Articles | Volume 17, issue 19
Research article 09 Oct 2017
Research article | 09 Oct 2017
Particulate pollutants in the Brazilian city of São Paulo: 1-year investigation for the chemical composition and source apportionment
Guilherme Martins Pereira et al.
No articles found.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources onto the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at the street canyon and the urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation onto particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly-time resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results enlightened the variability of PM1 concentration, composition and sources in a traffic site, and its implications on urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in Northern Europe.
Goran Gašparac, Amela Jeričević, Prashant Kumar, and Branko Grisogono
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6395–6415,Short summary
Two different available air quality modelling systems were used to investigate physical and chemical processes that contributed to increased daily background PM10 in all of Europe (focusing on eastern and central Europe). Differentiation of modelling performance in respect to the terrain height was found. A strong influence of meteorological conditions on increased background PM10 and statically stable atmospheric conditions were recognized as a key factor in the build-up of background PM10.
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Samu Varjonen, Óscar González, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2413–2423,Short summary
Particle-size-dependent detection ranges of low-cost particulate matter sensors were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Six different sensor models were evaluated altogether. The results showed that none of the sensor models adhered to the technical specifications provided by the manufacturers, and thus a high risk of sensor misuse is posed. It is paramount that the limitations regarding the particle size discrimination of low-cost sensors are acknowledged properly.
Sanna Saarikoski, Leah R. Williams, Steven R. Spielman, Gregory S. Lewis, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Minna Aurela, Susanne V. Hering, Kimmo Teinilä, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Thorsten Hohaus, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3907–3920,Short summary
An air-to-air ultrafine particle concentrator (Aerosol Dynamics Inc. concentrator; ADIc) has been tailored for the low (~ 0.08 L min−1) inlet flow of aerosol mass spectrometers, and it provides a factor of 8–21 enrichment in the concentration of particles. The ADIc was evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. The results showed that the concentration factor depends primarily on the ratio between the sample flow and the output flow and is independent of particle size above about 10 nm.
Mona Kurppa, Antti Hellsten, Pontus Roldin, Harri Kokkola, Juha Tonttila, Mikko Auvinen, Christoph Kent, Prashant Kumar, Björn Maronga, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1403–1422,Short summary
This paper describes the implementation of a sectional aerosol module, SALSA, into the PALM model system 6.0. The first evaluation study shows excellent agreements with measurements. Furthermore, we show that ignoring the dry deposition of aerosol particles can overestimate aerosol number concentrations by 20 %, whereas condensation and dissolutional growth increase the total aerosol mass by over 10 % in this specific urban environment.
João Cardoso, Susana M. Almeida, Teresa Nunes, Marina Almeida-Silva, Mário Cerqueira, Célia Alves, Fernando Rocha, Paula Chaves, Miguel Reis, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artiñano, and Casimiro Pio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13215–13230,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol was sampled in Cabo Verde and analysed for chemical composition. Very high levels of dust were measured during the winter months, as a result of transport from Africa. Mass balances were applied to the particulate material, permitting the determination of seven different source contributions to the aerosol loading. The balance methodology compared favourably with standard source apportionment methods, showing its capability for the source apportionment of aerosol particles.
Jenni Alanen, Pauli Simonen, Sanna Saarikoski, Hilkka Timonen, Oskari Kangasniemi, Erkka Saukko, Risto Hillamo, Kati Lehtoranta, Timo Murtonen, Hannu Vesala, Jorma Keskinen, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8739–8755,Short summary
Secondary organic and inorganic aerosols deteriorate air quality. Their formation from a natural gas engine was studied and compared with the emitted primary particulate emission. The volatility of the formed particles was defined as a function of temperature. Photochemical ages 4–11 days, mimicked by a potential aerosol mass chamber, produced 9–20 mg kg−1 fuel SOA. Aged emission particles were found to be less volatile than the fresh, implicating longer stability in the atmosphere.
Hilkka Timonen, Panu Karjalainen, Erkka Saukko, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Pauli Simonen, Timo Murtonen, Miikka Dal Maso, Heino Kuuluvainen, Matthew Bloss, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, Joakim Pagels, William H. Brune, Jorma Keskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Risto Hillamo, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5311–5329,Short summary
The effect of fuel ethanol content (10–100 %) on primary emissions and the subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. The emissions were characterized during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using high time-resolution instruments. The chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and the secondary aerosol formation was studied with an oxidation chamber.
