Improved rain rate and drop size retrievals from airborne Doppler radar
Received: 26 Mar 2017 – Discussion started: 12 Apr 2017 – Revised: 06 Jul 2017 – Accepted: 30 Aug 2017 – Published: 27 Sep 2017
- 1Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
- 2National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Reading, Reading, UK
- 3European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK
- 4NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
- 5Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Satellite remote sensing of rain is important for quantifying the hydrological cycle, atmospheric energy budget, and cloud and precipitation processes; however, radar retrievals of rain rate are sensitive to assumptions about the raindrop size distribution. The upcoming EarthCARE satellite will feature a 94 GHz Doppler radar alongside lidar and radiometer instruments, presenting opportunities for enhanced retrievals of the raindrop size distribution. We demonstrate the capability to retrieve rain rate as a function of drop size and drop number concentration from airborne 94 GHz Doppler radar measurements using CAPTIVATE, the variational retrieval algorithm developed for EarthCARE. For a range of rain regimes observed during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling field campaign, we explore the contributions of mean Doppler velocity and path-integrated attenuation (PIA) measurements to the retrieval of rain rate, and the retrievals are evaluated against independent measurements from an independent 9.6 GHz Doppler radar. The retrieved drop number concentrations vary over 5 orders of magnitude between very light rain from melting ice and warm rain from liquid clouds. In light rain conditions mean Doppler velocity facilitates estimates of rain rate without PIA, suggesting the possibility of EarthCARE rain rate estimates over land; in moderate warm rain, drop number concentration can be retrieved without mean Doppler velocity, with possible applications to CloudSat.