Special issue |
Marine aerosols, trace gases, and clouds over the North Atlantic (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)(ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)
Editor(s): ACP co-editors | Coordinators: Armin Sorooshian and Hailong Wang | Co-organizers: Richard Moore and Jian Wang
Special issue jointly organized between Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics and Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
This special issue includes papers based on recent field campaigns, including US Department of Energy Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA), NASA North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES), and the North Atlantic Climate System Integrated Study (ACSIS), and long-term measurements from observatories (e.g., the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Eastern North Atlantic site on Graciosa Island in the Azores). Presently the responses of marine low-cloud systems to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols are major sources of uncertainty that limit our ability to predict future climate. Major contributions to this uncertainty derive from poor understanding of the cloud responses to aerosol changes and the natural aerosol state that is being perturbed by anthropogenic emissions. One overarching scientific objective of these recent field campaigns is to understand key processes that drive the properties and interactions of aerosol and clouds under representative meteorological and cloud conditions. Another important focus is to validate and improve ground-based retrieval algorithms using comprehensive in situ aircraft measurements. This will lead to high-quality, long-term datasets from the routine ground-based remote sensing, which allow greater statistical reliability in the observed properties and relationships among aerosols, clouds, and precipitation than is possible with the aircraft measurements alone.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Particles arising from human activity interact with clouds and affect how much of the Sun's energy is reflected away. Lack of understanding about how to represent this in models leads to large uncertainties in climate predictions. We quantify cloud responses to particles in the latest UK Met Office climate model over the North Atlantic Ocean, showing that, in contrast to suggestions elsewhere, increases in cloud coverage and thickness are important over large areas.
A recent aircraft field campaign near the Azores in the summer of 2017 provides ample observations of aerosols and clouds with detailed vertical information. This study utilizes those observational data in combination with the aerosol-aware large-eddy simulations and aerosol reanalysis data to examine the significance of the long-range-transported aerosol effect on marine-boundary-layer clouds. It is the first time that the ACE-ENA aircraft campaign data are used for this topic.
Preprint under review for ACP(discussion: final response, 2 comments)
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the Eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents has also been identified.
Condensational growth of Aitken-mode particles is a major source of cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer. It has been long thought that over remote oceans, condensation growth is dominated by sulfate that derives from ocean-emitted dimethyl sulfide. In this study, we present the first long-term observational evidence that, contrary to conventional thinking, organics play an even more important role than sulfate in particle growth over remote oceans throughout the year.
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP(discussion: closed, 6 comments)
Tis study investigates the small-scale variations and covariations of cloud microphysical properties, namly, cloud liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration, in marine boundary layer clouds based on in situ observation from the ACE-ENA campaign. We discuss the dependence of cloud variations on vertical location in cloud and the implications for warm rain simulations in the global climate models.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Richard H. Moore, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Liu, Lynn M. Russell, Georges Saliba, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Arne Schiller, Martí Galí, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Erin E. McDuffie, Kelsey R. Bilsback, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP(discussion: closed, 3 comments)
Atmospheric particles over Earth's ocean surfaces have important climate effects. We examine key factors contributing to particle number, size and radiative effects over the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Our results suggest key contributors are (1) particle formation near the marine boundary layer top, (2) particle growth by marine secondary organic aerosol, (3) dimethyl sulfide oxidation products and (4) ship emissions. We interpret NAAMES ship and aircraft measurements with the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS model.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Stephen Springston, Jian Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Chongai Kuang, Robert Wood, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Allison McComiskey, Fan Mei, Adam Theisen, Jenni Kyrouac, and Allison C. Aiken
Continuous high-time-resolution ambient data can include periods when aerosol properties do not represent regional aerosol processes due to high-concentration local events. We develop a novel aerosol mask at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). We use two ground sites to validate the mask, include a comparison with aircraft overflights, and provide guidance to increase data quality at ENA and other locations.