Evangelia Diapouli, Manousos I. Manousakas, Stergios Vratolis, Vasiliki Vasilatou, Stella Pateraki, Kyriaki A. Bairachtari, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki A. Karanasiou, Franco Lucarelli, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Vorne L. Gianelle, Cristina Colombi, Célia Alves, Danilo Custódio, Casimiro Pio, Christos Spyrou, George B. Kallos, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3673–3685,Short summary
This study examined the contribution of two natural sources (long-range transport of African dust and sea salt) to the airborne particulate matter concentrations, in 5 southern European cities (Porto, Barcelona, Milan, Florence, Athens). The results demonstrated that natural sources are often expressed with high-intensity events, leading even to exceedances of the EU air quality standards. This effect was more pronounced in the case of African dust intrusions in the eastern Mediterranean area.
Heidi Hellén, Leena Kangas, Anu Kousa, Mika Vestenius, Kimmo Teinilä, Ari Karppinen, Jaakko Kukkonen, and Jarkko V. Niemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3475–3487,Short summary
Estimating impacts of wood combustion on ambient levels of PAHs is challenging. In this study effect of residential wood combustion on the benzo[a]pyrene concentrations in the air of Helsinki metropolitan area was studied, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates and dispersion modeling. Combining all this information enabled a quantitative characterization of the influence of residential wood combustion, which was found to be the main local source and more important than for PM2.5.
Carlos Eduardo Souto-Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Andrade, Prashant Kumar, Fábio Juliano da Silva Lopes, Marly Babinski, and Eduardo Landulfo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14635–14656,Short summary
The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo is the biggest megacity of South America, with over 20 million inhabitants. In recent years, the region has been facing a modification in rain patterns. In this study, we evaluated the effects of local and remote sources of air pollution on cloud-condensation nuclei activation properties. Our results showed that the local vehicular traffic emission products presented more negative effects on cloud-condensation nuclei activation than the remote sources.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Panu Karjalainen, Hilkka Timonen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Matthew Bloss, Miikka Dal Maso, Pauli Simonen, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Henry Brune, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8559–8570,Short summary
We characterized time-resolved primary particulate emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. In mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times the amount of primary particles. The highest emissions were observed after a cold start when the engine and catalyst performance were suboptimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in the exhaust.
Fulvio Amato, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, Franco Lucarelli, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, Vorne L. Gianelle, Cristina Colombi, Celia Alves, Danilo Custódio, Teresa Nunes, Mario Cerqueira, Casimiro Pio, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Cristina Reche, María Cruz Minguillón, Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas, Thomas Maggos, Stergios Vratolis, Roy M. Harrison, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3289–3309,Short summary
Harmonized source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) at 5 EU cities (Barcelona, Florence, Milan, Athens and Porto) reveals that vehicle exhaust (excluding nitrate) plus non-exhaust contributes 16–32 % to PM10 and 15–36 % to PM2.5. Secondary PM represents 37–82 % of PM2.5. Biomass burning varies from < 2 to 24 % of PM10, depending on the residential heating fuel. Other sources are local dust (7–19 % of PM10), industries (4–11 % of PM10), shipping, sea salt and Saharan dust.
A Vara-Vela, M. F. Andrade, P. Kumar, R. Y. Ynoue, and A. G. Muñoz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 777–797,Short summary
This study provides a first step to understand the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of secondary particles as well as the feedback between these particles and meteorology in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). Among the main research findings are: - The emissions of primary gases from vehicles led to a production between 20 and 30 % due to new particles formation in relation to the total mass concentration PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA.
R. Weller, K. Schmidt, K. Teinilä, and R. Hillamo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11399–11410,Short summary
We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer. Several nucleation events were observed, but particles did not grow up to sizes required for acting as cloud condensation nuclei. A simple estimation indicated that apart from sulfuric acid, the derived growth rates required other low volatile precursor vapours.
B. Aouizerats, G. R. van der Werf, R. Balasubramanian, and R. Betha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 363–373,Short summary
In this study, we simulated the regional transport and evolution of biomass burning occurring in Indonesia during the high fire event in 2006. We studied and quantified the contribution of those fires to the Singapore pollution levels. This high resolution modelling study showed that about half of the particulate pollution events in Singapore were mainly due to fires occurring in Sumatra (Indonesia), while the other half were due to local pollution.
