Articles | Volume 22, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-3433-2022
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-3433-2022
Measurement report
15 Mar 2022
Measurement report | 15 Mar 2022

Measurement report: Ice-nucleating particles active  ≥ −15 °C in free tropospheric air over western Europe

Franz Conen et al.

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Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
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