Articles | Volume 20, issue 23
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Microphysical properties of three types of snow clouds: implication for satellite snowfall retrievals
Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Center for Atmospheric REmote Sensing (CARE), Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Center for Atmospheric REmote Sensing (CARE), Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Department of Earth Science Education, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701, Republic of Korea
No articles found.
Chia-Lun Tsai, Kwonil Kim, Yu-Chieng Liou, and GyuWon Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 845–869,Short summary
Since the winds in clear-air conditions usually play an important role in the initiation of various weather systems and phenomena, the modified Wind Synthesis System using Doppler Measurements (WISSDOM) synthesis scheme was developed to derive high-quality and high-spatial-resolution 3D winds under clear-air conditions. The performance and accuracy of derived 3D winds from this modified scheme were evaluated with an extreme strong wind event over complex terrain in Pyeongchang, South Korea.
Xuanli Li, Jason B. Roberts, Jayanthi Srikishen, Jonathan L. Case, Walter A. Petersen, Gyuwon Lee, and Christopher R. Hain
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5287–5308,Short summary
This research assimilated the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite-retrieved ocean surface meteorology data into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. This was for two snowstorms during the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games' (ICE-POP 2018) field experiments. The results indicated a positive impact of the data for short-term forecasts for heavy snowfall.
Jeong-Su Ko, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Kwonil Kim, Gyuwon Lee, Gregory Thompson, and Alexis Berne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4529–4553,Short summary
This study evaluates the performance of the four microphysics parameterizations, the WDM6, WDM7, Thompson, and Morrison schemes, in simulating snowfall events during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaign. Eight snowfall events are selected and classified into three categories (cold-low, warm-low, and air–sea interaction cases). The evaluation focuses on the simulated hydrometeors, microphysics budgets, wind fields, and precipitation using the measurement data.
Ki-Hong Min, Kao-Shen Chung, Ji-Won Lee, Cheng-Rong You, and Gyuwon Lee
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
LETKF underestimated the water vapor mixing ratio and temperature compared to 3DVAR due to a lack of a water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observation operator. Snowfall in GWD was less simulated in LETKF. The results signify that water vapor assimilation is important in radar DA and significantly impacts precipitation forecasts, regardless of the DA method used. Therefore, it is necessary to apply observation operators for water vapor mixing ratio and temperature in radar DA.
Paul Joe, Gyuwon Lee, and Kwonil Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Strong gusty wind events were responsible for poor performance of competitors and schedule changes during the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. Three events were investigated and documented to articulate the challenges confronting forecasters which is beyond what they normally do. Quantitative evidence of the challenge and recommendations for future Olympics are provided.
Kwonil Kim, Wonbae Bang, Eun-Chul Chang, Francisco J. Tapiador, Chia-Lun Tsai, Eunsil Jung, and Gyuwon Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11955–11978,Short summary
This study analyzes the microphysical characteristics of snow in complex terrain and the nearby ocean according to topography and wind pattern during the ICE-POP 2018 campaign. The observations from collocated vertically pointing radars and disdrometers indicate that the riming in the mountainous region is likely caused by a strong shear and turbulence. The different behaviors of aggregation and riming were found by three different synoptic patterns (air–sea interaction, cold low, and warm low).
Chia-Lun Tsai, Kwonil Kim, Yu-Chieng Liou, Jung-Hoon Kim, YongHee Lee, and GyuWon Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study examines a strong downslope wind event during ICE-POP 2018 using Doppler lidars, and observations. 3D winds can be well retrieved by
WISSDOM. This is first time to document the mechanisms of strong wind in observational aspect under fine weather. The PGF causing by adiabatic warming and channeling effect are key factors to dominate the strong wind. The values of this study are improving our understanding of the strong wind and increase the predictability of the weather forecast.
Josué Gehring, Alfonso Ferrone, Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Nikola Besic, Kwang Deuk Ahn, GyuWon Lee, and Alexis Berne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 417–433,Short summary
This article describes a dataset of precipitation and cloud measurements collected from November 2017 to March 2018 in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The dataset includes weather radar data and images of snowflakes. It allows for studying the snowfall intensity; wind conditions; and shape, size and fall speed of snowflakes. Classifications of the types of snowflakes show that aggregates of ice crystals were dominant. This dataset represents a unique opportunity to study snowfall in this region.
Gwo-Jong Huang, Viswanathan N. Bringi, Andrew J. Newman, Gyuwon Lee, Dmitri Moisseev, and Branislav M. Notaroš
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1409–1427,Short summary
This paper proposes a method for snow rate (SR) estimation using observations collected by NASA dual-frequency dual-polarized (D3R) radar during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). The new method utilizes dual-wavelength radar reflectivity ratio (DWR) and 2-D-video disdrometer (2DVD) measurements to improve SR estimation accuracy. It is validated by comparing the D3R radar-retrieved SR with accumulated SR directly measured by a Pluvio gauge for an entire GCPEx synoptic event.
