In-situ single submicron particle composition analysis of ice residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds in Central Europe
- 1Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany
- 2Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
- 3Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
- 4Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
- 5Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
- 6School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Science, The University of Manchester, M13 9 PL Manchester, UK
- 7Environmental Mineralogy, Institute of Applied Geoscience, Technical University Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
- 8Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55128 Mainz, Germany
- *now at: Grolimund + Partner AG – environmental engineering, 3018 Bern, Switzerland
Abstract. This paper presents results from the "INUIT-JFJ/CLACE 2013" field campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch in January/February 2013. The chemical composition of ice particle residuals (IPR) in a size diameter range of 200–900 nm was measured in orographic, convective and non-convective clouds with a single particle mass spectrometer (ALABAMA) under ambient conditions characterized by temperatures between −28 and −4 °C and wind speed from 0.1 to 21 km h−1. Additionally, background aerosol particles in cloud free air were investigated. The IPR were sampled from mixed-phase clouds with two inlets which selectively extract small ice crystals in-cloud, namely the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) and the Ice Selective Inlet (ISI). The IPR as well as the aerosol particles were classified into seven different particle types: (1) black carbon, (2) organic carbon, (3) black carbon internally mixed with organic carbon, (4) minerals, (5) one particle group (termed "BioMinSal") that may contain biological particles, minerals, or salts, (6) industrial metals, and (7) lead containing particles. For any sampled particle population it was determined by means of single particle mass spectrometer how many of the analyzed particles belonged to each of these categories. Accordingly, between 20 and 30% of the IPR and roughly 42% of the background particles contained organic carbon. The measured fractions of minerals in the IPR composition varied from 6 to 33%, while the values for the "BioMinSal" group were between 15 and 29%. Four percent to 31% of the IPR contained organic carbon mixed with black carbon. Both inlets delivered similar results of the chemical composition and of the particle size distribution, although lead was found only in the IPR sampled by the Ice-CVI. The results show that the ice particle residual composition varies substantially between different cloud events, which indicates the influence of different meteorological conditions, such as origin of the air masses, temperature and wind speed.
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6 citations as recorded by crossref.
- The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds P. Kupiszewski et al. 10.5194/amt-8-3087-2015
- Microphysical Properties of Ice Crystal Precipitation and Surface-Generated Ice Crystals in a High Alpine Environment in Switzerland O. Schlenczek et al. 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0060.1
- Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques A. Worringen et al. 10.5194/acp-15-4161-2015
- New particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes: sensitivity studies of convective clouds with an air parcel model K. Diehl & S. Mitra 10.5194/acp-15-12741-2015
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- In situ characterization of mixed phase clouds using the Small Ice Detector and the Particle Phase Discriminator P. Vochezer et al. 10.5194/amt-9-159-2016