Articles | Volume 17, issue 17
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690, 2017

Special issue: Twenty-five years of operations of the Network for the Detection...

Special issue: Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 – Status and trends...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690, 2017

Research article 11 Sep 2017

Research article | 11 Sep 2017

An update on ozone profile trends for the period 2000 to 2016

Wolfgang Steinbrecht1, Lucien Froidevaux2, Ryan Fuller2, Ray Wang3, John Anderson4, Chris Roth5, Adam Bourassa5, Doug Degenstein5, Robert Damadeo6, Joe Zawodny6, Stacey Frith7,8, Richard McPeters7, Pawan Bhartia7, Jeannette Wild9,10, Craig Long9, Sean Davis11,12, Karen Rosenlof11, Viktoria Sofieva13, Kaley Walker14, Nabiz Rahpoe15, Alexei Rozanov15, Mark Weber15, Alexandra Laeng16, Thomas von Clarmann16, Gabriele Stiller16, Natalya Kramarova7,8, Sophie Godin-Beekmann17, Thierry Leblanc18, Richard Querel19, Daan Swart20, Ian Boyd21, Klemens Hocke22, Niklaus Kämpfer22, Eliane Maillard Barras23, Lorena Moreira22, Gerald Nedoluha24, Corinne Vigouroux25, Thomas Blumenstock16, Matthias Schneider16, Omaira García26, Nicholas Jones27, Emmanuel Mahieu28, Dan Smale19, Michael Kotkamp19, John Robinson19, Irina Petropavlovskikh29,12, Neil Harris30, Birgit Hassler31, Daan Hubert25, and Fiona Tummon32 Wolfgang Steinbrecht et al.
  • 1Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
  • 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
  • 3School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • 4Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA
  • 5Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  • 6NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
  • 7NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • 8Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD, USA
  • 9NOAA/NWS/NCEP/Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, USA
  • 10Innovim LLC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
  • 11Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA ESRL, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 12CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 13Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 14Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • 15Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 16Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 17Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt, France
  • 18Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, CA, USA
  • 19National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
  • 20National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands
  • 21BC Scientific Consulting LLC, Stony Brook, NY, USA
  • 22Institute of Applied Physics and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  • 23MeteoSwiss, Payerne, Switzerland
  • 24Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., USA
  • 25Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
  • 26Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (IARC), Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
  • 27School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
  • 28Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
  • 29Climate Monitoring Division, NOAA ESRL, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 30Centre for Atmospheric Informatics and Emissions Technology, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK
  • 31Bodeker Scientific, Alexandra, New Zealand
  • 32ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

Abstract. Ozone profile trends over the period 2000 to 2016 from several merged satellite ozone data sets and from ground-based data measured by four techniques at stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change indicate significant ozone increases in the upper stratosphere, between 35 and 48 km altitude (5 and 1 hPa). Near 2 hPa (42 km), ozone has been increasing by about 1.5 % per decade in the tropics (20° S to 20° N), and by 2 to 2.5 % per decade in the 35 to 60° latitude bands of both hemispheres. At levels below 35 km (5 hPa), 2000 to 2016 ozone trends are smaller and not statistically significant. The observed trend profiles are consistent with expectations from chemistry climate model simulations. This study confirms positive trends of upper stratospheric ozone already reported, e.g., in the WMO/UNEP Ozone Assessment 2014 or by Harris et al. (2015). Compared to those studies, three to four additional years of observations, updated and improved data sets with reduced drift, and the fact that nearly all individual data sets indicate ozone increase in the upper stratosphere, all give enhanced confidence. Uncertainties have been reduced, for example for the trend near 2 hPa in the 35 to 60° latitude bands from about ±5 % (2σ) in Harris et al. (2015) to less than ±2 % (2σ). Nevertheless, a thorough analysis of possible drifts and differences between various data sources is still required, as is a detailed attribution of the observed increases to declining ozone-depleting substances and to stratospheric cooling. Ongoing quality observations from multiple independent platforms are key for verifying that recovery of the ozone layer continues as expected.

Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Final-revised paper