Articles | Volume 18, issue 18
Research article 20 Sep 2018
Research article | 20 Sep 2018
An empirical model of nitric oxide in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere based on 12 years of Odin SMR measurements
Joonas Kiviranta et al.
No articles found.
Jie Gong, Dong L. Wu, and Patrick Eriksson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5369–5387,Short summary
Launched from the International Space Station, the IceCube radiometer orbited the Earth for 15 months and collected the first spaceborne radiance measurements at 874–883 GHz. This channel is uniquely important to fill in the sensitivity gap between operational visible–infrared and microwave remote sensing for atmospheric cloud ice and snow. This paper delivers the IceCube Level 1 radiance data processing algorithm and provides a data quality evaluation and discussion on its scientific merit.
William G. Read, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Michael Kiefer, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Dale Hurst, Holger Vömel, Karen Rosenlof, Bianca M. Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Gerald E. Nedoluha, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Patrick Eriksson, Chistopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Katja Weigel, John P. Burrows, and Alexei Rozanov
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This paper attempts to provide an assessment of the accuracy of 21 satellite based instruments that remotely measure atmospheric humidity in the upper troposphere of the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments made their measurements from 1984 to the present time; however, most of these instruments began operations after 2000 and only a few are still operational. The objective of this study is to quantify the accuracy of each satellite humidity data set.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Adam E. Bourassa, Douglas A. Degenstein, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, and Donal P. Murtagh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5115–5126,Short summary
The nightglow emission originating from the vibrationally excited hydroxyl layer (about 85 km altitude) has been measured by the infrared imager (IRI) on the Odin satellite for more than 15 years. In this study, we document the retrieval steps, the resulting volume emission rates and the layer characteristics. Finally, we use the monthly zonal averages to demonstrate the fidelity of the data set. This unique, long-term data set will be valuable for studying various topics near the mesopause.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, Richard Cotton, and Florian Ewald
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We test a novel method to remotely measure ice particles in clouds. This is important because such measurements are required to improve climate and weather models. The method combines a radar with newly developed sensors measuring microwave radiation at very short wavelengths. We use observations made from aircraft flying above the cloud and compare them to real measurements from inside the cloud. This works well given that one can model the ice particles in the cloud sufficiently well.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, James M. Russell III, and Jiansheng Zou
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This study analyzes the quality of two versions (v3.6 and v4.1) of ozone concentration measurements from the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer), by comparing with data from five satellite instruments between 2004 and 2020. It was found that although the v3.6 data exhibit a better agreement than v4.1 with respect to the other instruments, v4.1 exhibits much better stability over time than v3.6. The stability of v4.1 makes it suitable for ozone trend studies.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Alan Jon Geer, Peter Bauer, Katrin Lonitz, Vasileios Barlakas, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Amy Doherty, James Hocking, and Philippe Chambon
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Satellite observations of radiation from the earth can have strong sensitivity to cloud and precipitation in the atmosphere, with applications in weather forecasting and the development of models. To compute the radiation received at the satellite sensor using radiative transfer theory requires a simulation of the optical properties of a volume containing a large number of cloud and precipitation particles. This article describes the physics used to generate these “bulk” optical properties.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Inderpreet Kaur, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, and David Ian Duncan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2957–2979,Short summary
Currently, cloud contamination in microwave humidity channels is addressed using filtering schemes. We present an approach to correct the cloud-affected microwave humidity radiances using a Bayesian machine learning technique. The technique combines orthogonal information from microwave channels to obtain a probabilistic prediction of the clear-sky radiances. With this approach, we are able to predict bias-free clear-sky radiances with well-represented case-specific uncertainty estimates.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, David Duncan, Richard Larsson, and Robin Ekelund
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4219–4245,Short summary
The next generation of European operational weather satellites will carry a novel microwave sensor, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), which will provide observations of clouds at microwave frequencies that were not available before. We investigate the potential benefits of combining observations from ICI with that of a radar. We find that such combined observations provide additional information on the properties of the cloud and help to reduce uncertainties in retrieved mass and number densities.