K. E. Yttri, J. Schnelle-Kreis, W. Maenhaut, G. Abbaszade, C. Alves, A. Bjerke, N. Bonnier, R. Bossi, M. Claeys, C. Dye, M. Evtyugina, D. García-Gacio, R. Hillamo, A. Hoffer, M. Hyder, Y. Iinuma, J.-L. Jaffrezo, A. Kasper-Giebl, G. Kiss, P. L. López-Mahia, C. Pio, C. Piot, C. Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, J. Sciare, K. Teinilä, R. Vermeylen, A. Vicente, and R. Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 125–147,
J. F. Peng, M. Hu, Z. B. Wang, X. F. Huang, P. Kumar, Z. J. Wu, S. Guo, D. L. Yue, D. J. Shang, Z. Zheng, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10249–10265,
G. Engling, J. He, R. Betha, and R. Balasubramanian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8043–8054,
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, P. Herckes, P. C. Vasconcellos, S. E. S. Caumo, A. Fornaro, R. Y. Ynoue, P. Artaxo, and M. F. Andrade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12199–12213,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingMeasurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereMeasurement report: dual-carbon isotopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosol reveals different primary and secondary sources in Beijing and Xi'an during severe haze eventsNorth Atlantic marine organic aerosol characterized by novel offline thermal desorption mass spectrometry: polysaccharides, recalcitrant material, and secondary organicsSources and characteristics of size-resolved particulate organic acids and methanesulfonate in a coastal megacity: Manila, PhilippinesEffects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS studyChemical composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols on the Namibian coastExploring the drivers of the increased ozone production in Beijing in summertime during 2005–2016Optical source apportionment and radiative effect of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols in a tropical marine monsoon climate zone: the importance of ship emissionsMeasurement report: Seasonality, distribution and sources of organophosphate esters in PM2.5 from an inland urban city in Southwest ChinaNationwide increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles during winter over China revealed by size-segregated measurementsSize-resolved exposure risk of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in atmospheric aerosols and their potential sourcesSource apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in ChinaTracing the evolution of morphology and mixing state of soot particles along with the movement of an Asian dust stormA comparison of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in summer Beijing (China) and Delhi (India)Impact of in-cloud aqueous processes on the chemical compositions and morphology of individual atmospheric aerosolsTropospheric aerosol hygroscopicity in ChinaInvestigation of the wet removal rate of black carbon in East Asia: validation of a below- and in-cloud wet removal scheme in FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) model v10.4Differences in the composition of organic aerosols between winter and summer in Beijing: a study by direct-infusion ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometryThe promotion effect of nitrous acid on aerosol formation in wintertime in Beijing: the possible contribution of traffic-related emissionsSize-segregated particle number and mass concentrations from different emission sources in urban BeijingMeasurement report: Fireworks impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines during the 2019 New Year revelryIdentification and Source Attribution of Organic Compounds in Ultrafine Particles near Frankfurt International AirportCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Aerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignSource apportionment of PM2.5 in Shanghai based on hourly organic molecular markers and other source tracersMixing states of Amazon basin aerosol particles transported over long distances using transmission electron microscopyAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaDifferences in fine particle chemical composition on clear and cloudy daysOptical properties and composition of viscous organic particles found in the Southern Great PlainsMeasurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Characterization of severe spring haze episodes and influences of long-range transport in the Seoul metropolitan area in March 2019Modeling the smoky troposphere of the southeast Atlantic: a comparison to ORACLES airborne observations from September of 2016Formation and sink of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in a polluted subtropical environment: observation-based photochemical analysis and impact evaluationHygroscopicity of urban aerosols and its link to size-resolved chemical composition during spring and summer in Seoul, KoreaElucidating the pollution characteristics of nitrate, sulfate and ammonium in PM2.5 in Chengdu, southwest China, based on 3-year measurementsLong-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convection
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15907–15935,Short summary
Long-term (16-month) high-frequency (weekly) measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition are reported. Important insights are discussed about factors (e.g., transport, fires, precipitation, photo-oxidation) impacting the mass size distributions of organic and sulfonic acids at a coastal megacity with diverse meteorology. The size-resolved nature of the data yielded one such finding that organic acids preferentially adsorb to dust rather than sea salt particles.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Xin Li, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Ziwei Mo, Sihua Lu, Min Hu, Xin Fang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15617–15633,Short summary
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Ping Wang, Wenting Dai, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Jie Tian, Wenyan Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15537–15549,Short summary
Light-absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) aerosol is an important influencing factor for global climate forcing. In this study, we used a receptor model coupling multi-wavelength absorption with chemical species to explore the source-specific LAC optical properties at a tropical marine monsoon climate zone. The results can improve our understanding of the LAC radiative effects caused by ship emissions.
