLT DW1 amplitude is suppressed during El Niño winters in both satellite observation and SD-WACCM simulations. The suppressed Hough mode (1, 1) in the tropopause region propagates vertically to the MLT region, leading to decreased DW1 amplitude. The latitudinal zonal wind shear anomalies during El Niño winters would narrow the waveguide and prevent the vertical propagation of DW1. The gravity wave drag excited by ENSO-induced anomalous convection could also modulate the MLT DW1 amplitude.
Nikolai M. Gavrilov, Sergey P. Kshevetskii, and Andrey V. Koval
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
High-resolution simulations are used for studying decays of nonlinear atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) after deactivations of the surface wave forcing. The standard deviations of AGW perturbations, after fast dispersions of traveling modes, experience slower exponential decreases. AGW decay times are for the first time estimated, and are 20–100 hr in the stratosphere and mesosphere. This requires accounting slow, quasi-standing and secondary modes in parameterizations of AGW impacts.
Jianfei Wu, Wuhu Feng, Han-Li Liu, Xianghui Xue, Daniel Robert Marsh, and John Maurice Campbell Plane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15619–15630,Short summary
Metal layers occur in the MLT region (80–120 km) from the ablation of cosmic dust. The latest lidar observations show these metals can reach a height approaching 200 km, which is challenging to explain. We have developed the first global simulation incorporating the full life cycle of metal atoms and ions. The model results compare well with lidar and satellite observations of the seasonal and diurnal variation of the metals and demonstrate the importance of ion mass and ion-neutral coupling.
Viktoria J. Nordström and Annika Seppälä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12835–12853,Short summary
The winter winds over Antarctica form a stable vortex. However, in 2019 the vortex was disrupted and the temperature in the polar stratosphere rose by 50°C. This event, called a sudden stratospheric warming, is a rare event in the Southern Hemisphere, with the only known major event having taken place in 2002. The 2019 event helps us unravel its causes, which are largely unknown. We have discovered a unique behaviour of the equatorial winds in 2002 and 2019 that may signal an impending SH SSW.
Shican Qiu, Ning Wang, Willie Soon, Gaopeng Lu, Mingjiao Jia, Xingjin Wang, Xianghui Xue, Tao Li, and Xiankang Dou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11927–11940,Short summary
Our results suggest that lightning strokes would probably influence the ionosphere and thus give rise to the occurrence of a sporadic sodium layer (NaS), with the overturning of the electric field playing an important role. Model simulation results show that the calculated first-order rate coefficient could explain the efficient recombination of Na+→Na in this NaS case study. A conjunction between the lower and upper atmospheres could be established by these inter-connected phenomena.
Christoph Franzen, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Robert Edward Hibbins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 333–343,Short summary
Ground-based observations of the hydroxyl (OH) airglow have indicated that the rotational energy levels may not be in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding gas. Here we use simulations of the OH airglow to show that temperature changes across the extended airglow layer, either climatological or those temporarily caused by atmospheric waves, can mimic this effect for thermalized OH. Thus, these must be considered in order to quantify the non-thermal nature of the OH airglow.
Ryosuke Shibuya and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3395–3415,Short summary
The first long-term simulation using the high-top non-hydrostatic general circulation model (NICAM) was executed to analyze mesospheric gravity waves. A new finding in this paper is that the spectrum of the vertical fluxes of the zonal momentum has an isolated peak at frequencies slightly lower than f at latitudes from 30 to 75° S at a height of 70 km. This study discusses the physical mechanism for an explanation of the existence of the isolated spectrum peak in the mesosphere.
Friederike Lilienthal, Christoph Jacobi, and Christoph Geißler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15725–15742,Short summary
The terdiurnal solar tide is an atmospheric wave, owing to the daily variation of solar heating with a period of 8 h. Here, we present model simulations of this tide and investigate the relative importance of possible forcing mechanisms because they are still under debate. These are, besides direct solar heating, nonlinear interactions between other tides and gravity wave–tide interactions. As a result, solar heating is most important and nonlinear effects partly counteract this forcing.
Francie Schmidt, Gerd Baumgarten, Uwe Berger, Jens Fiedler, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8893–8908,Short summary
Local time variations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) in the Northern Hemisphere are studied using a combination of a global circulation model and a microphysical model. We investigate the brightness, altitude, and occurrence of the clouds and find a good agreement between model and observations. The variations are caused by tidal structures in background parameters. The temperature varies by about 2 K and water vapor by about 3 ppmv at the altitude of ice particle sublimation near 81.5 km.
Maartje Sanne Kuilman and Bodil Karlsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4217–4228,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the role of the winter residual circulation in the summer mesopause region using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. In addition, we study the role of the summer stratosphere in shaping the conditions of the summer polar mesosphere. We strengthen the evidence that the variability in the summer mesopause region is mainly driven by changes in the summer mesosphere rather than in the summer stratosphere.
Sheng-Yang Gu, Han-Li Liu, Xiankang Dou, and Tao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4885–4896,Short summary
The influences of sudden stratospheric warming in the Northern Hemisphere on quasi-2-day waves are studied with both observations and simulations. We found the energy of W3 is transferred to W2 through the nonlinear interaction with SPW1 and the instability at winter mesopause could provide additional amplification for W3. The summer easterly is enhanced during SSW, which is more favorable for the propagation of quasi-2-day waves.
S. Kowalewski, C. von Savigny, M. Palm, I. C. McDade, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10193–10210,
Shoujuan Shu, Fuqing Zhang, Jie Ming, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6329–6342,
S. Palit, T. Basak, S. K. Mondal, S. Pal, and S. K. Chakrabarti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9159–9168,
M. T. Montgomery and R. K. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4001–4009,
C. G. Hoffmann, D. E. Kinnison, R. R. Garcia, M. Palm, J. Notholt, U. Raffalski, and G. Hochschild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3261–3271,
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In order to have confidence in atmospheric predictions, it is important to know how well different numerical model simulations of the Earth’s atmosphere agree with one another. This work compares four different data assimilation models that extend to or beyond the mesosphere. Results shown here demonstrate that while the models are in close agreement below ~50 km, large differences arise at higher altitudes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere that will need to be reconciled in the future.
In order to have confidence in atmospheric predictions, it is important to know how well...