John Kochendorfer, Rodica Nitu, Mareile Wolff, Eva Mekis, Roy Rasmussen, Bruce Baker, Michael E. Earle, Audrey Reverdin, Kai Wong, Craig D. Smith, Daqing Yang, Yves-Alain Roulet, Samuel Buisan, Timo Laine, Gyuwon Lee, Jose Luis C. Aceituno, Javier Alastrué, Ketil Isaksen, Tilden Meyers, Ragnar Brækkan, Scott Landolt, Al Jachcik, and Antti Poikonen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3525–3542,Short summary
Precipitation measurements were combined from eight separate precipitation testbeds to create multi-site transfer functions for the correction of unshielded and single-Alter-shielded precipitation gauge measurements. Site-specific errors and more universally applicable corrections were created from these WMO-SPICE measurements. The importance and magnitude of such wind speed corrections were demonstrated.
Hae-Lim Kim, Mi-Kyung Suk, Hye-Sook Park, Gyu-Won Lee, and Jeong-Seok Ko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3863–3878,Short summary
The main contribution of our paper is that we present a method to find optimal polarimetric rainfall algorithms on the Korean Peninsula using the 2-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) and Bislsan S-band dual-polarization radar. We believe that this contribution is theoretically and practically relevant because it will help improve rainfall estimation. Our research is of particular interest and use to those who use radar to provide climatic information and forecasting.
X. Y. Zheng, Y. F. Fu, Y. J. Yang, and G. S. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12115–12138,Short summary
We systematically examined that how various large-scale atmospheric conditions (ACs) affects the distributions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over eastern China. We extract and depict nine main types for AOD (six polluted types and three clean types) in autumn over eastern China. The results provide convincing evidence that the general characteristics of atmospheric circulations contribute significantly to the different types of regional pollution.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Uncertainty in aerosol–cloud radiative forcing is driven by clean conditionsSurface-based observations of cold-air outbreak clouds during the COMBLE field campaignBoundary layer moisture variability at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic observatory during marine conditionsProfile-based estimated inversion strengthCharacteristics of supersaturation in midlatitude cirrus clouds and their adjacent cloud-free airEstablishment of an analytical model for remote sensing of typical stratocumulus cloud profiles under various precipitation and entrainment conditionsSatellite remote sensing of regional and seasonal Arctic cooling showing a multi-decadal trend towards brighter and more liquid cloudsMicrophysical processes of super typhoon Lekima (2019) and their impacts on polarimetric radar remote sensing of precipitationThe impacts of dust aerosol and convective available potential energy on precipitation vertical structure in southeastern China as seen from multisource observationsHeavy snowfall event over the Swiss Alps: did wind shear impact secondary ice production?On the global relationship between polarimetric radio occultation differential phase shift and ice water contentObservations of microphysical properties and radiative effects of a contrail cirrus outbreak over the North AtlanticNatural marine cloud brightening in the Southern OceanDistinct regional meteorological influences on low-cloud albedo susceptibility over global marine stratocumulus regionsDiurnal cycles of cloud cover and its vertical distribution over the Tibetan Plateau revealed by satellite observations, reanalysis datasets, and CMIP6 outputsSatellite observations of seasonality and long-term trends in cirrus cloud properties over Europe: investigation of possible aviation impactsIce crystal characterization in cirrus clouds III: retrieval of ice crystal shape and roughness from observations of halo displaysConvective Organization and 3D Structure of Tropical Cloud Systems deduced from Synergistic A-Train Observations and Machine LearningTechnical note: Identification of two ice-nucleating regimes for dust-related cirrus clouds based on the relationship between number concentrations of ice-nucleating particles and ice crystalsSeasonal Controls on Isolated Convective Storm Drafts, Precipitation Intensity, and Life Cycle As Observed During GoAmazon2014/5Highly supercooled riming and unusual triple-frequency radar signatures over McMurdo Station, AntarcticaIce microphysical processes in the dendritic growth layer: a statistical analysis combining multi-frequency and polarimetric Doppler cloud radar observationsObserving short-timescale cloud development to constrain aerosol–cloud interactionsExploring relations between cloud morphology, cloud phase, and cloud radiative properties in Southern Ocean's stratocumulus cloudsObservations of cold-cloud properties in the Norwegian Arctic using ground-based and spaceborne lidarAn evaluation of the liquid cloud droplet effective radius derived from MODIS, airborne remote sensing, and in situ measurements from CAMP2ExA Lagrangian analysis of pockets of open cells over the southeastern PacificThe formation and composition of the Mount Everest plume in winterNew insights on the prevalence of drizzle in marine stratocumulus clouds based on a machine learning algorithm applied to radar Doppler spectraAddressing the difficulties