12 Sep 2022
12 Sep 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Gravity waves generated by the high graupel/hail loading through buoyancy oscillations in an overshooting hailstorm

Xin Guo1,3, Xueliang Guo2, and Danhong Fu2 Xin Guo et al.
  • 1Beijing Weather Modification Center, Beijing, China
  • 2Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 3School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Abstract. The convectively generated gravity waves (GWs) have important contributions on the stratospheric and mesospheric momentum and energy budget, and chemical composition, however, large uncertainties still remain about wave source properties and the associated wave-generated mechanisms. The formation mechanism and significant impacts of downward propagating GWs generated by a continental overshooting hailstorm occurred on 19 June 2017 in Beijing in the mid-latitude are reported in this study based on radar observations and simulated results from a three-dimensional cloud model with hail-bin microphysics. It is found that the overshooting storm penetrates the tropopause and enters the lower stratosphere in the mature stage. After the mature stage, the continuous descending process of the upper-level high graupel/hail loading causes the breaking of equilibrium between the buoyancy force and hydrometeor loading established in the mature stage and induces a restoring force of buoyancy, as well as buoyancy oscillations that excite downward propagating GWs. The GWs have a duration of about 20 min and the estimated wavelength of about 3–4 km. The downward propagating GWs not only result in the storm updraft splitting quickly, and significantly change the storm morphology and evolution, but also form the upward propagating GWs through surface reflection process, and induce strong vertical fluctuations in temperature and vertical velocity, and significantly change the dynamic and thermodynamic structure in the lower stratosphere.

Xin Guo et al.

Status: open (until 24 Oct 2022)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Xin Guo et al.

Xin Guo et al.


Total article views: 128 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
95 29 4 128 1 1
  • HTML: 95
  • PDF: 29
  • XML: 4
  • Total: 128
  • BibTeX: 1
  • EndNote: 1
Views and downloads (calculated since 12 Sep 2022)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 12 Sep 2022)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 136 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 136 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 28 Sep 2022
Short summary
We report that downward propagating gravity waves can be generated by the high graupel/hail loading through buoyancy oscillations in an overshooting hailstorm, and have important impacts on the storm itself and the stratospheric atmosphere through the surface reflection. The finding has potential applications in storm tracking and forecasting, as well as momentum, energy and pollution transport from the low to high atmosphere in the continental region.