Manfred Brath, Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2309–2333,Short summary
Microwave dual-polarization observations consistently show that larger atmospheric ice particles tend to have a preferred orientation. We provide a publicly available database of microwave and submillimeter wave scattering properties of oriented ice particles based on discrete dipole approximation scattering calculations. Detailed radiative transfer simulations, recreating observed polarization patterns, are additionally presented in this study.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 501–520,Short summary
Atmospheric ice particles (e.g. snow and ice crystals) are an important part of weather, climate, and the hydrological cycle. This study investigates whether combined satellite measurements by radar and radiometers at microwave wavelengths can be used to find the most likely shape of such ice particles. The method was limited when using only currently operating sensors (CloudSat radar and the GPM Microwave Imager) but shows promise if the upcoming Ice Cloud Imager is also considered.
Stefan Lossow, Charlotta Högberg, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gabriele P. Stiller, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Donal P. Murtagh, Jörg Steinwagner, Thomas Röckmann, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 287–308,
Philippe Baron, Satoshi Ochiai, Eric Dupuy, Richard Larsson, Huixin Liu, Naohiro Manago, Donal Murtagh, Shin-ichiro Oyama, Hideo Sagawa, Akinori Saito, Takatoshi Sakazaki, Masato Shiotani, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 219–237,Short summary
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder 2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan to probe the middle and upper atmosphere (20–160 km). The key products are wind, temperature and density. If selected, this mission could provide new insights into vertical coupling in the atmosphere and could help improve weather and climate models. We conducted simulation studies to assess the measurement performances in the altitude range 60–110 km, with a special focus on the geomagnetic effects.
Jörg Gumbel, Linda Megner, Ole Martin Christensen, Nickolay Ivchenko, Donal P. Murtagh, Seunghyuk Chang, Joachim Dillner, Terese Ekebrand, Gabriel Giono, Arvid Hammar, Jonas Hedin, Bodil Karlsson, Mikael Krus, Anqi Li, Steven McCallion, Georgi Olentšenko, Soojong Pak, Woojin Park, Jordan Rouse, Jacek Stegman, and Georg Witt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 431–455,Short summary
Gravity waves can link together atmospheric conditions over large distances. MATS is a new Swedish satellite that will study gravity waves at altitudes around 80–110 km. MATS will take images of emissions from excited molecules, so-called airglow, and of the highest clouds in our atmosphere, so-called noctilucent clouds. These measurements will be analysed to provide three-dimensional wave structures and a comprehensive picture of wave interactions in the atmosphere.
Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Vinia Mattioli, Anke Thoss, Christophe Accadia, Ulf Klein, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 53–71,Short summary
The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) will be the first operational satellite sensor operating at sub-millimetre wavelengths and this novel mission will thus provide important new data to weather forecasting and climate studies. The series of ICI instruments will together cover about 20 years. This article presents the basic technical characteristics of the sensor and outlines the day-one operational retrievals. An updated estimation of the expected retrieval performance is also presented.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6341–6359,Short summary
The overlapping beams of some satellite observations contain spatial information that is discarded by most data processing techniques. This study applies an established technique in a new way to improve the spatial resolution of retrieval targets, effectively using the overlapping information to achieve a higher ultimate resolution. It is argued that this is a more optimal use of the total information available from current microwave sensors, using AMSR2 as an example.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, Christian Klepp, and Daniel C. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6969–6984,Short summary
Raindrop size distributions have not been systematically studied over the oceans but are significant for remotely sensing, assimilating, and modeling rain. Here we investigate raindrop populations with new global in situ data, compare them against satellite estimates, and explore a new technique to classify the shapes of these distributions. The results indicate the inadequacy of a commonly assumed shape in some regions and the sizable impact of shape variability on satellite measurements.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Charlotta Högberg, Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörg Steinwagner, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2497–2526,Short summary
Five δD (H2O) data sets obtained from satellite observations have been evaluated using profile-to-profile and climatological comparisons. The focus is on stratospheric altitudes, but results from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere are also provided. There are clear quantitative differences in the δD ratio in key areas of scientific interest, resulting in difficulties drawing robust conclusions on atmospheric processes affecting the water vapour budget and distribution.