in quantifying droplet number response to aerosol from satellite observationsOptically thin clouds in the tradesStability-dependent increases in liquid water with droplet number in the ArcticLightning activity in northern Europe during a stormy winter: disruptions of weather patterns originating in global climate phenomenaA climatology of open and closed mesoscale cellular convection over the Southern Ocean derived from Himawari-8 observationsMethodology to determine the coupling of continental clouds with surface and boundary layer height under cloudy conditions from lidar and meteorological dataAlbedo susceptibility of northeastern Pacific stratocumulus: the role of covarying meteorological conditionsOpportunistic experiments to constrain aerosol effective radiative forcingEnvironmental effects on aerosol–cloud interaction in non-precipitating marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the eastern North AtlanticHemispheric contrasts in ice formation in stratiform mixed-phase clouds: disentangling the role of aerosol and dynamics with ground-based remote sensingMicrophysical process of precipitating hydrometeors from warm-front mid-level stratiform clouds revealed by ground-based lidar observationsOverview: Fusion of radar polarimetry and numerical atmospheric modelling towards an improved understanding of cloud and precipitation processesA climatology of trade-wind cumulus cold pools and their link to mesoscale cloud organizationGlobal evidence of aerosol-induced invigoration in marine cumulus cloudsImpacts of the Saharan air layer on the physical properties of the Atlantic tropical cyclone cloud systems: 2003–2019Two-year statistics of columnar-ice production in stratiform clouds over Hyytiälä, Finland: environmental conditions and the relevance to secondary ice productionChanges in cirrus cloud properties and occurrence over Europe during the COVID-19-caused air traffic reductionA new conceptual model for adiabatic fogDeciphering organization of GOES-16 green cumulus through the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) lensSatellite retrieval of cloud base height and geometric thickness of low-level cloud based on CALIPSOLightning occurrences and intensity over the Indian region: long-term trends and future projections
Edward Gryspeerdt, Adam C. Povey, Roy G. Grainger, Otto Hasekamp, N. Christina Hsu, Jane P. Mulcahy, Andrew M. Sayer, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4115–4122,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in the human forcing of the climate. Aerosol can increase the concentrations of droplets in clouds, but observational and model studies produce widely varying estimates of this effect. We show that these estimates can be reconciled if only polluted clouds are studied, but this is insufficient to constrain the climate impact of aerosol. The uncertainty in aerosol impact on clouds is currently driven by cases with little aerosol.
Zackary Mages, Pavlos Kollias, Zeen Zhu, and Edward P. Luke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3561–3574,Short summary
Cold-air outbreaks (when cold air is advected over warm water and creates low-level convection) are a dominant cloud regime in the Arctic, and we capitalized on ground-based observations, which did not previously exist, from the COMBLE field campaign to study them. We characterized the extent and strength of the convection and turbulence and found evidence of secondary ice production. This information is useful for model intercomparison studies that will represent cold-air outbreak processes.
Maria P. Cadeddu, Virendra P. Ghate, David D. Turner, and Thomas E. Surleta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3453–3470,Short summary
We analyze the variability in marine boundary layer moisture at the Eastern North Atlantic site on a monthly and daily temporal scale and examine its fundamental role in the control of boundary layer cloudiness and precipitation. The study also highlights the complex interaction between large-scale and local processes controlling the boundary layer moisture and the importance of the mesoscale spatial distribution of vapor to support convection and precipitation.
Zhenquan Wang, Jian Yuan, Robert Wood, Yifan Chen, and Tiancheng Tong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3247–3266,Short summary
This study develops a novel profile-based algorithm based on the ERA5 to estimate the inversion strength in the planetary boundary layer better than the previous inversion index, which is a key low-cloud-controlling factor. This improved measure is more effective at representing the meteorological influence on low-cloud variations. It can better constrain the meteorological influence on low clouds to better isolate cloud responses to aerosols or to estimate low cloud feedbacks in climate models.
Georgios Dekoutsidis, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Martina Krämer, and Christian Rolf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3103–3117,Short summary
Cirrus clouds affect Earth's atmosphere, deeming our study important. Here we use water vapor measurements by lidar and study the relative humidity (RHi) within and around midlatitude cirrus clouds. We find high supersaturations in the cloud-free air and within the clouds, especially near the cloud top. We study two cloud types with different formation processes. Finally, we conclude that the shape of the distribution of RHi can be used as an indicator of different cloud evolutionary stages.
