Articles | Volume 16, issue 10
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6107–6129, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6107–6129, 2016

Research article 19 May 2016

Research article | 19 May 2016

Geochemistry of PM10 over Europe during the EMEP intensive measurement periods in summer 2012 and winter 2013

Andrés Alastuey1, Xavier Querol1, Wenche Aas2, Franco Lucarelli3, Noemí Pérez1, Teresa Moreno1, Fabrizia Cavalli4, Hans Areskoug5, Violeta Balan6, Maria Catrambone7, Darius Ceburnis8, José C. Cerro9, Sébastien Conil10, Lusine Gevorgyan11, Christoph Hueglin12, Kornelia Imre13, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo14, Sarah R. Leeson15, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos16,24, Marta Mitosinkova17, Colin D. O'Dowd8, Jorge Pey18, Jean-Philippe Putaud6, Véronique Riffault19, Anna Ripoll1, Jean Sciare20,21, Karine Sellegri22, Gerald Spindler23, and Karl Espen Yttri2 Andrés Alastuey et al.
  • 1Department of Geosciences, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
  • 2Atmosphere and Climate Department, NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
  • 3Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy
  • 4European Commission – DG Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • 5Department of Environmental Sciences and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, ACES, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 6Hydrometeorologic State Service, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Chisinau, Moldova
  • 7CNR, Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy
  • 8School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland
  • 9Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Illes Balears University, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
  • 10ANDRA – DRD – Observation Surveillance, Observatoire Pérenne de l'Environnement, Bure, France
  • 11Environmental Impact Monitoring Center, Yerevan, Armenia
  • 12Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 13MTA-PE Air Chemistry Research Group, University of Veszprém, Veszprém, Hungary
  • 14Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, UGA-CNRS, St. Martin d'Hères CEDEX, France
  • 15Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, UK
  • 16Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
  • 17Department of Air Quality, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  • 18Spanish Geological Survey, Zaragoza IGME Unit, Zaragoza, Spain
  • 19Département Sciences de l'Atmosphère et Génie de l'Environnement (SAGE), Mines Douai, Douai, France
  • 20Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 21The Cyprus Institute, Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 22Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique LaMP-CNRS/OPGC, Aubière, France
  • 23Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) Leipzig, Germany
  • 24Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Pendeli, Greece

Abstract. The third intensive measurement period (IMP) organised by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) under the UNECE CLTRAP took place in summer 2012 and winter 2013, with PM10 filter samples concurrently collected at 20 (16 EMEP) regional background sites across Europe for subsequent analysis of their mineral dust content. All samples were analysed by the same or a comparable methodology. Higher PM10 mineral dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer (0.5–10 µg m−3) compared to winter (0.2–2 µg m−3), with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, accounting for 20–40 % of PM10. Saharan dust outbreaks were responsible for the high summer dust loadings at western and central European sites, whereas regional or local sources explained the elevated concentrations observed at eastern sites. The eastern Mediterranean sites experienced elevated levels due to African dust outbreaks during both summer and winter. The mineral dust composition varied more in winter than in summer, with a higher relative contribution of anthropogenic dust during the former period. A relatively high contribution of K from non-mineral and non-sea-salt sources, such as biomass burning, was evident in winter at some of the central and eastern European sites. The spatial distribution of some components and metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale: shipping emissions (V, Ni, and SO42−) in the Mediterranean region, metallurgy (Cr, Ni, and Mn) in central and eastern Europe, high temperature processes (As, Pb, and SO42−) in eastern countries, and traffic (Cu) at sites affected by emissions from nearby cities.

Short summary
Mineral dust content in PM10 was analysed at 20 regional background sites across Europe. Higher dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, due to external and regional sources. Saharan dust outbreaks impacted western and central European in summer and eastern Mediterranean sites in winter. The spatial distribution of some metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale.
Final-revised paper