Lidar detection of high concentrations of ozone and aerosol transported from northeastern Asia over Saga, Japan
- 1National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
- 2Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan
- 3Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan
- 4Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga, Saga 840-8502, Japan
Abstract. To validate products of the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), we observed vertical profiles of aerosols, thin cirrus clouds, and tropospheric ozone with a mobile-lidar system that consisted of a two-wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) polarization lidar and a tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We used these lidars to make continuous measurements over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) during 20–31 March 2015. High ozone and high aerosol concentrations were observed almost simultaneously in the altitude range 0.5–1.5 km from 03:00 to 20:00 Japan Standard Time (JST) on 22 March 2015. The maximum ozone volume mixing ratio was ∼ 110 ppbv. The maxima of the aerosol extinction coefficient and optical depth at 532 nm were 1.2 km−1 and 2.1, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis and the simulations by the Model of Aerosol Species IN the Global AtmospheRe (MASINGAR) mk-2 and the Meteorological Research Institute Chemistry-Climate Model, version 2 (MRI-CCM2), indicated that mineral dust particles from the Gobi Desert and an air mass with high ozone and aerosol (mainly sulfate) concentrations that originated from the North China Plain could have been transported over the measurement site within about 2 days. These high ozone and aerosol concentrations impacted surface air quality substantially in the afternoon of 22 March 2015. After some modifications of its physical and chemical parameters, MRI-CCM2 approximately reproduced the high ozone volume mixing ratio. MASINGAR mk-2 successfully predicted high aerosol concentrations, but the predicted peak aerosol optical thickness was about one-third of the observed value.