Articles | Volume 10, issue 21
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10421–10434, 2010
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10421–10434, 2010

  08 Nov 2010

08 Nov 2010

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

X. Xiao1,*, R. G. Prinn1, P. J. Fraser2, R. F. Weiss3, P. G. Simmonds4, S. O'Doherty4, B. R. Miller5, P. K. Salameh3, C. M. Harth3, P. B. Krummel2, A. Golombek1, L. W. Porter6,†, J. H. Butler5, J. W. Elkins5, G. S. Dutton5, B. D. Hall5, L. P. Steele2, R. H. J. Wang7, and D. M. Cunnold7,† X. Xiao et al.
  • 1Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  • 2Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia
  • 3Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
  • 4School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  • 5ESRL, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO 80305, USA
  • 6Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
  • 7School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
  • *now at: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
  • deceased

Abstract. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH), driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

Final-revised paper