HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (AMT/ACP inter-journal SI) (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)(ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)
HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (AMT/ACP inter-journal SI) (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)(ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)
Editor(s): S. Buehler and H. Russchenberg Special issue jointly organized between Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics and Atmospheric Measurement Techniques

The "HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment" (HOPE) has been designed to provide a unique view into clouds and their radiative aspects by combining state-of-the-art remote-sensing instrumentation. Such dense observations on process scale are necessary to capture the sub-grid variability of today's numerical weather prediction model and to assess microphysical properties that are subject to parameterizations even at high-resolution simulations. Specifically, HOPE observations will be used for a critical model evaluation HD(CP)2 that will be run at 100m resolution over central Europe. The main goals of HOPE are to provide a most complete set of calibrated products of atmospheric parameters and to identify processes relevant for the formation of clouds and precipitation.

In order to achieve the dense instrumental coverage, the agricultural area around the atmospheric observatory JOYCE (Jülich Observatory for Cloud Evolution) in western Germany was chosen and complemented with two additional supersites and networks from April to May 2013. Three supersites formed a triangle with about 4km side length. The deployed instruments include Doppler lidars, Raman lidars (aerosol & cloud particles, water vapor, temperature), water vapor DIAL, ceilometers, microwave radiometers, cloud Doppler radars, sun photometers, different types of meteorological towers (up to 120m), a network pyranometer, sky imagers, as well as precipitation radar partly with polarization capabilities. This set of instruments forms the densest setup of remote-sensing and surface flux instruments to date.

Together with in total radiosonde launches (every 3h during intensive observation periods), the instruments captured the mean and turbulent thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the vertically resolved and to some extent the 3-D resolved distribution of aerosol, cloud and precipitation particles as a function of time over a horizontal domain of 10 by 7km2. Horizontal fields of standard meteorological parameter and surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat as well as solar and thermal radiation fluxes have been obtained. For the first time to our knowledge, a combination of scanning water vapor, temperature and Doppler lidar as well as coordinated scans with microwave radiometer and cloud radar were performed. Categories of meteorological events were identified, and data examples of these categories will be presented and discussed. It is demonstrated how the combination of active and passive, optical and microwave ground-based remote sensing yields also via desired redundancy a consistent picture of the atmospheric state and that through temporal changes of atmospheric and surface flux properties insights on lower atmospheric processes are revealed. The contributing manuscripts will briefly describe the set of instruments and the corresponding retrieved physical parameter with their spatial and temporal resolution followed by a synopsis of the meteorological conditions during the campaign. On the basis of characteristic intensive observation periods, case studies for clear skies, convective clouds, and precipitation will be presented and discussed. In a follow-up campaign in September 2013 in Melpitz, Germany, additional aerosol and cloud microphysics measurements on-board a helicopter-based platform were performed and will be reported as well.

