Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-161
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2019-161

  18 Mar 2019

18 Mar 2019

Status: this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors.

Soil emissions, soil air dynamics and model simulation of gaseous mercury in subtropical forest

Jun Zhou1,2,3, Zhangwei Wang1,2, Xiaoshan Zhang1,2, Charles Driscoll4, and Che-Jen Lin5 Jun Zhou et al.
  • 1Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing1Soil emissions, soil air dynamics and model simulation of gaseous 1mercury in subtropical forest23Jun Zhoua, b, c, ZhangweiWanga, b, *, Xiaoshan Zhanga, b, Charles T. Driscolld,Che-Jen Line45a. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 6100085, China
  • 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 3Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
  • 4Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, 151 Link Hall, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA
  • 5Center for Advances in Water and Air Quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710, USA

Abstract. Evasion from soil is the largest source of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of Hg emissions from forest soils, soil-air total gaseous Hg (TGM) fluxes and vertical profiles of soil pore TGM concentrations were measured simultaneously for 130 days to improve parameterization of emission models. The soil-air TGM fluxes, measured using dynamic flux chambers (DFC), showed patterns of both emission and deposition at five study plots, with an area-weighted net emission rate of 3.2 ng m−2 hr−1. The highest fluxes and net soil Hg emission were observed for an open field, with lesser emission rates in coniferous (pine) and broad-leaved (camphor) forests, and net deposition in a wetland. Fluxes showed strong positive relationships with solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentrations, and negative correlations with ambient-air TGM concentration and soil moisture. Using experimental field flux observations and quadratic relationships with the five parameters, four empirical models were developed to estimate soil-air TGM fluxes. The highest TGM concentrations in soil gas consistently occurred in the upper mineral horizons in the coniferous (pine) forest and in the organic horizon in the broad-leaved forest. Strong correlations between fluxes and TGM concentrations in upper soil horizons (0–10 cm) suggest that TGM in the pores of surface soil acts as the source for diffusion to the atmosphere. The TGM diffusion coefficients (Ds) between soil and atmosphere was firstly investigated at the field sites, with the range of 0.0042–0.013 m2 hr−1. These values should provide a foundation for future model development.

This preprint has been withdrawn.

Jun Zhou et al.

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Jun Zhou et al.

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This preprint has been withdrawn.

Short summary
Previous studies showed that Hg emissions from the natural resource exists large uncertainty, which was mainly derived from the forest with a large uncertainty range. Long-term and multi-plot (five) study of soil-air fluxes and the vertical distribution of Hg in a subtropical forest were conducted to reduce the uncertainty. Additionally, The Hg diffusion coefficients (Ds) between soil and atmosphere was investigated, which should provide a foundation for future model development.
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