Articles | Volume 22, issue 5
Measurement report
15 Mar 2022
Measurement report |  | 15 Mar 2022

Measurement report: Ice-nucleating particles active  ≥ −15 °C in free tropospheric air over western Europe

Franz Conen, Annika Einbock, Claudia Mignani, and Christoph Hüglin


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
AR by Franz Conen on behalf of the Authors (01 Feb 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (06 Feb 2022) by Allan Bertram
RR by Anonymous Referee #2 (10 Feb 2022)
ED: Publish as is (13 Feb 2022) by Allan Bertram
Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
Final-revised paper