David Ian Duncan and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11205–11219,Short summary
Ice cloud mass is assessed on a global scale using the latest satellite and reanalysis datasets. While ice cloud variability driven by large-scale circulations is an area of relative consensus, models and observations disagree strongly on the overall magnitude and finer-scale variability of atmospheric ice mass. The results reflect limitations of the current Earth observing system and indicate ice microphysical assumptions as the likely culprit of disagreement.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Bengt Rydberg, Nina Håkansson, and Anke Thoss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4627–4643,Short summary
A novel neural-network-based retrieval method is proposed that combines the flexibility and computational efficiency of machine learning retrievals with the consistent treatment of uncertainties of Bayesian methods. Numerical experiments are presented that show the consistency of the proposed method with the Bayesian formulation as well as its ability to represent non-Gaussian retrieval errors. With this, the proposed method overcomes important limitations of traditional methods.
Philippe Baron, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Satoshi Ochiai, Kristell Pérot, Hideo Sagawa, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4545–4566,Short summary
This paper investigates with computer simulations the measurement performances of the satellite Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) in the altitude range 10–90 km. SIW is a Swedish mission that will be launched close to 2022. It is intended to fill the current altitude gap between 30 and 70 km in wind measurements and to pursue the monitoring of temperature and key stratospheric constituents for better understanding climate change effects.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1301–1326,Short summary
A main application of microwave remote sensing is to observe atmospheric particles consisting of ice. This application requires data on how particles with different shapes and sizes affect the observations. A database of such properties has been developed. The database is the most comprehensive of its type. Main strengths are a good representation of particles of aggregate type and broad frequency coverage.
Verena Grützun, Stefan A. Buehler, Lukas Kluft, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4217–4237,Short summary
The global observation of ice clouds is crucial because they are important factors in the climate system but still are amongst the greatest uncertainties for estimating the Earth's energy budget in a changing climate. However, reliable global long-term measurements are scarce. Using atmospheric model data from the ICON model in combination with the radiative transfer simulator ARTS we explore the potential of passive millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength measurements to fill that gap.
Stefan A. Buehler, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Agnès Perrin, Richard Larsson, and Oliver Lemke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1537–1556,Short summary
The Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) is a public domain software for simulating how radiation in the microwave to infrared spectral range travels through an atmosphere. The program can simulate satellite observations, in cloudy and clear atmospheres, and can also be used to calculate radiative energy fluxes. The main feature of this release is a planetary toolbox that allows simulations for the planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, in addition to Earth.
Manfred Brath, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, R. Chawn Harlow, Martin Burgdorf, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 611–632,Short summary
A method to estimate the amounts of ice, liquid water, and water vapor from aircraft radiation measurements at wavelengths just over and under 1 mm is presented and its performance is estimated. The method uses an ensemble of artificial neural networks. It strongly benefits from the submillimeter frequencies reducing the error for the estimated amount of ice by a factor of 2 compared to a traditional microwave method. The method was applied to measurement of a precipitating frontal system.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Bernd Funke, William Ball, Stefan Bender, Angela Gardini, V. Lynn Harvey, Alyn Lambert, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, Katharina Meraner, Holger Nieder, Sanna-Mari Päivärinta, Kristell Pérot, Cora E. Randall, Thomas Reddmann, Eugene Rozanov, Hauke Schmidt, Annika Seppälä, Miriam Sinnhuber, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriele P. Stiller, Natalia D. Tsvetkova, Pekka T. Verronen, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, and Vladimir Yushkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3573–3604,Short summary
Simulations from eight atmospheric models have been compared to tracer and temperature observations from seven satellite instruments in order to evaluate the energetic particle indirect effect (EPP IE) during the perturbed northern hemispheric (NH) winter 2008/2009. Models are capable to reproduce the EPP IE in dynamically and geomagnetically quiescent NH winter conditions. The results emphasize the need for model improvements in the dynamical representation of elevated stratopause events.
