Vertical advection and nocturnal deposition of ozone over a boreal pine forest
Abstract. Night-time ozone deposition for a Scots pine forest in Southern Finland was studied at the SMEAR II measurement station by evaluating the turbulent eddy covariance (EC), storage change and vertical advection fluxes. Similarly to night-time carbon dioxide flux, the eddy-covariance flux of ozone was decreasing with turbulence intensity (friction velocity), and storage change of the compound did not compensate the reduction (well-known night-time measurement problem). Accounting for vertical advection resulted in invariance of ozone deposition rate on turbulence intensity. This was also demonstrated for carbon dioxide, verified by independent measurements of NEE by chamber systems. The result highlights the importance of advection when considering the exchange measurements of any scalar. Analysis of aerodynamic and laminar boundary layer resistances by the model approach indicated that the surface resistance and/or chemical sink strength was limiting ozone deposition. The possible aerial ozone sink by known fast chemical reactions with sesquiterpenes and NO explain only a minor fraction of ozone sink. Thus the deposition is controlled either by stomatal uptake or surface reactions or both of them, the mechanisms not affected by turbulence intensity. Therefore invariance of deposition flux on turbulence intensity is expected also from resistance and chemical sink analysis.