The incorporation of an organic soil layer in the Noah-MP land surface model and its evaluation over a boreal aspen forest
Abstract. A thick top layer of organic matter is a dominant feature in boreal forests and can impact land–atmosphere interactions. In this study, the multi-parameterization version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) was used to investigate the impact of incorporating a forest-floor organic soil layer on the simulated surface energy and water cycle components at the BERMS Old Aspen site (OAS) field station in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Compared to a simulation without an organic soil parameterization (CTL), the Noah-MP simulation with an organic soil (OGN) improved Noah-MP-simulated soil temperature profiles and soil moisture at 40–100 cm, especially the phase and amplitude (Seasonal cycle) of soil temperature below 10 cm. OGN also enhanced the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes in spring, especially in wet years, which is mostly related to the timing of spring soil thaw and warming. Simulated top-layer soil moisture is better in OGN than that in CTL. The effects of including an organic soil layer on soil temperature are not uniform throughout the soil depth and are more prominent in summer. For drought years, the OGN simulation substantially modified the partitioning of water between direct soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration. For wet years, the OGN-simulated latent heat fluxes are similar to CTL except for the spring season when OGN produced less evaporation, which was closer to observations. Including organic soil produced more subsurface runoff and resulted in much higher runoff throughout the freezing periods in wet years.