Huazhe Shang, Souichiro Hioki, Guillaume Penide, Céline Cornet, Husi Letu, and Jérôme Riedi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2729–2746,Short summary
We find that cloud profiles can be divided into four prominent patterns, and the frequency of these four patterns is related to intensities of cloud-top entrainment and precipitation. Based on these analyses, we further propose a cloud profile parameterization scheme allowing us to represent these patterns. Our results shed light on how to facilitate the representation of cloud profiles and how to link them to cloud entrainment or precipitating status in future remote-sensing applications.
Luca Lelli, Marco Vountas, Narges Khosravi, and John Philipp Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2579–2611,Short summary
Arctic amplification describes the recent period in which temperatures have been rising twice as fast as or more than the global average and sea ice and the Greenland ice shelf are approaching a tipping point. Hence, the Arctic ability to reflect solar energy decreases and absorption by the surface increases. Using 2 decades of complementary satellite data, we discover that clouds unexpectedly increase the pan-Arctic reflectance by increasing their liquid water content, thus cooling the Arctic.
Yabin Gou, Haonan Chen, Hong Zhu, and Lulin Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2439–2463,Short summary
This article investigates the complex precipitation microphysics associated with super typhoon Lekima using a host of in situ and remote sensing observations, including rain gauge and disdrometer data, as well as polarimetric radar observations. The impacts of precipitation microphysics on multi-source data consistency and radar precipitation estimation are quantified. It is concluded that the dynamical precipitation microphysical processes must be considered in radar precipitation estimation.
Hongxia Zhu, Rui Li, Shuping Yang, Chun Zhao, Zhe Jiang, and Chen Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2421–2437,Short summary
The impacts of atmospheric dust aerosols and cloud dynamic conditions on precipitation vertical development in southeastern China were studied using multiple satellite observations. It was found that the precipitating drops under dusty conditions grow faster in the middle layer but slower in the upper and lower layers compared with their pristine counterparts. Quantitative estimation of the sensitivity of the precipitation top temperature to the dust aerosol optical depth is also provided.
Zane Dedekind, Jacopo Grazioli, Philip H. Austin, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2345–2364,Short summary
Simulations allowing ice particles to collide with one another producing more ice particles represented surface observations of ice particles accurately. An increase in ice particles formed through collisions was related to sharp changes in the wind direction and speed with height. Changes in wind speed and direction can therefore cause more enhanced collisions between ice particles and alter how fast and how much precipitation forms. Simulations were conducted with the atmospheric model COSMO.
Ramon Padullés, Estel Cardellach, and F. Joseph Turk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2199–2214,Short summary
The results of comparing the polarimetric radio occultation observables and the ice water content retrieved from the CloudSat radar in a global and statistical way show a strong correlation between the geographical patterns of both quantities for a wide range of heights. This implies that horizontally oriented hydrometeors are systematically present through the whole globe and through all vertical levels, which could provide insights on the physical processes leading to precipitation.
Ziming Wang, Luca Bugliaro, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Romy Heller, Ulrike Burkhardt, Helmut Ziereis, Georgios Dekoutsidis, Martin Wirth, Silke Groß, Simon Kirschler, Stefan Kaufmann, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1941–1961,Short summary
Differences in the microphysical properties of contrail cirrus and natural cirrus in a contrail outbreak situation during the ML-CIRRUS campaign over the North Atlantic flight corridor can be observed from in situ measurements. The cirrus radiative effect in the area of the outbreak, derived from satellite observation-based radiative transfer modeling, is warming in the early morning and cooling during the day.
Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ruhi Humphries, Peter M. Gombert, and Elizabeth Sterner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1677–1685,Short summary
The number of cloud droplets per unit volume is a significantly important property of clouds that controls their reflective properties. Computer models of the Earth's atmosphere and climate have low skill at predicting the reflective properties of Southern Ocean clouds. Here we investigate the properties of those clouds using satellite data and find that the cloud droplet number and cloud albedo in the Southern Ocean are related to the oceanic phytoplankton abundance near Antarctica.
Jianhao Zhang and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1073–1090,Short summary
Using observations from space, we show maps of potential brightness changes in marine warm clouds in response to increases in cloud droplet concentrations. The environmental and aerosol conditions in which these clouds reside covary differently in each ocean basin, leading to distinct evolutions of cloud brightness changes. This work stresses the central importance of the covariability between meteorology and aerosol for scaling up the radiative response of cloud brightness changes.
