Articles | Volume 15, issue 5
Research article
12 Mar 2015
Research article |  | 12 Mar 2015

Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment

E. Hammann, A. Behrendt, F. Le Mounier, and V. Wulfmeyer

Abstract. The temperature measurements of the rotational Raman lidar of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH RRL) during the High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observation Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in April and May 2013 are discussed. The lidar consists of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm with 10 W average power at 50 Hz, a two-mirror scanner, a 40 cm receiving telescope, and a highly efficient polychromator with cascading interference filters for separating four signals: the elastic backscatter signal, two rotational Raman signals with different temperature dependence, and the vibrational Raman signal of water vapor. The main measurement variable of the UHOH RRL is temperature. For the HOPE campaign, the lidar receiver was optimized for high and low background levels, with a novel switch for the passband of the second rotational Raman channel. The instrument delivers atmospheric profiles of water vapor mixing ratio as well as particle backscatter coefficient and particle extinction coefficient as further products. As examples for the measurement performance, measurements of the temperature gradient and water vapor mixing ratio revealing the development of the atmospheric boundary layer within 25 h are presented. As expected from simulations, a reduction of the measurement uncertainty of 70% during nighttime was achieved with the new low-background setting. A two-mirror scanner allows for measurements in different directions. When pointing the scanner to low elevation, measurements close to the ground become possible which are otherwise impossible due to the non-total overlap of laser beam and receiving telescope field of view in the near range. An example of a low-level temperature measurement is presented which resolves the temperature gradient at the top of the stable nighttime boundary layer 100 m above the ground.

Short summary
Measurements and upgrades of the rotational Raman lidar of the University of Hohenheim during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment are presented in this paper. This includes 25h long time series of temperature gradients and water vapor mixing ratio. Through simulation, optimum wavelengths for high- and low-background cases were identified and tested successfully. Low-elevation measurements were performed to measure temperature gradients at altitudes around 100m above ground level.
Final-revised paper