Kazutoshi Sagi, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, and Yvan Orsolini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1791–1803,Short summary
We assess and quantify the ozone loss driven by NOx, triggered by stratospheric warmings and the halogens-induced ozone loss, using data assimilation results over a decade. To illustrate the difference between halogen-induced loss and NOx-induced loss, we compared a relatively cold and stable winter (2010/2011) with a composite calculation of four winters (2003/2004, 2005/2006, 2008/2009 and 2012/2013) which were all affected by a major mid-winter sudden stratospheric warming event.
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Yasuko Kasai, Stefan Alexander Buehler, Catherine Diéval, David Brain, and Paul Hartogh
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 27–37,Short summary
By computer simulations, we explore and quantify how to use radiation emitted by molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere to measure the magnetic field from the crust of the planet. This crustal magnetic field is important to understand the past evolution of Mars. Our method can measure the magnetic field at lower altitudes than has so far been done, which could give important information on the characteristics of the crustal sources if a mission with the required instrument is launched.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Ole Martin Christensen, Susanne Benze, Patrick Eriksson, Jörg Gumbel, Linda Megner, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12587–12600,Short summary
This study investigates the properties of ice clouds forming in the upper summer mesosphere known as polar mesospheric clouds, and their relationship with the background atmosphere combining two different satellite instruments. We find that temperature variations in the atmosphere of the order of some hours reduce the amount of ice in these clouds and see indications of strong vertical transport in these clouds.
Christine Smith-Johnsen, Yvan Orsolini, Frode Stordal, Varavut Limpasuvan, and Kristell Pérot
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Mesospheric ozone enhancements during sudden stratospheric warmings in the northern hemisphere have been reported in the literature. In the southern hemisphere, only one warming event has occurred, and this paper is the first to explain the mesospheric ozone enhancement during this event in 2002, using both a whole atmosphere chemistry climate model and satellite observations from GOMOS.
Kazutoshi Sagi and Donal Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This article presents estimated ozones losses in both hemispheres covering the period 2002–2013, the longest series available for a single instrument so far. It covers not only the lower stratosphere where halogen induced loss dominates but also the mid-stratosphere where the effects of NOx are seen. It employs data from the ODIN/SMR 544 GHz ozone product for the first time in order to improve the results in the lowermost stratosphere.
Daan Hubert, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, José Granville, Arno Keppens, Jean-Luc Baray, Adam E. Bourassa, Ugo Cortesi, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Karl W. Hoppel, Bryan J. Johnson, Erkki Kyrölä, Thierry Leblanc, Günter Lichtenberg, Marion Marchand, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Hideaki Nakane, Thierry Portafaix, Richard Querel, James M. Russell III, Jacobo Salvador, Herman G. J. Smit, Kerstin Stebel, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Kevin B. Strawbridge, René Stübi, Daan P. J. Swart, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Joachim Urban, Joanna A. E. van Gijsel, Roeland Van Malderen, Peter von der Gathen, Kaley A. Walker, Elian Wolfram, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2497–2534,Short summary
A more detailed understanding of satellite O3 profile data records is vital for further progress in O3 research. To this end, we made a comprehensive assessment of 14 limb/occultation profilers using ground-based reference data. The mutual consistency of satellite O3 in terms of bias, short-term variability and decadal stability is generally good over most of the stratosphere. However, we identified some exceptions that impact the quality of recently merged data sets and ozone trend assessments.
Isaac Moradi, Philip Arkin, Ralph Ferraro, Patrick Eriksson, and Eric Fetzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6913–6929,Short summary
Measurements from the SAPHIR onboard Megha-Tropiques are used to evaluate the diurnal cycle of tropospheric humidity in the tropical region. The results show a large inhomogeneity in the amplitude and peak time of tropospheric humidity. The diurnal amplitude tends to be larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. An early morning peak time is observed over most regions but there are substantial regions where the diurnal peak occurs at the other times of day.
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Peter Rayer, Roger Saunders, William Bell, Anna Booton, Stefan A. Buehler, Patrick Eriksson, and Viju O. John
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 841–857,Short summary
By modeling the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder's mesospheric measurements, inversions methods can be applied to retreive mesospheric temperatures. We compare the fast forward model used by Met Office with reference simulations and find that there is a reasonable agreement between both models and measurements. Thus we recommend that the fast model is used in data assimilation to improve mesospheric temperature retrievals.