Yuxin Zhao, Jiming Li, Lijie Zhang, Cong Deng, Yarong Li, Bida Jian, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 743–769,Short summary
Diurnal variations of clouds play an important role in the radiative budget and precipitation. Based on satellite observations, reanalysis, and CMIP6 outputs, the diurnal variations in total cloud cover and cloud vertical distribution over the Tibetan Plateau are explored. The diurnal cycle of cirrus is a key focus and found to have different characteristics from those found in the tropics. The relationship between the diurnal cycle of cirrus and meteorological factors is also discussed.
Qiang Li and Silke Groß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15963–15980,Short summary
The IPCC report identified that cirrus clouds have a significant impact on the radiation balance comparable to the CO2 effects, which, however, is still hard to parameterize. The current study investigates the possible impact of aviation on cirrus properties based on the analysis of 10-year lidar measurements of CALIPSO. The results reveal that there is a significant positive trend in cirrus depolarization ratio in the last 10 years before COVID-19, which is strongly correlated with aviation.
Linda Forster and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15179–15205,Short summary
We present a novel retrieval using ground-based imaging observations of halo displays together with radiative transfer simulations to help improve our understanding of ice crystal properties representative of cirrus clouds. Analysis of 4400 calibrated HaloCam images featuring a 22° halo revealed aggregates of hexagonal columns of 20 µm effective radius with a mixture of about 37 % smooth and 63% severely roughened surfaces as the best match in general.
Claudia J. Stubenrauch, Giulio Mandorli, and Elizabeth Lemaitre
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Organized convection leads to large convective cloud systems and intense rain and may change with a warming climate. Their complete 3D description, attained by machine learning techniques in combination with various satellite observations, together with a cloud system concept, link convection to anvil properties, while convective organization can be identified by the horizontal structure of intense rain.
Yun He, Zhenping Yin, Fuchao Liu, and Fan Yi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13067–13085,Short summary
A method is proposed to identify the sole presence of heterogeneous nucleation and competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation for dust-related cirrus clouds by characterizing the relationship between dust ice-nucleating particle concentration calculated from CALIOP using the POLIPHON method and in-cloud ice crystal number concentration from the DARDAR-Nice dataset. Two typical cirrus cases are shown as a demonstration, and the proposed method can be extended to a global scale.
Scott E. Giangrande, Thiago Biscaro, and John M. Peters
Our study tracks thunderstorms observed during the wet and dry seasons of the Amazon basin using weather radar. We couple this precipitation tracking with opportunistic overpasses of a wind profiler and other ground observations to add unique insights into the upward and downward air motions within these clouds at various stages in the storm life cycle. The results of a simple updraft model are provided to give physical explanations for observed seasonal differences.
Frederic Tridon, Israel Silber, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Ann Fridlind, Petros Kalogeras, and Ranvir Dhillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12467–12491,Short summary
The role of ice precipitation in the Earth water budget is not well known because ice particles are complex, and their formation involves intricate processes. Riming of ice crystals by supercooled water droplets is an efficient process, but little is known about its importance at high latitudes. In this work, by exploiting the deployment of an unprecedented number of remote sensing systems in Antarctica, we find that riming occurs at much lower temperatures compared with the mid-latitudes.
Leonie von Terzi, José Dias Neto, Davide Ori, Alexander Myagkov, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11795–11821,Short summary
We present a statistical analysis of ice microphysical processes (IMP) in mid-latitude clouds. Combining various radar approaches, we find that the IMP active at −20 to −10 °C seems to be the main driver of ice particle size, shape and concentration. The strength of aggregation at −20 to −10 °C correlates with the increase in concentration and aspect ratio of locally formed ice particles. Despite ongoing aggregation, the concentration of ice particles stays enhanced until −4 °C.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Franziska Glassmeier, Graham Feingold, Fabian Hoffmann, and Rebecca J. Murray-Watson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11727–11738,Short summary
The response of clouds to changes in aerosol remains a large uncertainty in our understanding of the climate. Studies typically look at aerosol and cloud processes in snapshot images, measuring all properties at the same time. Here we use multiple images to characterise how cloud temporal development responds to aerosol. We find a reduction in liquid water path with increasing aerosol, party due to feedbacks. This suggests the aerosol impact on cloud water may be weaker than in previous studies.
Jessica Danker, Odran Sourdeval, Isabel L. McCoy, Robert Wood, and Anna Possner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10247–10265,Short summary
Using spaceborne lidar-radar retrievals, we show that seasonal changes in cloud phase outweigh changes in cloud-phase statistics across cloud morphologies at given cloud-top temperatures. These results show that cloud morphology does not seem to pose a primary constraint on cloud-phase statistics in the Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, larger changes in in-cloud albedo across cloud morphologies are observed in supercooled liquid rather than mixed-phase stratocumuli.
