Articles | Volume 16, issue 10
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6319–6334, 2016

Special issue: East Asia emissions assessment (EA2)

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6319–6334, 2016

Research article 24 May 2016

Research article | 24 May 2016

Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

Fan Zhang1,2,4,7,8, Yingjun Chen1,2,7,8, Chongguo Tian2,8, Diming Lou3, Jun Li5, Gan Zhang5, and Volker Matthias6 Fan Zhang et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Cities' Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Shanghai (China Meteorological Administration), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China
  • 2Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, PR China
  • 3School of Automobile Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, PR China
  • 4University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China
  • 5State key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640, PR China
  • 6Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
  • 7State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China
  • 8Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai, Shandong 264003, PR China

Abstract. Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh−1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh−1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh−1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh−1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg−1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg−1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg−1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg−1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg−1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg−1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was one of the most important influence factors for the differences. Emission factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. The test inland ships and some test offshore vessels in China always had higher EFs for CO, NOx, and PM than previous studies. Besides, due to the significant influence of engine type on shipping emissions and that no accurate local EFs could be used in inventory calculation, much more measurement data for different vessels in China are still in urgent need. Best-fit engine speeds during actual operation should be based on both emission factors and economic costs.

Short summary
In this study, on-board tests of three offshore vessels in China have been carried out for the first time. Emission factors for gaseous species, PM, and relevant chemical components (OC, EC, metal elements, and water soluble ions) in different operating modes are given, which means a lot for estimating contributions of ships to atmosphere and calculating emission inventories of ships. Additionally, impacts of engine speed on NOx emission factors are discussed for the first time.
Final-revised paper