Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1–87, 2012
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1–87, 2012

Research article 02 Jan 2012

Research article | 02 Jan 2012

A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

J. Kukkonen1, T. Olsson1,2, D. M. Schultz1,2,3, A. Baklanov4, T. Klein5, A. I. Miranda6, A. Monteiro6, M. Hirtl7, V. Tarvainen1, M. Boy2, V.-H. Peuch8,9, A. Poupkou10, I. Kioutsioukis10, S. Finardi11, M. Sofiev1, R. Sokhi12, K. E. J. Lehtinen13,14, K. Karatzas15, R. San José16, M. Astitha17, G. Kallos18, M. Schaap19, E. Reimer20, H. Jakobs21, and K. Eben22 J. Kukkonen et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 4Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 5Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden
  • 6CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
  • 7Section of Environmental Meteorology, Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna, Austria
  • 8Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex, France
  • 9ECMWF, Reading, UK
  • 10Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 11ARIANET s.r.l., Milano, Italy
  • 12University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
  • 13Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio, Finland
  • 14Dept. Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  • 15Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 16Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 17Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC), The Cyprus Institute, Cyprus
  • 18Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 19TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 20Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • 21University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
  • 22Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract. Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.

Final-revised paper