Britta Schäfer, Tim Carlsen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, and Trude Storelvmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9537–9551,Short summary
Cloud properties are important for the surface radiation budget. This study presents cold-cloud observations based on lidar measurements from the Norwegian Arctic between 2011 and 2017. Using statistical assessments and case studies, we give an overview of the macro- and microphysical properties of these clouds and demonstrate the capabilities of long-term cloud observations in the Norwegian Arctic from the ground-based lidar at Andenes.
Dongwei Fu, Larry Di Girolamo, Robert M. Rauber, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Jesse Loveridge, Yulan Hong, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Brian Cairns, Mikhail D. Alexandrov, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Simone Tanelli, Sebastian Schmidt, Chris Hostetler, and Amy Jo Scarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8259–8285,Short summary
Satellite-retrieved cloud microphysics are widely used in climate research because of their central role in water and energy cycles. Here, we provide the first detailed investigation of retrieved cloud drop sizes from in situ and various satellite and airborne remote sensing techniques applied to real cumulus cloud fields. We conclude that the most widely used passive remote sensing method employed in climate research produces high biases of 6–8 µm (60 %–80 %) caused by 3-D radiative effects.
Kevin M. Smalley, Matthew D. Lebsock, Ryan Eastman, Mark Smalley, and Mikael K. Witte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8197–8219,Short summary
We use geostationary satellite observations to track pockets of open-cell (POC) stratocumulus and analyze how precipitation, cloud microphysics, and the environment change. Precipitation becomes more intense, corresponding to increasing effective radius and decreasing number concentrations, while the environment remains relatively unchanged. This implies that changes in cloud microphysics are more important than the environment to POC development.
Edward E. Hindman and Scott Lindstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7995–8008,Short summary
Winds buffeting the Mt. Everest massif often produce plumes. This systematic study identified plumes from daily observations of real-time, on-line images from a geosynchronous meteorological satellite. The corresponding meteorological data were used with a cloud-forming model to show the plumes were composed, depending on the temperature, of droplets, crystals or both. They were not composed of resuspended snow, which is a common belief. We estimated the plumes may produce significant snowfall.
Zeen Zhu, Pavlos Kollias, Edward Luke, and Fan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7405–7416,Short summary
Drizzle (small rain droplets) is an important component of warm clouds; however, its existence is poorly understood. In this study, we capitalized on a machine-learning algorithm to develop a drizzle detection method. We applied this algorithm to investigate drizzle occurrence and found out that drizzle is far more ubiquitous than previously thought. This study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of drizzle in clouds and will improve understanding of the associated microphysical process.
Hailing Jia, Johannes Quaas, Edward Gryspeerdt, Christoph Böhm, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7353–7372,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction is the most uncertain component of the anthropogenic forcing of the climate. By combining satellite and reanalysis data, we show that the strength of the Twomey effect (S) increases remarkably with vertical velocity. Both the confounding effect of aerosol–precipitation interaction and the lack of vertical co-location between aerosol and cloud are found to overestimate S, whereas the retrieval biases in aerosol and cloud appear to underestimate S.
Theresa Mieslinger, Bjorn Stevens, Tobias Kölling, Manfred Brath, Martin Wirth, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6879–6898,Short summary
The trades are home to a plethora of small cumulus clouds that are often barely visible to the human eye and difficult to detect with active and passive remote sensing methods. With the help of a new method and by means of high-resolution data we can detect small and particularly thin clouds. We find that optically thin clouds are a common phenomenon in the trades, covering a large area and influencing the radiative effect of clouds if they are undetected and contaminate the cloud-free signal.
Rebecca J. Murray-Watson and Edward Gryspeerdt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5743–5756,Short summary
Clouds are important to the Arctic surface energy budget, but the impact of aerosols on their properties is largely uncertain. This work shows that the response of liquid water path to cloud droplet number increases is strongly dependent on lower tropospheric stability (LTS), with weaker cooling effects in polluted clouds and at high LTS. LTS is projected to decrease in a warmer Arctic, reducing the cooling effect of aerosols and producing a positive, aerosol-dependent cloud feedback.
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, and Kateřina Rosická
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3379–3389,Short summary
The 2014–2015 winter brought an enormous number of lightning strokes to northern Europe, about 4 times more than their long-term median over the last decade. This unusual production of lightning, concentrated above the ocean and along the western coastal areas, was probably due to a combination of large-scale climatic events like El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, causing increased sea surface temperatures and updraft strengths, which acted as additional thundercloud-charging drivers.