Hongling Yin, Jinfeng Liang, Di Wu, Shiping Li, Yi Luo, and Xu Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14933–14945,Short summary
Samples were collected from six ground-based sites located in Chengdu, a typical rapidly developing metropolitan area in Southwest China, and were analysed for seven OPEs in atmospheric PM2.5 (Σ7 OPEs). The concentrations of Σ7 OPEs were higher in autumn and winter than in summer. In contrast to coastal cities, sustained and stable high local emissions in the inland city studied were identified, which is particularly noteworthy.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14321–14332,Short summary
We quantified the mixing structures of soot particles and found that the dominant mixing structure changed from fresh to partially embedded to fully embedded along the pathway of an Asian dust storm from eastern China to Japan. Soot particles became more compact following transport. Our findings not only provide direct evidence for soot aging during regional transport but also help us understand how their morphology changes in different air environments.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yiping Yang, Xiufeng Lian, Long Peng, Feng Jiang, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Duohong Chen, Jie Ou, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Jianxi Zhu, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14063–14075,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the morphology and mixing structure of the activated and unactivated particles, our results emphasize the role of in-cloud processes in the chemistry and microphysical properties of individual activated particles. Given that organic coatings may determine the particle hygroscopicity and heterogeneous chemical reactivity, the increase of OM-shelled particles upon in-cloud processes should have considerable implications for their evolution and climate impact.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, Chunmao Zhu, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Xiaole Pan, and Ignacio Pisso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13655–13670,
Sarah S. Steimer, Daniel J. Patton, Tuan V. Vu, Marios Panagi, Paul S. Monks, Roy M. Harrison, Zoë L. Fleming, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13303–13318,Short summary
Air pollution is of growing concern due to its negative effect on public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates how the chemical composition of particles in Beijing changes under different measurement conditions (pollution levels, season) to get a better understanding of the sources of this form of air pollution.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba Azadi Agdham, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol's respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt airport, based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution, and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Rui Li, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao He, Shuhui Zhu, Kun Zhang, Yusen Duan, Qingyan Fu, Liping Qiao, Yangjun Wang, Ling Huang, Li Li, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12047–12061,
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Zhaoheng Gong, Suzane de Sá, Adam P. Bateman, Scot T. Martin, Joel F. de Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Glauber G. Cirino, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Peter R. Buseck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11923–11939,Short summary
Occurrences, size distributions, and number fractions of individual aerosol particles from the Amazon basin during the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Aerosol particles from natural sources (e.g., mineral dust, primary biological aerosols, and sea salts) during the wet season originated from the Amazon forest and long-range transports (the Saharan desert and the Atlantic Ocean). They commonly mix at an individual particle scale during transport.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukiowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Despite vast epidemiological evidence, uncertainty remains regarding the mechanisms of action of aerosol particle toxicity upon exposure. Here, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing, using four acellular assays. We correlate particle OP with a wide range of additional measurements, and using multivariate statistical analysis, highlight specific particle components and sources that influence OP variability.
Amy E. Christiansen, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Barron H. Henderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11607–11624,Short summary
We quantify differences in surface-level fine particle mass (PM2.5) chemical composition in relation to satellite-derived cloud flags and find significant differences between clear-sky and cloud days. The work suggests that future analysis in this area is warranted.
