Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
Research article
11 May 2015
Research article |  | 11 May 2015

Emission factors of SO2, NOx and particles from ships in Neva Bay from ground-based and helicopter-borne measurements and AIS-based modeling

J. Beecken, J. Mellqvist, K. Salo, J. Ekholm, J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, V. Litvinenko, K. Volodin, and D. A. Frank-Kamenetsky

Abstract. Emission factors of SO2, NOx and size-distributed particle numbers were measured for approximately 300 different ships in the Gulf of Finland and Neva Bay area during two campaigns in August/September 2011 and June/July 2012. The measurements were carried out from a harbor vessel and from an Mi-8 helicopter downwind of passing ships. Other measurements were carried out from shore sites near the island of Kronstadt and along the Neva River in the urban area of Saint Petersburg. Most ships were running at reduced speed (10 kn), i.e., not at their optimal load. Vessels for domestic and international shipping were monitored. It was seen that the distribution of the SO2 emission factors is bi-modal, with averages of 4.6 and 18.2 gSO2 kgfuel-1 for the lower and the higher mode, respectively. The emission factors show compliance with the 1% fuel sulfur content Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) limit for 90% of the vessels in 2011 and 97% in 2012. The distribution of the NOx emission factor is mono-modal, with an average of 58 gNOx kgfuel-1. The corresponding emission related to the generated power yields an average of 12.1 gNOx kWh−1. The distribution of the emission factors for particulate number shows that nearly 90% of all particles in the 5.6 nm to 10 μm size range were below 70 nm in diameter. The distribution of the corresponding emission factors for the mass indicates two separated main modes, one for particles between 30 and 300 nm and the other for above 2 μm. The average particle emission factors were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 2.7 × 1016 particles kgfuel-1 and 0.2 to 3.4 gPM kgfuel-1, respectively. The NOx and particulate emissions are comparable with other studies. The measured emission factors were compared, for individual ships, to modeled ones using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A reasonably good agreement for gaseous sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be seen for ships in international traffic, but significant deviations are found for inland vessels. Regarding particulate mass, the values of the modeled data are about 2–3 times higher than the measured results, which probably reflects the assumptions made in the modeled fuel sulfur content. The sulfur contents in the fuel retrieved from the measurements were lower than the previously used assumptions by the City of Saint Petersburg when carrying out atmospheric modeling, and using these measurements it was possible to better assess the impact of shipping on air quality.

Short summary
Measurements of SO2, NOx and particle emission factors of more than 400 individual ship passages in the Gulf of Finland are presented and discussed. The measurements were conducted during two campaigns in the years 2011 and 2012 from ground-based and helicopter-based platforms. It was found that a significant number of ships use fuel oil with a fuel sulfur content below the limit of 1%. Additionally, the results of modeled data for the same ships were compared to the measurements of this study.
Final-revised paper