Articles | Volume 20, issue 23
Research article
04 Dec 2020
Research article |  | 04 Dec 2020

Is there a direct solar proton impact on lower-stratospheric ozone?

Jia Jia, Antti Kero, Niilo Kalakoski, Monika E. Szeląg, and Pekka T. Verronen

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Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Päivärinta, S., and Plane, J. M. C.: WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 10328–10341,, 2016. 
Damiani, A., Funke, B., Loìpez Puertas, M., Santee, M. L., Cordero, R. R., and Watanabe, S.: Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 3554–3562,, 2016. 
Denton, M. H., Kivi, R., Ulich, T., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Horne, R. B., and Kavanagh, A. J.: Solar proton events and stratospheric ozone depletion over northern Finland, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 177, 218–227,, 2018a. 
Denton, M. H., Kivi, R., Ulich, T., Clilverd, M. A., Rodger, C. J., and von der Gathen, P.: Northern hemisphere stratospheric ozone depletion caused by solar proton events: the role of the polar vortex, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 2115–2124,, 2018b. 
Turunen, E., Verronen, P. T., Seppälä, A., Rodger., C. J., Mark Clilverd, M. A., Tamminen, J., Enell, C., and Ulich., T.: Impact of different energies of precipitating particles on NOx generation in the middle and upper atmosphere during geomagnetic storms, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 71, 1176–1189,, 2009. 

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Short summary
Recent studies have reported up to a 10 % average decrease of lower stratospheric ozone at 20 km altitude following solar proton events (SPEs). Our study uses 49 events that occurred after the launch of Aura MLS (July 2004–now) and 177 events that occurred in the WACCM-D simulation period (Jan 1989–Dec 2012) to evaluate ozone changes following SPEs. The statistical and case-by-case studies show no solid evidence of SPE's direct impact on the lower stratospheric ozone.
Final-revised paper