Matthew Fraund, Daniel J. Bonanno, Swarup China, Don Q. Pham, Daniel Veghte, Johannes Weis, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ken Teske, Mary K. Gilles, Alexander Laskin, and Ryan C. Moffet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11593–11606,Short summary
High viscosity organic particles (HVOPs) in the Southern Great Plains have been analyzed, and two particle types were found. Previously studied tar balls and the recently discovered airborne soil organic particles (ASOPs) are both shown to be brown carbon (BrC). These particle types can be identified in bulk by an absorption Ångström exponent approaching 2.6. HVOP types can be differentiated by comparing carbon absorption spectrum peak ratios between the carboxylic acid, alcohol, and sp2 peaks.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m−3, was captured at an upwind area of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event generated and how about the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment, were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Hwajin Kim, Qi Zhang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11527–11550,Short summary
Severe spring haze and influences of long-range transport in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) in March 2019 were investigated. Simultaneous downwind (SMA) and upwind (Beijing) measurements using AMS and ACSM over the same period showed that PM species can be transported in approximately 2 d. Nitrate was the most responsible, and sulfate and two regional-transport-influenced SOAs also contributed. Enhancement of Pb also showed that the haze in the SMA was influenced by the regional transport.
Yohei Shinozuka, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Sharon P. Burton, Richard Ferrare, Sarah J. Doherty, Hamish Gordon, Karla Longo, Marc Mallet, Yan Feng, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Samuel LeBlanc, Connor Flynn, Michal Segal-Rosenhaimer, Kristina Pistone, James R. Podolske, Eric J. Stith, Joseph Ryan Bennett, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11491–11526,Short summary
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observations made during the NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) airborne mission in September 2016.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Najin Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Minsu Park, Jong Sung Park, Hye Jung Shin, and Joon Young Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11245–11262,Short summary
Chemical effects on the size-resolved hygroscopicity of urban aerosols were examined based on the KORUS-AQ field campaign data (HTDMA and HR-ToF-AMS). The size-resolved chemical composition data were found to be critical in explaining the size-dependent hygroscopicity, as well as the diurnal variation of κ for small particles. Aerosol mixing state information was associated with the size-resolved chemical composition data to reveal chemical information of different hygroscopicity modes.
Liuwei Kong, Miao Feng, Yafei Liu, Yingying Zhang, Chen Zhang, Chenlu Li, Yu Qu, Junling An, Xingang Liu, Qinwen Tan, Nianliang Cheng, Yijun Deng, Ruixiao Zhai, and Zheng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11181–11199,Short summary
Secondary inorganic aerosols have an important contribution to PM2.5. Based on 3 years of atmospheric observation data, this study systematically analyzed the pollution levels and chemical conversion characteristics of nitrate, sulfate and ammonium in PM2.5 in Chengdu, southwest China, and analyzed the emission and regional transport characteristics of their gaseous precursors. This conclusion can provide an important reference for the current air pollution control.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. Results of this work have implications international policymaking related to climate and health.
Abdel-shafy, H. I. and Mansour, M. S. M.: A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation, Egypt. J. Pet., 25, 107–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011, 2016.
Agudelo-Castañeda, D. M. and Teixeira, E. C.: Seasonal changes, identification and source apportionment of PAH in PM1. 0, Atmos. Environ., 96, 186–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.030, 2014.
Albinet, A., Leoz-garziandia, E., Budzinski, H., Villenave, E., and Jaffrezo, J.: Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two French alpine valleys – Part 1: Concentrations , sources and gas/particle partitioning, Atmos. Environ., 42, 43–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.009, 2008.
Allen, A. G., Cardoso, A. A., and da Rocha, G. O.: Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5025–5038, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.06.019, 2004.
Alonso, M. F., Longo, K. M., Freitas, S. R., Mello da Fonseca, R., Marécal, V., Pirre, M., and Klenner, L. G.: An urban emissions inventory for South America and its application in numerical modeling of atmospheric chemical composition at local and regional scales, Atmos. Environ., 44, 5072–5083, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.013, 2010.
Alvarez, H. B., Echeverria, R. S., Alvarez, P. S., and Krupa, S.: Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities, Environ. Pollut., 173, 255–256, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.09.025, 2013.
Alves, C. A., Gomes, J., Nunes, T., Duarte, M., Calvo, A., Custódio, D., Pio, C., Karanasiou, A., and Querol, X.: Size-segregated particulate matter and gaseous emissions from motor vehicles in a road tunnel, Atmos. Res., 153, 134–144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.002, 2015.
Alves, C. A., Oliveira, C., Martins, N., Mirante, F., Caseiro, A., Pio, C., Matos, M., Silva, H. F., Oliveira, C., and Camões, F.: Road tunnel, roadside, and urban background measurements of aliphatic compounds in size-segregated particulate matter, Atmos. Res., 168, 139–148, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.09.007, 2016.
