Articles | Volume 22, issue 4
Research article
18 Feb 2022
Research article |  | 18 Feb 2022

High concentrations of ice crystals in upper-tropospheric tropical clouds: is there a link to biomass and fossil fuel combustion?

Graciela B. Raga, Darrel Baumgardner, Blanca Rios, Yanet Díaz-Esteban, Alejandro Jaramillo, Martin Gallagher, Bastien Sauvage, Pawel Wolff, and Gary Lloyd

Data sets

IAGOS Time series IAGOS Team

IAGOS ancillary data: CO contributions data B. Sauvage, A. Fontaine, and D. Boulanger

Global reanalysis: goodbye ERA-Interim, hello ERA5 H. Hersbach, W. Bell, P. Berrisford, A. Horányi, J. Muñoz Sabater, J. Nicolas, R. Radu, D. Schepers, A. Simmons, C. Soci, and D. Dee

inst3_3d_asm_Cp: MERRA-2 3D IAU State, Meteorology Instantaneous 3-hourly (p-coord, 0.625x0.5L42), version 5.12.4 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

Short summary
The In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) is a small fleet of commercial aircraft that carry a suite of meteorological, gas, aerosol, and cloud sensors and have been measuring worldwide for almost 9 years, since late 2011. Extreme ice events (EIEs) have been identified from the IAGOS cloud measurements and linked to surface emissions for biomass and fossil fuel consumption. The results reported here are highly relevant for climate change and flight operations forecasting.
Final-revised paper