Articles | Volume 17, issue 17
07 Sep 2017
Research article | 07 Sep 2017
Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions
Chang-Eui Park et al.
No articles found.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Yuanyuan Huang, Phillipe Ciais, Maurizio Santoro, David Makowski, Jerome Chave, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Rose Z. Abramoff, Daniel S. Goll, Hui Yang, Ye Chen, Wei Wei, and Shilong Piao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4263–4274,Short summary
Roots play a key role in our Earth system. Here we combine 10 307 field measurements of forest root biomass worldwide with global observations of forest structure, climatic conditions, topography, land management and soil characteristics to derive a spatially explicit global high-resolution (~ 1 km) root biomass dataset. In total, 142 ± 25 (95 % CI) Pg of live dry-matter biomass is stored belowground, representing a global average root : shoot biomass ratio of 0.25 ± 0.10.
Yuting Yang, Tim R. McVicar, Dawen Yang, Yongqiang Zhang, Shilong Piao, Shushi Peng, and Hylke E. Beck
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3411–3427,Short summary
This study developed an analytical ecohydrological model that considers three aspects of vegetation response to eCO2 (i.e., stomatal response, LAI response, and rooting depth response) to detect the impact of eCO2 on continental runoff over the past 3 decades globally. Our findings suggest a minor role of eCO2 on the global runoff changes, yet highlight the negative runoff–eCO2 response in semiarid and arid regions which may further threaten the limited water resource there.
Zun Yin, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Ciais, Feng Zhou, Xuhui Wang, Polcher Jan, Patrice Dumas, Shushi Peng, Laurent Li, Xudong Zhou, Yan Bo, Yi Xi, and Shilong Piao
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1133–1150,Short summary
We improved the irrigation module in a land surface model ORCHIDEE and developed a dam operation model with the aim to investigate how irrigation and dams affect the streamflow fluctuations of the Yellow River. Results show that irrigation mainly reduces the annual river flow. The dam operation, however, mainly affects streamflow variation. By considering two generic operation rules, flood control and base flow guarantee, our dam model can sustainably improve the simulation accuracy.
Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Christian Rödenbeck, Ashley P. Ballantyne, Fabienne Maignan, Yi Yin, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Pierre Friedlingstein, Josep Peñuelas, Shilong L. Piao, Stephen Sitch, William K. Smith, Xuhui Wang, Zaichun Zhu, Vanessa Haverd, Etsushi Kato, Atul K. Jain, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, and Dan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12361–12375,Short summary
Here we show that land-surface models improved their ability to simulate the increase in the amplitude of seasonal CO2-cycle exchange (SCANBP) by ecosystems compared to estimates by two atmospheric inversions. We find a dominant role of vegetation growth over boreal Eurasia to the observed increase in SCANBP, strongly driven by CO2 fertilization, and an overall negative effect of temperature on SCANBP. Biases can be explained by the sensitivity of simulated microbial respiration to temperature.
Chaehyeon C. Nam, Doo-Sun R. Park, Chang-Hoi Ho, and Deliang Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3225–3234,Short summary
This study shows that a small deviation of the tropical cyclone (TC) track in the west–east direction (less than 250 km smaller than the average radius of the TC) has a more dominant effect on the extent and distribution of TC damage than TC intensity or size. This suggests that track information should be considered more carefully in assessments of future TC risk.
Huikyo Lee, Alexander Goodman, Lewis McGibbney, Duane E. Waliser, Jinwon Kim, Paul C. Loikith, Peter B. Gibson, and Elias C. Massoud
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4435–4449,Short summary
The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) is designed to facilitate access to observational data and systematic evaluations of regional climate model simulations participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). To ensure software sustainability, development of RCMES is an open, publicly accessible process enabled by leveraging the Apache Software Foundation's open-source library, Open Climate Workbench (OCW).
Zun Yin, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Ciais, Matthieu Guimberteau, Xuhui Wang, Dan Zhu, Fabienne Maignan, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Jan Polcher, Feng Zhou, Hyungjun Kim, and other China-Trend-Stream project members
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5463–5484,Short summary
Simulations in China were performed in ORCHIDEE driven by different forcing datasets: GSWP3, PGF, CRU-NCEP, and WFDEI. Simulated soil moisture was compared to several datasets to evaluate the ability of ORCHIDEE in reproducing soil moisture dynamics. Results showed that ORCHIDEE soil moisture coincided well with other datasets in wet areas and in non-irrigated areas. It suggested that the ORCHIDEE-MICT was suitable for further hydrological studies in China.