Amato, F., Alastuey, A., Karanasiou, A., Lucarelli, F., Nava, S., Calzolai, G., Severi, M., Becagli, S., Gianelle, V. L., Colombi, C., Alves, C., Custódio, D., Nunes, T., Cerqueira, M., Pio, C., Eleftheriadis, K., Diapouli, E., Reche, C., Minguillón, M. C., Manousakas, M.-I., Maggos, T., Vratolis, S., Harrison, R. M., and Querol, X.: AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3289–3309, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3289-2016, 2016.
Andrade, M. de F., Orsini, C., and Maenhaut, W.: Relation between aerosol sources and meteorological parameters for inhable atmospheric particles in São Paulo city, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 28, 2307–2309, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)90484-7, 1994.
Andrade, M. de F., Fornaro, A., Freitas, E. D. de, Mazzoli, C. R., Martins, L. D., Boian, C., Oliveira, M. G. L., Peres, J., Carbone, S., Alvalá, P., and Leme, N. P.: Ozone sounding in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil: Wet and dry season campaigns of 2006, Atmos. Environ., 61, 627–640, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.083, 2012a.
Andrade, M. de F., Miranda, R. M., Fornaro, A., Kerr, A., Oyama, B., de André, P. A., and Saldiva, P.: Vehicle emissions and PM2. 5 mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities, Air Qual. Atmos. Heal., 5, 79–88, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-010-0104-5, 2012b.
Aurela, M., Saarikoski, S., Timonen, H., Aalto, P., Keronen, P., Saarnio, K., Teinilä, K., Kulmala, M., and Hillamo, R.: Carbonaceous aerosol at a forested and an urban background sites in Southern Finland, Atmos. Environ., 45, 1394–1401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.12.039, 2011.
Bandowe, B. A. M., Meusel, H., Huang, R., Ho, K., Cao, J., Hoffmann, T., and Wilcke, W.: PM2. 5-bound oxygenated PAHs, nitro-PAHs and parent-PAHs from the atmosphere of a Chinese megacity: Seasonal variation, sources and cancer risk assessment, Sci. Total Environ., 473–474, 77–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.108, 2014.
Bardouki, H., Berresheim, H., Vrekoussis, M., Sciare, J., Kouvarakis, G., Oikonomou, K., Schneider, J., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Gaseous (DMS, MSA, SO2, H2SO4 and DMSO) and particulate (sulfate and methanesulfonate) sulfur species over the northeastern coast of Crete, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1871–1886, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-1871-2003, 2003.
Behera, S. N., Cheng, J., Huang, X., Zhu, Q., Liu, P., and Balasubramanian, R.: Chemical composition and acidity of size-fractionated inorganic aerosols of 2013–14 winter haze in Shanghai and associated health risk of toxic elements, Atmos. Environ., 122, 259–271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.053, 2015.
Bisht, D. S., Dumka, U. C., Kaskaoutis, D. G., Pipal, A. S., Srivastava, A. K., Soni, V. K., Attri, S. D., Sateesh, M., and Tiwari, S.: Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing, Sci. Total Environ., 521–522, 431–445, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.083, 2015.
Bourotte, C., Forti, M.-C., Taniguchi, S., Bícego, M. C., and Lotufo, P. A.: A wintertime study of PAHs in fine and coarse aerosols in São Paulo city, Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 39, 3799–3811, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.02.054, 2005.
Bourotte, C. L. M., Sanchez-Ccoyllo, O. R., Forti, M. C., and Melfi, A. J.: Chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter soluble fraction and meteorological variables in São Paulo state, Brazil, Rev. Bras. Meteorol., 26, 419–432, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-77862011000300008, 2011.
Brito, J., Rizzo, L. V., Herckes, P., Vasconcellos, P. C., Caumo, S. E. S., Fornaro, A., Ynoue, R. Y., Artaxo, P., and Andrade, M. F.: Physical–chemical characterisation of the particulate matter inside two road tunnels in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12199–12213, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-12199-2013, 2013.
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São Paulo, Brazil, has relatively relaxed regulations for ambient air pollution standards and often presents high air pollution levels due to emissions of airborne particles from local sources and long-range transport of biomass burning smoke. High risks associated with particulate matter exposure were observed in most samples. The results highlighted the contribution of vehicular emissions and the significant input from biomass combustion in the dry season.
São Paulo, Brazil, has relatively relaxed regulations for ambient air pollution standards and...