Francisco Lang, Luis Ackermann, Yi Huang, Son C. H. Truong, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2135–2152,Short summary
Marine low-level clouds cover vast areas of the Southern Ocean, and they are essential to the Earth system energy balance. We use 3 years of satellite observations to group low-level clouds by their spatial structure using a pattern-recognizing program. We studied two primary cloud type patterns, i.e. open and closed clouds. Open clouds are uniformly distributed over the storm track, while closed clouds are most predominant in the southeastern Indian Ocean. Closed clouds exhibit a daily cycle.
Tianning Su, Youtong Zheng, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1453–1466,Short summary
To enrich our understanding of coupling of continental clouds, we developed a novel methodology to determine cloud coupling state from a lidar and a suite of surface meteorological instruments. This method is built upon advancement in our understanding of fundamental boundary layer processes and clouds. As the first remote sensing method for determining the coupling state of low clouds over land, this methodology paves a solid ground for further investigating the coupled land–atmosphere system.
Jianhao Zhang, Xiaoli Zhou, Tom Goren, and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 861–880,Short summary
Oceanic liquid-form clouds are effective sunlight reflectors. Their brightness is highly sensitive to changes in the amount of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and the state of the atmosphere they reside in. This study quantifies this sensitivity using long-term satellite observations and finds an overall cloud brightening (a cooling effect) potential and an essential role of the covarying meteorological conditions in governing this sensitivity for northeastern Pacific stratocumulus.
Matthew W. Christensen, Andrew Gettelman, Jan Cermak, Guy Dagan, Michael Diamond, Alyson Douglas, Graham Feingold, Franziska Glassmeier, Tom Goren, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Edward Gryspeerdt, Ralph Kahn, Zhanqing Li, Po-Lun Ma, Florent Malavelle, Isabel L. McCoy, Daniel T. McCoy, Greg McFarquhar, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Sandip Pal, Anna Possner, Adam Povey, Johannes Quaas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Anja Schmidt, Roland Schrödner, Armin Sorooshian, Philip Stier, Velle Toll, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Mingxi Yang, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 641–674,Short summary
Trace gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) are released from a variety of point sources around the globe. Examples include volcanoes, industrial chimneys, forest fires, and ship stacks. These sources provide opportunistic experiments with which to quantify the role of aerosols in modifying cloud properties. We review the current state of understanding on the influence of aerosol on climate built from the wide range of natural and anthropogenic laboratories investigated in recent decades.
Xiaojian Zheng, Baike Xi, Xiquan Dong, Peng Wu, Timothy Logan, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 335–354,Short summary
This study uses ground-based observations to investigate the physical processes in the aerosol–cloud interactions in non-precipitating marine boundary layer clouds, over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Results show that the cloud responses to the aerosols are diminished with limited water vapor supply, while they are enhanced with increasing water vapor availability. The clouds are found to be most sensitive to the aerosols under sufficient water vapor and strong boundary layer turbulence.
Martin Radenz, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Ronny Engelmann, Boris Barja González, Rodanthi-Elisabeth Mamouri, Félix Zamorano, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17969–17994,Short summary
This study brings together long-term ground-based remote-sensing observations of mixed-phase clouds at three key locations of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The findings contribute several new aspects on the nature of the excess of supercooled liquid clouds in the Southern Hemisphere, such as a long-term lidar-based estimate of ice-nucleating particle profiles as well as the effects of boundary layer coupling and gravity waves on ice formation.
Yang Yi, Fan Yi, Fuchao Liu, Yunpeng Zhang, Changming Yu, and Yun He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17649–17664,Short summary
Our lidar observations reveal the complete microphysical process of hydrometeors falling from mid-level stratiform clouds. We find that the surface rainfall begins as supercooled mixed-phase hydrometeors fall out of a liquid parent cloud base. We find also that the collision–coalescence growth of precipitating raindrops and subsequent spontaneous breakup always occur around 0.6 km altitude during surface rainfalls. Our findings provide new insights into stratiform precipitation formation.
Silke Trömel, Clemens Simmer, Ulrich Blahak, Armin Blanke, Sabine Doktorowski, Florian Ewald, Michael Frech, Mathias Gergely, Martin Hagen, Tijana Janjic, Heike Kalesse-Los, Stefan Kneifel, Christoph Knote, Jana Mendrok, Manuel Moser, Gregor Köcher, Kai Mühlbauer, Alexander Myagkov, Velibor Pejcic, Patric Seifert, Prabhakar Shrestha, Audrey Teisseire, Leonie von Terzi, Eleni Tetoni, Teresa Vogl, Christiane Voigt, Yuefei Zeng, Tobias Zinner, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17291–17314,Short summary
The article introduces the ACP readership to ongoing research in Germany on cloud- and precipitation-related process information inherent in polarimetric radar measurements, outlines pathways to inform atmospheric models with radar-based information, and points to remaining challenges towards an improved fusion of radar polarimetry and atmospheric modelling.
