Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux–gradient similarity methods
- 1Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Division of Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, USA
- 2Consiglio per la ricerca e la sperimentazione in agricoltura – Research Center for the Soil-Plant System, Rome, Italy
- 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA
- *current address: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO, USA
Abstract. The Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, during summer 2009. We deployed a proton transfer reaction–quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-QMS) to measure fluxes and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Eighteen ion species, including the major BVOC expected at the site, were measured sequentially at 5 heights to observe their vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 3 dominant BVOCs methanol, 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes were measured above the canopy by the disjunct eddy covariance (EC) method. Canopy-scale fluxes were also determined by the flux–gradient similarity method (K-theory). A universal K (Kuniv) was determined as the mean of individual K's calculated from the measured fluxes divided by vertical gradients for methanol, MBO, and monoterpenes. This Kuniv was then multiplied by the gradients of each observed ion species to compute their fluxes. The flux–gradient similarity method showed very good agreement with the disjunct EC method. Fluxes are presented for all measured species and compared to historical measurements from the same site, and used to test emission algorithms used to model fluxes at the regional scale. MBO was the dominant emission observed, followed by methanol, monoterpenes, acetone, and acetaldehyde. The flux–gradient similarity method is shown to be tenable, and we recommend its use, especially in experimental conditions when fast measurement of BVOC species is not available.