The effect of secondary ice production parameterization on the simulation of a cold frontal rainband
Abstract. Secondary ice production via processes like rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and breakup upon ice hydrometeor collision have been proposed to explain discrepancies between in-cloud ice crystal and ice-nucleating particle numbers. To understand the impact of this additional ice crystal generation on surface precipitation, we present one of the first studies to implement frozen droplet shattering and ice–ice collisional breakup parameterizations in a mesoscale model. We simulate a cold frontal rainband from the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses, And InfluenceS on the Earth's Climate campaign and investigate the impact of the new parameterizations on the simulated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNC) and precipitation. Near the convective regions of the rainband, contributions to ICNC can be as large from secondary production as from primary nucleation, but ICNCs greater than 50 L−1 remain underestimated by the model. The addition of the secondary production parameterizations also clearly intensifies the differences in both accumulated precipitation and precipitation rate between the convective towers and non-convective gap regions. We suggest, then, that secondary ice production parameterizations be included in large-scale models on the basis of large hydrometeor concentration and convective activity criteria.
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