Yilong Wang, Philippe Ciais, Daniel Goll, Yuanyuan Huang, Yiqi Luo, Ying-Ping Wang, A. Anthony Bloom, Grégoire Broquet, Jens Hartmann, Shushi Peng, Josep Penuelas, Shilong Piao, Jordi Sardans, Benjamin D. Stocker, Rong Wang, Sönke Zaehle, and Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3903–3928,Short summary
We present a new modeling framework called Global Observation-based Land-ecosystems Utilization Model of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (GOLUM-CNP) that combines a data-constrained C-cycle analysis with data-driven estimates of N and P inputs and losses and with observed stoichiometric ratios. GOLUM-CNP provides a traceable tool, where a consistency between different datasets of global C, N, and P cycles has been achieved.
Xin Lin, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Michel Ramonet, Yi Yin, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Marc Delmotte, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Nuggehalli K. Indira, Robin Locatelli, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Marielle Saunois, Panangady S. Swathi, Rong Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, Yogesh K. Tiwari, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9475–9497,Short summary
We simulate CH4 and CO2 using a zoomed global transport model with a horizontal resolution of ~50 km over South and East Asia, as well as a standard model version for comparison. Model performance is evaluated for both gases and versions at multiple timescales against a new collection of surface stations over this key GHG-emitting region. The evaluation at different timescales and comparisons between gases and model versions have implications for possible model improvements and inversions.
Donghai Wu, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Alan K. Knapp, Kevin Wilcox, Michael Bahn, Melinda D. Smith, Sara Vicca, Simone Fatichi, Jakob Zscheischler, Yue He, Xiangyi Li, Akihiko Ito, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Anna Ukkola, Athanasios Paschalis, Benjamin Poulter, Changhui Peng, Daniel Ricciuto, David Reinthaler, Guangsheng Chen, Hanqin Tian, Hélène Genet, Jiafu Mao, Johannes Ingrisch, Julia E. S. M. Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Lena R. Boysen, Markus Kautz, Michael Schmitt, Patrick Meir, Qiuan Zhu, Roland Hasibeder, Sebastian Sippel, Shree R. S. Dangal, Stephen Sitch, Xiaoying Shi, Yingping Wang, Yiqi Luo, Yongwen Liu, and Shilong Piao
Biogeosciences, 15, 3421–3437,Short summary
Our results indicate that most ecosystem models do not capture the observed asymmetric responses under normal precipitation conditions, suggesting an overestimate of the drought effects and/or underestimate of the watering impacts on primary productivity, which may be the result of inadequate representation of key eco-hydrological processes. Collaboration between modelers and site investigators needs to be strengthened to improve the specific processes in ecosystem models in following studies.
Dongmin Kim, Myong-In Lee, Su-Jong Jeong, Jungho Im, Dong Hyun Cha, and Sanggyun Lee
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This study compares historical simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle produced by 10 ESMs that participated in the CMIP5. The models show noticeable deficiencies compared to the MODIS data and large differences among the simulations, although the MME mean provides a realistic global mean value and spatial distributions. MME is reflected by the systematic biases of simulated biogeochemical processes which depends on temperature conditions strongly in every plant functional types.
Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Philippe Bousquet, Philippe Ciais, Bengang Li, Xin Lin, Shu Tao, Zhiping Wang, Yuan Zhang, and Feng Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14545–14562,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, which accounts for about 20 % of the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases since 1750. Anthropogenic methane emissions from China may have been growing rapidly in the past decades because of increased coal mining and fast growing livestock. A good long-term methane emissions dataset is still lacking. Here, we produced a detailed bottom-up inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions from the eight major source sectors in China during 1980–2010.
Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Mario Herrero, Petr Havlik, Matteo Campioli, Xianzhou Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Nicolas Viovy, Joanna Joiner, Xuhui Wang, Shushi Peng, Chao Yue, Shilong Piao, Tao Wang, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Jean-Francois Soussana, Anna Peregon, Natalya Kosykh, and Nina Mironycheva-Tokareva
Biogeosciences, 13, 3757–3776,Short summary
We derived the global maps of grassland management intensity of 1901–2012, including the minimum area of managed grassland with fraction of mown/grazed part. These maps, to our knowledge for the first time, provide global, time-dependent information for drawing up global estimates of management impact on biomass production and yields and for global vegetation models to enable simulations of carbon stocks and GHG budgets beyond simple tuning of grassland productivities to account for management.