Raphaela Vogel, Heike Konow, Hauke Schulz, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16609–16630,Short summary
The shallow cumulus clouds that populate the trade-wind regions can produce substantial amounts of rain. Before reaching the surface, part of the rain can evaporate and form pools of cold air that spread at the surface as density currents. We use 10 years of data from Barbados to show that such cold pools occur on 3 out of 4 d, that cold-pool periods are 90 % cloudier relative to the average winter conditions, and that they are connected to specific patterns of mesoscale cloud organization.
Alyson Douglas and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15103–15114,Short summary
When aerosols enter the atmosphere, they interact with the clouds above in what we term aerosol–cloud interactions and lead to a series of reactions which delay the onset of rain. This delay may lead to increased rain rates, or invigoration, when the cloud eventually rains. We show that aerosol leads to invigoration in certain environments. The strength of the invigoration depends on how large the cloud is, which suggests that it is highly tied to the organization of the cloud system.
Hao Luo and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15171–15184,Short summary
The various feedbacks of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) to the Saharan air layer (SAL) are determined by the combined effects of dry air masses, the dust aerosols as ice nuclei, and dynamic, thermodynamic, and moisture conditions. The specific influence mechanisms of SAL on the three intensities of TCs (tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane) are different. The conclusions are beneficial to our recognition of the physical process and evolution of TCs in the Atlantic region.
Haoran Li, Ottmar Möhler, Tuukka Petäjä, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14671–14686,Short summary
In natural clouds, ice-nucleating particles are expected to be rare above –10 °C. In the current paper, we found that the formation of ice columns is frequent in stratiform clouds and is associated with increased precipitation intensity and liquid water path. In single-layer shallow clouds, the production of ice columns was attributed to secondary ice production, despite the rime-splintering process not being expected to take place in such clouds.
Qiang Li and Silke Groß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14573–14590,Short summary
Aircraft emit exhaust gases and particles directly into the atmosphere, which may contribute to climate change. We present a significant reduction in the occurrence rate and particle linear depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds based on the analysis of measurements with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite during COVID-19 when air traffic was significantly reduced. The findings imply that these clouds formed with less influence from aviation.
Felipe Toledo, Martial Haeffelin, Eivind Wærsted, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13099–13117,Short summary
The article presents a new conceptual model to describe the temporal evolution of continental fog layers, developed based on 7 years of fog measurements performed at the SIRTA observatory, France. This new paradigm relates the visibility reduction caused by fog to its vertical thickness and liquid water path and provides diagnostic variables that could substantially improve the reliability of fog dissipation nowcasting at a local scale, based on real-time profiling observation.
Tom Dror, Mickaël D. Chekroun, Orit Altaratz, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12261–12272,Short summary
A part of continental shallow convective cumulus (Cu) was shown to share properties such as organization and formation over vegetated areas, thus named green Cu. Mechanisms behind the formed patterns are not understood. We use different metrics and an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) to decompose the dataset and quantify organization factors (cloud streets and gravity waves). We show that clouds form a highly organized grid structure over hundreds of kilometers at the field lifetime.
Xin Lu, Feiyue Mao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yannian Zhu, Zengxin Pan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11979–12003,Short summary
In this paper, a novel method for retrieving cloud base height and geometric thickness is developed and applied to produce a global climatology of boundary layer clouds with a high accuracy. The retrieval is based on the 333 m resolution low-level cloud distribution as obtained from the CALIPSO lidar data. The main part of the study describes the variability of cloud vertical geometrical properties in space, season, and time of the day. Resultant new insights are presented.
Rohit Chakraborty, Arindam Chakraborty, Ghouse Basha, and Madineni Venkat Ratnam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11161–11177,Short summary
In this study, urbanization-induced surface warming has been found to trigger prominent changes in upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere regions leading to stronger and more frequent lightning extremes over India. Consequently, the implementation of this hypothesis in global climate models reveals that lightning frequency and intensity values across India will rise by ~10–25 % and 15–50 %, respectively, by 2100 at the current urbanization rate, which should be alarming for present policymakers.
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Radar and radiometer observations were used to study cloud liquid and snowfall in three types of snow clouds. While near-surface and shallow clouds have an area fraction of 90 %, deep clouds contribute half of the total snowfall volume. Deeper clouds have heavier snowfall, although cloud liquid is equally abundant in all three cloud types. The skills of a GMI Bayesian algorithm are examined. Snowfall in deep clouds may be reasonably retrieved, but it is challenging for near-surface clouds.
Radar and radiometer observations were used to study cloud liquid and snowfall in three types of...