Johannes Plieninger, Alexandra Laeng, Stefan Lossow, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Stefan Noël, Mark E. Hervig, Martin McHugh, Alyn Lambert, Joachim Urban, James W. Elkins, and Donal Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 765–779,Short summary
We compare concentration profiles of methane and nitrous oxide measured from MIPAS-ENVISAT and derived with a new retrieval setup to those measured by other satellite instruments and to surface measurements. For methane we use profiles measured by ACE-FTS, HALOE and SCIAMACHY; for nitrous oxide we use profiles measured by ACE-FTS, Aura-MLS and Odin-SMR for the comparisons. We give a quantitative bias estimation and compare the estimated errors provided by the instruments.
P. Forkman, O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, B. Billade, V. Vassilev, and V. M. Shulga
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 27–44,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is the only ground-based technique that can provide vertical profiles of gases in the middle atmosphere both day and night, and even during cloudy conditions. Today these measurements are performed at relatively few sites, more simple and reliable instruments are required to make the measurement technique more widely spread. In this study a compact double-sideband frequency-switched radiometer system for simultaneous observations of mesospheric CO and O3 is presented.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
S. Bender, M. Sinnhuber, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, J. Urban, K. Pérot, K. A. Walker, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4171–4195,Short summary
We compare the nitric oxide (NO) daily zonal mean number density data sets in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT, 60km to 150km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS (2004--2010), MIPAS (2005--2012), SCIAMACHY (2008--2012), and SMR (2003--2012). We find that these data sets from different instruments consistently constrain NO in the MLT. Thus, they offer reliable forcing inputs for climate and chemistry climate models as an initial step to include solar and geomagnetic activity.
S. Kirkwood, A. Osepian, E. Belova, J. Urban, K. Pérot, and A. K. Sinha
Ann. Geophys., 33, 561–572,Short summary
High-speed streams of particles from the Sun can cause high-energy electrons to be precipitated into the Earth's middle atmosphere at polar latitudes. The paper develops and tests a model for how these particles can change the amount of a trace gas, nitric oxide, which has the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. Model calculations agree well with observations by the Odin satellite of increased nitric oxide over Antarctica associated with high-speed solar wind streams.
O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1981–1999,Short summary
Polar mesospheric clouds are clouds that form in the summer polar mesopause, 80km above the surface. In this study we present new measurements by the Odin satellite, which are able to determine water vapour, temperature and cloud coverage with a high resolution and a large geographical coverage. Using these data we can see structures in the clouds and background atmosphere that have not been detectable by previous measurements.
P. Eriksson, M. Jamali, J. Mendrok, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1913–1933,Short summary
The optical properties of randomly oriented ice hydrometeors are reviewed from a perspective of microwave mass retrievals. The soft particle approximation is found to be highly problematic, and the alternative approach presented by Geer and Baordo (2014) should instead be used. We present a simplified version of this approach, and point out several critical limitations of existing DDA data.
F. Navas-Guzmán, N. Kämpfer, A. Murk, R. Larsson, S. A. Buehler, and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1863–1874,Short summary
In this work we study the Zeeman effect on stratospheric O2 using ground-based microwave radiometer measurements. The interaction of the Earth magnetic field with the oxygen dipole leads to a splitting of O2 energy states which polarizes the emission spectra. A special campaign was carried out in order to measure for the first time the polarization state of the radiation due to the Zeeman effect in the main isotopologue of oxygen from ground-based microwave measurements.
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
T. Fytterer, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Nieder, K. Pérot, M. Sinnhuber, G. Stiller, and J. Urban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3327–3338,Short summary
Energetic particles from the sun produce NOx (=N+NO+NO2) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere. The NOx can be transported downward in the stratosphere during polar winter where NOx eventually depletes O3. This entire chain is the so-called energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect. Here we show downward propagating negative stratospheric O3 anomalies during Antarctic polar winter. The O3 anomalies are caused by geomagnetic activity and show strong hints of the EPP indirect effect.