Lan Cuo, Yongxin Zhang, Shilong Piao, and Yanhong Gao
Biogeosciences, 13, 3533–3548,Short summary
The improved LPJ model was used to investigate plant functional type (PFT) changes in 1957–2009 and their responses to changes in root zone soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, precipitation, and CO2 concentrations. The results show spatially heterogeneous changes in PFTs in the northern Tibetan Plateau in 1957–2009. Dominant driver for PFT change is precipitation. The implications of the study are on the regional fresh water resources, onset, and intensity of monsoon circulations.
J. Kim and S. K. Park
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 651–658,Short summary
This study examined the uncertainty in climatological precipitation in East Asia, calculated from five gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations from 1980 to 2007. It is found that the regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or very high elevations. Thus, care must be taken in using long-term trends calculated from gridded precipitation analysis data for climate studies over such regions in East Asia.
C. Yue, P. Ciais, D. Zhu, T. Wang, S. S. Peng, and S. L. Piao
Biogeosciences, 13, 675–690,Short summary
The pan-boreal biome (> N45°) removes CO2 from the atmosphere (i.e., it is a carbon sink). Fires can alter this carbon balance because they release CO2 to the atmosphere but also initiate a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. We found that historical fires of 1850–2009 have a small net sink contribution (~6 %) to the 2000–2009 regional carbon sink, which is a balance between immediate source effect of fires in 2000–2009 and sink effects of those in 1850–1999.
Y. W. Liu, Xu-Ri, Y. S. Wang, Y. P. Pan, and S. L. Piao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11683–11700,Short summary
We investigated inorganic N wet deposition at five sites in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Combining in situ measurements in this and previous studies, the average wet deposition of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and inorganic N in the TP was estimated to be 1.06, 0.51, and 1.58 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results suggest that earlier estimations based on chemical transport model simulations and/or limited field measurements likely overestimated substantially the regional inorganic N wet deposition in the TP.
D. Zhu, S. S. Peng, P. Ciais, N. Viovy, A. Druel, M. Kageyama, G. Krinner, P. Peylin, C. Ottlé, S. L. Piao, B. Poulter, D. Schepaschenko, and A. Shvidenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2263–2283,Short summary
This study presents a new parameterization of the vegetation dynamics module in the process-based ecosystem model ORCHIDEE for mid- to high-latitude regions, showing significant improvements in the modeled distribution of tree functional types north of 40°N. A new set of metrics is proposed to quantify the performance of ORCHIDEE, which integrates uncertainties in the observational data sets.
Related subject area
Subject: Hydrosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Local evaporation controlled by regional atmospheric circulation in the Altiplano of the Atacama DesertDrought-induced biomass burning as a source of black carbon to the central Himalaya since 1781 CE as reconstructed from the Dasuopu ice coreTritium as a hydrological tracer in Mediterranean precipitation eventsIdentification of soil-cooling rains in southern France from soil temperature and soil moisture observationsTowards an advanced observation system for the marine Arctic in the framework of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX)Cryosphere: a kingdom of anomalies and diversityUsing eddy covariance to measure the dependence of air–sea CO2 exchange rate on friction velocityCharacterisation of boundary layer turbulent processes by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype ExperimentAdvances in understanding and parameterization of small-scale physical processes in the marine Arctic climate system: a reviewClimatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurementsMulti-season eddy covariance observations of energy, water and carbon fluxes over a suburban area in Swindon, UKThe role of the global cryosphere in the fate of organic contaminantsSnow optical properties at Dome C (Concordia), Antarctica; implications for snow emissions and snow chemistry of reactive nitrogenUncertainties in wind speed dependent CO2 transfer velocities due to airflow distortion at anemometer sites on ships
Felipe Lobos-Roco, Oscar Hartogensis, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alberto de la Fuente, Ricardo Muñoz, José Rutllant, and Francisco Suárez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9125–9150,Short summary
We investigate the influence of regional atmospheric circulation on the evaporation of a saline lake in the Altiplano region of the Atacama Desert through a field experiment and regional modeling. Our results show that evaporation is controlled by two regimes: (1) in the morning by local conditions with low evaporation rates and low wind speed and (2) in the afternoon with high evaporation rates and high wind speed. Afternoon winds are connected to the regional Pacific Ocean–Andes flow.
Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paolo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, and Lonnie Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5615–5633,Short summary
Black carbon (BC), an aerosol that contributes to glacier melt, is important for central Himalayan hydrology because glaciers are a water source to rivers that affect 25 % of the global population in Southeast Asia. Using the Dasuopu ice core (1781–1992 CE), we find that drought-associated biomass burning is an important source of BC to the central Himalaya over a period of months to years and that hemispheric changes in atmospheric circulation influence BC deposition over longer periods.
Tobias R. Juhlke, Jürgen Sültenfuß, Katja Trachte, Frédéric Huneau, Emilie Garel, Sébastien Santoni, Johannes A. C. Barth, and Robert van Geldern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3555–3568,Short summary
Tritium can serve as a useful tracer in the hydrological cycle; however, aspects of the distribution and exchange of tritium in the atmosphere are not completely understood. In particular, the movement of tritium from its natural origin in the upper atmosphere to its deposition onto the land surface by precipitation has to be quantified further. Therefore, this study collected precipitation event samples and used atmospheric models in order to improve knowledge regarding tritium dynamics.
Sibo Zhang, Catherine Meurey, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5005–5020,Short summary
In situ rain temperature measurements are rare. Soil moisture and soil temperature observations in southern France are used to assess the cooling effects on soils of rainfall events. The rainwater temperature is estimated using observed changes of topsoil volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature in response to the rainfall event. The obtained rain temperature estimates are generally lower than the ambient air temperatures, wet-bulb temperatures, and topsoil temperatures.
Timo Vihma, Petteri Uotila, Stein Sandven, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Alexander Makshtas, Alexander Pelyasov, Roberta Pirazzini, Finn Danielsen, Sergey Chalov, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Vladimir Ivanov, Ivan Frolov, Anna Albin, Bin Cheng, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Viktor Arkhipkin, Stanislav Myslenkov, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1941–1970,Short summary
The Arctic marine climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems are changing rapidly. This calls for the establishment of a marine Arctic component of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (MA-PEEX), for which we present a plan. The program will promote international collaboration; sustainable marine meteorological, sea ice, and oceanographic observations; advanced data management; and multidisciplinary research on the marine Arctic and its interaction with the Eurasian continent.
Vladimir Melnikov, Viktor Gennadinik, Markku Kulmala, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Sergej Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6535–6542,Short summary
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. The cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat; however, the processes related to the cryosphere attract insufficient attention from research communities. We call attention to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system unique.
Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Murray J. Smith, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, and Brian Ward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4297–4315,Short summary
The ocean takes up about 25 % of emitted anthropogenic emitted carbon dioxide and thus plays a significant role in the regulation of climate. In order to accurately calculate this uptake, a quantity known as the air–sea gas transfer velocity needs to be determined. This is typically parameterised with mean wind speed, the most commonly used velocity scale for calculating air–sea transfer coefficients. In this article, we propose an alternative velocity scale known as the friction velocity.
Paolo Di Girolamo, Marco Cacciani, Donato Summa, Andrea Scoccione, Benedetto De Rosa, Andreas Behrendt, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 745–767,Short summary
This paper reports what we believe are the first measurements throughout the atmospheric convective boundary layer of higher-order moments (up to the fourth) of the turbulent fluctuations of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature performed by a single lidar system, i.e. the Raman lidar system BASIL. These measurements, in combination with measurements from other lidar systems, are fundamental to verify and possibly improve turbulence parametrisation in weather and climate models.
T. Vihma, R. Pirazzini, I. Fer, I. A. Renfrew, J. Sedlar, M. Tjernström, C. Lüpkes, T. Nygård, D. Notz, J. Weiss, D. Marsan, B. Cheng, G. Birnbaum, S. Gerland, D. Chechin, and J. C. Gascard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9403–9450,
H. C. Steen-Larsen, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. J. Peters, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. P. Guishard, G. Hsiao, J. Jouzel, D. Noone, J. K. Warren, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7741–7756,
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In dry monsoon regions, a decrease in precipitation induces drying trends. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon regions despite the increase in precipitation. Our results explain the recent drying in the humid monsoon regions. This also supports the drying trends over the warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.
In dry monsoon regions, a decrease in precipitation induces drying trends. In contrast, the...