Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 597–617, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 597–617, 2016

Research article 19 Jan 2016

Research article | 19 Jan 2016

Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

M. F. Khan1,2, M. T. Latif1,3, W. H. Saw1, N. Amil1,4, M. S. M. Nadzir1,2, M. Sahani5, N. M. Tahir6,7, and J. X. Chung1 M. F. Khan et al.
  • 1School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2Centre for Tropical Climate Change System (IKLIM), Institute for Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 4School of Industrial Technology (Environmental Division), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • 5Environmental Health and Industrial Safety Program, School of Diagnostic Science and Applied Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 6Environmental Research Group, School of Marine Science and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • 7Institute of Oceanography, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Abstract. The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42−, NO3, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass originating from the mineral/road dust source. The main carcinogenic heavy metal of concern to health at the current location was As; the other heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) did not pose a significant cancer risk in PM2.5 mass concentration. Overall, the associated lifetime cancer risk posed by the exposure of hazardous metals in PM2.5 is 3–4 per 1 000 000 people at this location.

Short summary
Trans-boundary haze pollution is a major health and environmental concern during south-west and north-east monsoon in the South East Asian regions. The concentration of PM2.5 exceeds the tolerable limits (WHO; USA EPA) during the summer monsoon. The novelty of this study is the source characterization of PM2.5 and source-specific risk assessment during intense haze pollution, which are yet to be addressed in this region. The outcomes of this study will give an insight about future implications.
Final-revised paper