R. Rüfenacht, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, P. Eriksson, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4491–4505,Short summary
Only very few techniques for wind measurements in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere exist. Moreover, none of these instruments is running on a continuous basis. This paper describes the development of ground-based microwave Doppler radiometry. Time series of daily wind profile measurements from four different locations at polar, mid- and tropical latitudes are presented. The agreement with ECMWF model data is good in the stratosphere, but discrepancies were found in the mesosphere.
K. Sagi, D. Murtagh, J. Urban, H. Sagawa, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12855–12869,
P. Eriksson, B. Rydberg, H. Sagawa, M. S. Johnston, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12613–12629,Short summary
The sub-millimetre wavelength region has been identified as very useful for measurements of cloud ice mass. The only satellite sensors operating in this wavelength region are so far limb sounders, and results from two such instruments are presented and sample applications are demonstrated. The results have high intrinsic value, but serve also as a practical preparation for planned dedicated sub-millimetre cloud missions.
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, A. Gettelman, P. Räisänen, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8701–8721,
K. Pérot, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8009–8015,
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, K. Wyser, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12043–12058,
H. Sagawa, T. O. Sato, P. Baron, E. Dupuy, N. Livesey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, A. de Lange, G. Wetzel, B. J. Connor, A. Kagawa, D. Murtagh, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3325–3347,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Rahpoe, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, N. Kalakoski, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, C. von Savigny, A. Laeng, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Lossow, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Adams, C. Roth, N. Lloyd, P. Bernath, R. J. Hargreaves, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, M. van Roozendael, N. Kalb, and C. Zehner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 349–363,
O. Stähli, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, C. Mätzler, and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2477–2494,
Y. Kasai, H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, E. Dupuy, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, K. Suzuki, T. O. Sato, T. Nishibori, S. Mizobuchi, K. Kikuchi, T. Manabe, H. Ozeki, T. Sugita, M. Fujiwara, Y. Irimajiri, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, J. Orphal, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, L. Froidevaux, M. Birk, G. Wagner, F. Schreier, J. Xu, P. Vogt, T. Trautmann, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2311–2338,
M. Khosravi, P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A. I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D. P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M. L. Santee, T. O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K. A. Walker, and S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7587–7606,
O. M. Christensen and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1597–1609,
P. Baron, D. P. Murtagh, J. Urban, H. Sagawa, S. Ochiai, Y. Kasai, K. Kikuchi, F. Khosrawi, H. Körnich, S. Mizobuchi, K. Sagi, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6049–6064,
F. Khosrawi, R. Müller, J. Urban, M. H. Proffitt, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, S. Lossow, D. Kinnison, F. Olschewski, M. Riese, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3619–3641,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Two- and three-dimensional structures of the descent of mesospheric trace constituents after the 2013 sudden stratospheric warming elevated stratopause eventDaytime ozone and temperature variations in the mesosphere: a comparison between SABER observations and HAMMONIA model
David E. Siskind, V. Lynn Harvey, Fabrizio Sassi, John P. McCormack, Cora E. Randall, Mark E. Hervig, and Scott M. Bailey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14059–14077,Short summary
General circulation models have had a very difficult time simulating the descent of nitric oxide through the polar mesosphere to the stratosphere. Here, we present results suggesting that, with the proper specification of middle atmospheric meteorology, the simulation of this process can be greatly improved. Despite differences in the detailed geographic morphology of the model NO as compared with satellite data, we show that the overall abundance is likely in good agreement with the data.
S. Dikty, H. Schmidt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, and M. G. Mlynczak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8331–8339,
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This paper investigates how the activity of the Sun affects the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in the upper atmosphere. If NO descends lower down in the atmosphere, it can destroy ozone. We analyze satellite measurements of NO to create a model that can simulate the amount of NO at any given time. This model can indeed simulate NO with reasonable accuracy and it can potentially be used as an input for a larger model of the atmosphere that attempts to explain how the Sun affects our atmosphere.
This paper investigates how the activity of the Sun affects the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in...