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31 Jan 2018
Helicopter-borne observations of the continental background aerosol in combination with remote sensing and ground-based measurements
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Patric Seifert, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Florian Ditas, Silvia Henning, Nan Ma, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1263–1290, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-1263-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-1263-2018, 2018
19 Jan 2018
A parameterization of the heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 for mass-based aerosol models: improvement of particulate nitrate prediction
Ying Chen, Ralf Wolke, Liang Ran, Wolfram Birmili, Gerald Spindler, Wolfram Schröder, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Ina Tegen, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 673–689, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-673-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-673-2018, 2018
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12 Sep 2017
Optimal estimation of water vapour profiles using a combination of Raman lidar and microwave radiometer
Andreas Foth and Bernhard Pospichal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3325–3344, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-3325-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-3325-2017, 2017
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01 Sep 2017
Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements
Holger Baars, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3175–3201, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-3175-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-3175-2017, 2017
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15 Jun 2017
Evaluation of large-eddy simulations forced with mesoscale model output for a multi-week period during a measurement campaign
Rieke Heinze, Christopher Moseley, Lennart Nils Böske, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Vera Maurer, Siegfried Raasch, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7083–7109, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7083-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7083-2017, 2017
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13 Apr 2017
The HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) – an overview
Andreas Macke, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Christian Barthlott, Christoph Beekmans, Andreas Behrendt, Birger Bohn, Matthias Brueck, Johannes Bühl, Susanne Crewell, Thomas Damian, Hartwig Deneke, Sebastian Düsing, Andreas Foth, Paolo Di Girolamo, Eva Hammann, Rieke Heinze, Anne Hirsikko, John Kalisch, Norbert Kalthoff, Stefan Kinne, Martin Kohler, Ulrich Löhnert, Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Vera Maurer, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Jan Schween, Ilya Serikov, Holger Siebert, Clemens Simmer, Florian Späth, Sandra Steinke, Katja Träumner, Silke Trömel, Birgit Wehner, Andreas Wieser, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Xinxin Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4887–4914, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-4887-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-4887-2017, 2017
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08 Mar 2017
Multiresolution analysis of the spatiotemporal variability in global radiation observed by a dense network of 99 pyranometers
Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Hartwig Deneke, Jonas Witthuhn, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3317–3338, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3317-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3317-2017, 2017
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17 Jan 2017
Characterisation of boundary layer turbulent processes by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment
Paolo Di Girolamo, Marco Cacciani, Donato Summa, Andrea Scoccione, Benedetto De Rosa, Andreas Behrendt, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 745–767, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-745-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-745-2017, 2017
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16 Nov 2016
Cloud photogrammetry with dense stereo for fisheye cameras
Christoph Beekmans, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Läbe, Martin Lennefer, Cyrill Stachniss, and Clemens Simmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14231–14248, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-14231-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-14231-2016, 2016
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27 Sep 2016
Parameterizing cloud condensation nuclei concentrations during HOPE
Luke B. Hande, Christa Engler, Corinna Hoose, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12059–12079, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12059-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12059-2016, 2016
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10 Jun 2016
Precipitation and microphysical processes observed by three polarimetric X-band radars and ground-based instrumentation during HOPE
Xinxin Xie, Raquel Evaristo, Clemens Simmer, Jan Handwerker, and Silke Trömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7105–7116, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-7105-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-7105-2016, 2016
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25 May 2016
Local short-term variability in solar irradiance
Gerald M. Lohmann, Adam H. Monahan, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6365–6379, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-6365-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-6365-2016, 2016
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15 Mar 2016
Evaluating the spatio-temporal performance of sky-imager-based solar irradiance analysis and forecasts
Thomas Schmidt, John Kalisch, Elke Lorenz, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3399–3412, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3399-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3399-2016, 2016
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08 Feb 2016
Observed spatiotemporal variability of boundary-layer turbulence over flat, heterogeneous terrain
V. Maurer, N. Kalthoff, A. Wieser, M. Kohler, M. Mauder, and L. Gantner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1377–1400, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-1377-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-1377-2016, 2016
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09 Nov 2015
Spatial and temporal variability of clouds and precipitation over Germany: multiscale simulations across the "gray zone"
C. Barthlott and C. Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12361–12384, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12361-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12361-2015, 2015
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16 Jul 2015
Water vapour profiles from Raman lidar automatically calibrated by microwave radiometer data during HOPE
A. Foth, H. Baars, P. Di Girolamo, and B. Pospichal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7753–7763, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-7753-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-7753-2015, 2015
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20 May 2015
Profiles of second- to fourth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer: first measurements with rotational Raman lidar
A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Hammann, S. K. Muppa, and S. Pal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5485–5500, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5485-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5485-2015, 2015
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12 Mar 2015
Temperature profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer with rotational Raman lidar during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment
E. Hammann, A. Behrendt, F. Le Mounier, and V. Wulfmeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2867–2881, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2867-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2867-2015, 2015
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09 Mar 2015
Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE
S. Steinke, S. Eikenberg, U. Löhnert, G. Dick, D. Klocke, P. Di Girolamo, and S. Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2675–2692, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2675-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2675-2015, 2015
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