Articles | Volume 16, issue 17
Research article
12 Sep 2016
Research article |  | 12 Sep 2016

Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

Nazar Kholod, Meredydd Evans, and Teresa Kuklinski

Abstract. Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

Short summary
The paper presents an inventory of black carbon (BC) emissions from diesel sources in Russia. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014; heavy-duty trucks accounted for 60 % of the on-road BC; and cars represent only 5 %. Superemitters emitted 33 % of all on-road BC. BC emissions from off-road diesel engines estimated at 28 Gg. While consuming 68 % of the diesel fuel in the country, on-road vehicles produced only 42 % of BC emissions due to introduction of emission standards.
Final-revised paper