Articles | Volume 21, issue 19
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-14893-2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-14893-2021
Research article
07 Oct 2021
Research article | 07 Oct 2021

Characterization of non-refractory (NR) PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, Poland

Anna K. Tobler et al.

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Short summary
Kraków is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time-resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our results elucidate that traffic and residential heating (biomass burning and coal combustion) as well as oxygenated organic aerosol are the key PM sources in Kraków.
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